5 Differences between Absorption Spectrum and Action Spectrum

Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
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7 Differences between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
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5 Differences between Control Group and Experimental Group

An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
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5 Differences between Independent variable and Dependent variable

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment.
Three types of variables:
1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
            3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable is the variable that the researcher changes in an experiment.
Dependant  variable is the variable that researcher thinks will be affected by change  in independent variable
Usually denoted by ‘x’
Usually denoted by ‘y’
It is the ‘cause’ or reason that the researcher assumes to influence dependent variable
It is the ‘effect’ or ‘outcome’ caused by the change in independent variable

The values of independent variable are manipulated by the researcher
The values of dependent variable are observed and measured by the researcher in an experiment
The value of independent variable can be changed
The value of dependent variable cannot be changed
A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment.
Three types of variables:
1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
            3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable is the variable that the researcher changes in an experiment.
Dependant  variable is the variable that researcher thinks will be affected by change  in independent variable
Usually denoted by ‘x’
Usually denoted by ‘y’
It is the ‘cause’ or reason that the researcher assumes to influence dependent variable
It is the ‘effect’ or ‘outcome’ caused by the change in independent variable

The values of independent variable are manipulated by the researcher
The values of dependent variable are observed and measured by the researcher in an experiment
The value of independent variable can be changed
The value of dependent variable cannot be changed
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