Adaptation is a characteristic feature of all living organisms. The useful structural, functional or behavioural changes developed in a living organism over long period of time so as to adjust itself according to a environment are called adaptations.
On the basis of their nature and role in evolution, the adaptations care classified into two categories: short range (temporary) and long range (Permanent) adaptations.
Short range adaptations:
- These are temporary changes
- These are developed in response to temporary change in the environment
- These are not inherited
- DNA is not changed
- No role in evolution
Examples: During winter season, hibernating animals suspend all their metabolic activities. When favourable conditions come, the animals become active again.
Plant growth response like phototropism, geotropism etc. shown in response to stimuli.
Long term adaptations:
- These are permanent changes
- These are developed in response to permanent change in the environment
- These are inherited
- DNA is also changed
- Play an important role in evolution
Examples: The white colour and highly scented flowers produced by night blooming plants, to attract pollinators.
Kangaroo makes use of its thick tail as fifth limb for balancing the body while running.