RNA (ribo nucleic acid) is a complex organic compound in living cells that is concerned with protein synthesis. RNA is the genetic material in some viruses that differs from DNA in having ribose in place of deoxyribose.
Most RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and then distributed to various parts of the cytoplasm. An RNA molecule consists of a long chain of nucleotides in which the sugar is ribose and the bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil.
Three types of RNA are-mRNA (Messenger RNA), rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) , and tRNA (Transfer RNA).
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the class of RNA molecule that serves as messenger between genes (DNA) and protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the coding instructions for polypeptide chains from DNA to the ribosome. After attaching to a ribosome, an m RNA molecules specific the sequence of the amino acids in a polypeptide chain and provides a template for joining amino acids.
- The process of formation of mRNA from DNA template is called transcription
- The process of formation of protein from DNA mRNA is called translation
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the class of RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
It serves as the link between the coding sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain. Each tRNA attaches to one particular type of amino acid and helps to incorporate that amino acid into a polypeptide chain.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) and Transfer RNA (tRNA)
1. Location of function in eukaryotic cell- Nucleus and cytoplasm
2. Functions- carries genetic code for proteins.
1. Location of function in eukaryotic cell- Cytoplasm.
2. Functions- Helps incorporate amino acids into polypeptide chain.