8 Differences between Mitochondria and Peroxisome

Mitochondrion are self duplicating, semi autonomous, double membrane bound, cytoplasmic organelles found in all eukaryotic cells. 
Peroxisomes are microbodies or self duplicating; single membrane bound organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They contain oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and urate oxidase, at such high concentrations.
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes 
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Double membrane bound organelle
Single membrane bound organelle
Semi-autonomous organelle, contains DNA called mt DNA or mitochondrial genome
No DNA
New mitochondrion arise by growth and fission
New peroxisome also  arise by growth and fission
Mitochondrial proteins are coded by both mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA
Peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA
Mitochondrial proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomes inside mitochondrion
Peroxisomal proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Unfolded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins complexes called TIM, TOM and OXA complex
Folded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins coded by PEX genes named peroxins
Import signal sequence is called "mitochondria-targeting sequence" (MTS), which is located at the amino termini or N termini of the preproteins or unfolded protein
Import signal is a  specific sequence of three amino acids located at the C terminus of many peroxisomal proteins
Signal sequences at N terminus are removed after import by a protease called signal peptidase in the mitochondrial matrix.
Generally, Signal sequences are not removed after import
Function: Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis which is used to drive various cellular activities.
Matrix is the site of β oxidation


Functions: Involved many metabolic processes or oxidative reactions, such as β‐oxidation of very long‐chain fatty acids releasing energy,
 and synthesis of plasmalogen, an important membrane component in brain and heart and bile acids as well as generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide during detoxification.
TIM: Translocase Inner Membrane; TOM: Translocase Outer Membrane
Reference:
  • Platta, H. W., & Erdmann, R. (2007). The peroxisomal protein import machinery. FEBS letters, 581(15), 2811-2819.
  • Rehling, P., Wiedemann, N., Pfanner, N., & Truscott, K. N. (2001). The mitochondrial import machinery for preproteins. Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 36(3), 291-336.
  • Fujiki, Yukio, Okumoto, Kanji, and Honsho, Masanori(Apr 2015) Protein Import into Peroxisomes: The Principles and Methods of Studying. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 
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