10 Differences between Natural selection and Artificial selection

Both natural selection and artificial selection (selective breeding) can cause changes in animals and plants. Artificial selection is the method of making varieties with desirable traits. Here the individuals with desired character is selected and used them to parent the next generation. Artificial selection has played a crucial role in agriculture for production of high yielding and disease resistant varieties of food crops. In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations that help them to adapt better to an environment.
Natural Selection vs  Artificial Selection
Natural selection vs Artificial selection
Natural selection
Artificial selection
(Selective breeding)
In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations for better survival in an environment
It is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring’s with characters desirable to humans
The nature selects the best or the most favourable variation.
Man selects the desirable characteristic that is to be passed on to the next generation.
Selection pressure is exerted by environmental factors.
Selection pressure is exerted by humans
It always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It may not always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It takes about hundreds of years for new species to emerge.
It leads to the formation of new species in a much shorter time, may be in a few years.
In operates on a wide scale in natural populations
It involves selective breeding of economically important plant and animal populations only
It leads to great diversity in nature.
It promotes evolution of a few economically important plants and animals only.
Genetic diversity remains high
Genetic diversity is lowered
Out breeding is common, leading to hybrid vigour.
Inbreeding is common ensuring preservation of desired trait, leading to loss of vigour in offspring
Proportion of heterozygous in the population remains high.
Proportion of heterozygous in the population is reduced as inbreeding increases homozygosity
Examples: Insecticide resistance, Giraffes long neck, beaks of Darwin’s Finches
Breeding of cows, sheep other domesticated animals
high yielding varieties of wheat, rice etc.
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