Difference between Sieve cells and Sieve tubes

Both sieve cells and sieve tubes are constituents of phloem involved in conduction of food
Sieve cells and Sieve tubes
Sieve cells vs Sieve tubes
Sieve cells
1. Sieve cells are elongated cells with tapering end walls
2. Sieve cells have no companion cells associated with it
3. In sieve cells, the sieve areas do not form sieve plates
4. In sieve cells, the sieve areas are not well differentiated
5. Found in pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Sieve tubes
1. Sieve tubes consist of vertical cells placed one above the other forming long tubes connected at the end walls by sieve pores
2. Sieve tubes have companion cells associated with it
3. In sieve tubes, the sieve areas are confined to sieve plates
4. In sieve tubes, the sieve areas are well differentiated
5. Found in angiosperms
Both sieve cells and sieve tubes are constituents of phloem involved in conduction of food
Sieve cells and Sieve tubes
Sieve cells vs Sieve tubes
Sieve cells
1. Sieve cells are elongated cells with tapering end walls
2. Sieve cells have no companion cells associated with it
3. In sieve cells, the sieve areas do not form sieve plates
4. In sieve cells, the sieve areas are not well differentiated
5. Found in pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Sieve tubes
1. Sieve tubes consist of vertical cells placed one above the other forming long tubes connected at the end walls by sieve pores
2. Sieve tubes have companion cells associated with it
3. In sieve tubes, the sieve areas are confined to sieve plates
4. In sieve tubes, the sieve areas are well differentiated
5. Found in angiosperms
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Difference between Sap wood and Heart wood

Sap wood is the functional, conducting part of the wood whereas heart wood is the non functional, non conducting part of the wood.
Sap wood vs Heart wood
Sap wood vs Heart wood
Sap wood
1. The outer region of the old trees forms the sap wood
2. It is also called as alburnum
3. it is soft and not durable
4. It is light coloured and formed of living cells
5. Vessels are not blocked by tyloses
6. The function of this region is conduction of water and nutrients and also storage of food
Heartwood
1. The central region of the old trees forms the sap wood
2. It is also called as duramen
3. it is hard and durable
4. It is dark coloured due to the deposition of various substances
5. Vessels are blocked by tyloses with various deposits
6. The function of this region is mechanical support
Sap wood is the functional, conducting part of the wood whereas heart wood is the non functional, non conducting part of the wood.
Sap wood vs Heart wood
Sap wood vs Heart wood
Sap wood
1. The outer region of the old trees forms the sap wood
2. It is also called as alburnum
3. it is soft and not durable
4. It is light coloured and formed of living cells
5. Vessels are not blocked by tyloses
6. The function of this region is conduction of water and nutrients and also storage of food
Heartwood
1. The central region of the old trees forms the sap wood
2. It is also called as duramen
3. it is hard and durable
4. It is dark coloured due to the deposition of various substances
5. Vessels are blocked by tyloses with various deposits
6. The function of this region is mechanical support
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Difference between Enveloped and Non enveloped Virus

Viruses are infectious intracellular obligate parasites consisting of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) enclosed in a protein coat called capsid
In some cases, a membranous envelope may be present outer to the capsid
Viruses are classified based on the presence or absence of this envelope around the protein coat
1. Enveloped viruses eg: Herpes simplex, Chickenpox virus, Influenza virus etc
2. Non-enveloped viruses eg: Adeno virus, parvovirus etc
Characteristics of viral envelope
  • Made of lipid and proteins rarely glycoprotein
  • May be modified host plasma membrane or internal membranes
  • Projections from the envelope are known as spikes or peplomers
Function: attachment of the virus to the host cell.
  • HIV virus uses its spikes for this purpose.
Non enveloped viruses:
Non enveloped viruses - Adeno virus
1. The outermost covering is the capsid made up of proteins
2. Non enveloped viruses are more virulent and causes host cell lysis
3. These viruses are resistant to heat, acids, and drying
4. It can survive inside gastrointestinal tract
5. It can retain its infectivity even after drying
6. It will induce antibody production in the host
7. Mode of transmission is through fecal or oral matter, formites and dust
Enveloped viruses
Enveloped viruses - Influenza virus
1. The outermost envelope is made up of phospholipids, proteins or glycoprotein which surround the capsid
2. Enveloped viruses are less virulent often released by budding and rarely cause host cell lysis
3. Are sensitive to heat, acids, and drying
4. Generally it cannot survive inside gastrointestinal tract
5. It lose its infectivity on drying
6. It will induce both cell mediated and antibody mediated immune response in the host
7. Mode of transmission is through blood or organ transplants or through secretions
Viruses are infectious intracellular obligate parasites consisting of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) enclosed in a protein coat called capsid
In some cases, a membranous envelope may be present outer to the capsid
Viruses are classified based on the presence or absence of this envelope around the protein coat
1. Enveloped viruses eg: Herpes simplex, Chickenpox virus, Influenza virus etc
2. Non-enveloped viruses eg: Adeno virus, parvovirus etc
Characteristics of viral envelope
  • Made of lipid and proteins rarely glycoprotein
  • May be modified host plasma membrane or internal membranes
  • Projections from the envelope are known as spikes or peplomers
Function: attachment of the virus to the host cell.
  • HIV virus uses its spikes for this purpose.
Non enveloped viruses:
Non enveloped viruses - Adeno virus
1. The outermost covering is the capsid made up of proteins
2. Non enveloped viruses are more virulent and causes host cell lysis
3. These viruses are resistant to heat, acids, and drying
4. It can survive inside gastrointestinal tract
5. It can retain its infectivity even after drying
6. It will induce antibody production in the host
7. Mode of transmission is through fecal or oral matter, formites and dust
Enveloped viruses
Enveloped viruses - Influenza virus
1. The outermost envelope is made up of phospholipids, proteins or glycoprotein which surround the capsid
2. Enveloped viruses are less virulent often released by budding and rarely cause host cell lysis
3. Are sensitive to heat, acids, and drying
4. Generally it cannot survive inside gastrointestinal tract
5. It lose its infectivity on drying
6. It will induce both cell mediated and antibody mediated immune response in the host
7. Mode of transmission is through blood or organ transplants or through secretions
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Difference between Oncogene and Tumor Suppressor Genes

Two major classes of genes contribute to causing cancer i.e., Oncogenes and Tumour suppressor genes. Oncogenes must be activated to cause cancer. Tumour suppressor genes, which normally hold mitosis in check, must be inactivated or removed to eliminate control of the cell cycle and initiate cancer.
Oncogenes are genes that normally activate during cell division in specific situations. Oncogene activation at wrong place or time during cell division may lead to cancer. Oncogenes are not alien to the cell, they are normal, essential genes that have undergone a mutation. In its normal non mutated state, it is called proto-oncogene, a gene that can be transformed into an oncogene.
 examples oncogene
Activation of proto-oncogene to oncogene is achieved by different mechanisms like promoter and enhancer insertion, chromosomal translocation, gene amplification and point mutation.
Oncogene vs tumour suppressor genes
Tumor suppressor genes as the term suggested it prevents or suppresses tumor formation by regulating cell division. Tumor suppressor genes are now recognized as key players in the genesis of cancer. Malfunctioning of tumor suppressor genes may lead to uncontrolled cell division. Researchers have identified about a half dozen tumor suppressor genes. Important tumor suppressor genes include RB I and p53, both of which are nuclear phosphoproteins and probably affect the transcription of genes involved in regulating events in the cell cycle.
Oncogene vs Tumor Suppressor Genes
Oncogene
1. Mutation in one of the two alleles is sufficient for activity as an oncogene and often act dominant to wild type.
2. Mutation often occurs in somatic tissues therefore not inherited
3. Conversion of protooncogene to oncogene is often a “gain of function” of protein that signals uncontrolled cell division.
4. Some tissue preference.
Tumor Suppressor Genes
1. Tumor suppressor gene malfunctioning is caused by mutations in both alleles or a mutation in one followed by a loss of or reduction to homozygosity in the second.
2. Mutation may occur   in germ cell (can be inherited) or somatic cells.
3. ‘Loss of function’ mutation is the reason for tumor suppressor gene malfunctioning.
4. Strong tissue preference in the case of mant tumor suppressor genes (Example: effect of RB II gene in retina)

Two major classes of genes contribute to causing cancer i.e., Oncogenes and Tumour suppressor genes. Oncogenes must be activated to cause cancer. Tumour suppressor genes, which normally hold mitosis in check, must be inactivated or removed to eliminate control of the cell cycle and initiate cancer.
Oncogenes are genes that normally activate during cell division in specific situations. Oncogene activation at wrong place or time during cell division may lead to cancer. Oncogenes are not alien to the cell, they are normal, essential genes that have undergone a mutation. In its normal non mutated state, it is called proto-oncogene, a gene that can be transformed into an oncogene.
 examples oncogene
Activation of proto-oncogene to oncogene is achieved by different mechanisms like promoter and enhancer insertion, chromosomal translocation, gene amplification and point mutation.
Oncogene vs tumour suppressor genes
Tumor suppressor genes as the term suggested it prevents or suppresses tumor formation by regulating cell division. Tumor suppressor genes are now recognized as key players in the genesis of cancer. Malfunctioning of tumor suppressor genes may lead to uncontrolled cell division. Researchers have identified about a half dozen tumor suppressor genes. Important tumor suppressor genes include RB I and p53, both of which are nuclear phosphoproteins and probably affect the transcription of genes involved in regulating events in the cell cycle.
Oncogene vs Tumor Suppressor Genes
Oncogene
1. Mutation in one of the two alleles is sufficient for activity as an oncogene and often act dominant to wild type.
2. Mutation often occurs in somatic tissues therefore not inherited
3. Conversion of protooncogene to oncogene is often a “gain of function” of protein that signals uncontrolled cell division.
4. Some tissue preference.
Tumor Suppressor Genes
1. Tumor suppressor gene malfunctioning is caused by mutations in both alleles or a mutation in one followed by a loss of or reduction to homozygosity in the second.
2. Mutation may occur   in germ cell (can be inherited) or somatic cells.
3. ‘Loss of function’ mutation is the reason for tumor suppressor gene malfunctioning.
4. Strong tissue preference in the case of mant tumor suppressor genes (Example: effect of RB II gene in retina)

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Difference between Kharif crops and Rabi crops with examples

When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a a large scale is called as a crop. Crops are classified on the basis of the seasons: Kharif and Rabi crops.
Kharif crop vs Rabi crop
Kharif crops (Monsoon crops): The crops which are grown during the monsoon (rainy season) are called kharif crops.  Seeds of the se crops are sown in the beginning of the monsoon season. After maturation, these crops are harvested at the end of the monsoon season (Oct-Nov).
Example: Paddy, maize, millet and cotton crops
Rabi crops (Winter crops): Crops which are grown during the winter season(October-March) are called Rabi crops. Seeds of these crops are sown in the beginning of the winter season. After maturation of crops, they are harvested at the end of the winter season (April- May).
Example: Wheat, Gram and Mustard.
When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a a large scale is called as a crop. Crops are classified on the basis of the seasons: Kharif and Rabi crops.
Kharif crop vs Rabi crop
Kharif crops (Monsoon crops): The crops which are grown during the monsoon (rainy season) are called kharif crops.  Seeds of the se crops are sown in the beginning of the monsoon season. After maturation, these crops are harvested at the end of the monsoon season (Oct-Nov).
Example: Paddy, maize, millet and cotton crops
Rabi crops (Winter crops): Crops which are grown during the winter season(October-March) are called Rabi crops. Seeds of these crops are sown in the beginning of the winter season. After maturation of crops, they are harvested at the end of the winter season (April- May).
Example: Wheat, Gram and Mustard.
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Difference between Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics

Plastics is easily mouldable, recycled, reused, coloured, melted, rolled into sheets or made into wires.
Thermoplastics: These are the plastics which get deformed easily on heating and can be bent easily.
Examples: PVC and Polythene are used for manufacturing combs, toys, car grills and various type of containers.
Thermoplastics vs Thermosetting Plastics
Thermosetting plastics: These are the plastics which when molded once, cannot be softed by heating.
Examples: Bakelite and Melamine. Bakelite is a poor conductor of heat and light. Bakelites are used for making electrical switches, handles of various utensils etc. Melamine is resistant to fire and can tolerate heat better than other plastics. Melamines are used for making floor tiles, kitchen wares and fabrics.
Plastics is easily mouldable, recycled, reused, coloured, melted, rolled into sheets or made into wires.
Thermoplastics: These are the plastics which get deformed easily on heating and can be bent easily.
Examples: PVC and Polythene are used for manufacturing combs, toys, car grills and various type of containers.
Thermoplastics vs Thermosetting Plastics
Thermosetting plastics: These are the plastics which when molded once, cannot be softed by heating.
Examples: Bakelite and Melamine. Bakelite is a poor conductor of heat and light. Bakelites are used for making electrical switches, handles of various utensils etc. Melamine is resistant to fire and can tolerate heat better than other plastics. Melamines are used for making floor tiles, kitchen wares and fabrics.
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Difference between Stars and Planets

Stars are the celestial bodies which can emit heat and light continuously. Every star is a huge mass of hot gases and emit big flames. Stars appear to twinkle at night which is a visual illusion because of the disturbances on the atmosphere. The sun being the closet star of the earth, the bright light of sun make other stars invisible during day time.   
The bodies which revolve around the sun in a certain orbit are called planets. There are following eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Planet vs Star

Planets vs Stars
Planets
1. Planets do not twinkle in the sky.
2. They have no light.
3. They revolve around the sun.
4. Planets are small as compared to star.
Stars
1. Stars twinkle in the sky.
2. They have their own light.
3. They are fixed at a point.
4. They are very big in size.
Stars are the celestial bodies which can emit heat and light continuously. Every star is a huge mass of hot gases and emit big flames. Stars appear to twinkle at night which is a visual illusion because of the disturbances on the atmosphere. The sun being the closet star of the earth, the bright light of sun make other stars invisible during day time.   
The bodies which revolve around the sun in a certain orbit are called planets. There are following eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Planet vs Star

Planets vs Stars
Planets
1. Planets do not twinkle in the sky.
2. They have no light.
3. They revolve around the sun.
4. Planets are small as compared to star.
Stars
1. Stars twinkle in the sky.
2. They have their own light.
3. They are fixed at a point.
4. They are very big in size.
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Difference Between the Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem and Dicot Root

The growth in thickness by the activity of secondary tissues is called secondary thickening. It involves stelar growth by the activity of vascular cambial ring and extra stelar growth by the activity  of cork cambium.
Dicot stem
secondary Growth in Dicotyledonous Stem
1. The cambial ring formed is circular in cross section from the beginning onwards.
2. The cambial ring is partially primary (fascicular cambium) and partially secondary (interfascicular cambium).
3. Periderm orginates from the cortical cells (extra stelar in origin).
4. In Dicot stem, for mechanical support xylem is with comparatively smaller vessels, greater fibers and less parenchyma.
5. More amount of cork is produced for protection.
6. Lenticels on periderm are very prominent.

Dicot root
DICOT ROOT SECODARY THICKENING
1. The cambial ring formed is wavy in the beginning and later becomes circular.
2. The cambial ring is completely secondary in origin.
3. Periderm originates from the pericycle (intra stelar in origin).
4. In Dicot root, xylem is with big thin walled vessels with few fibers and more parenchyma.
5. Less amount of cork is produced as root is underground.
6. Lenticels on periderm are not very prominent.
The growth in thickness by the activity of secondary tissues is called secondary thickening. It involves stelar growth by the activity of vascular cambial ring and extra stelar growth by the activity  of cork cambium.
Dicot stem
secondary Growth in Dicotyledonous Stem
1. The cambial ring formed is circular in cross section from the beginning onwards.
2. The cambial ring is partially primary (fascicular cambium) and partially secondary (interfascicular cambium).
3. Periderm orginates from the cortical cells (extra stelar in origin).
4. In Dicot stem, for mechanical support xylem is with comparatively smaller vessels, greater fibers and less parenchyma.
5. More amount of cork is produced for protection.
6. Lenticels on periderm are very prominent.

Dicot root
DICOT ROOT SECODARY THICKENING
1. The cambial ring formed is wavy in the beginning and later becomes circular.
2. The cambial ring is completely secondary in origin.
3. Periderm originates from the pericycle (intra stelar in origin).
4. In Dicot root, xylem is with big thin walled vessels with few fibers and more parenchyma.
5. Less amount of cork is produced as root is underground.
6. Lenticels on periderm are not very prominent.
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Difference between Raphides and Cystolith

Raphide  are needle shaped crystals of Calcium oxalate.
Raphide
  • Found in Pistia, Colacasia etc. in their petiole
Cystolith:
Cystolith
  • Calcium carbonate crystals  found in the leaves of Ficus
  • Also found in members of the families of Acanthaceae, Curcurbitaceae .
  • In Ficus leaves, these crystals are arranged in the form of bunch of grapes.
  • In Momordica, double cystoliths are found in the epidermal cells.
  • Cystolith are formed in specialized cells called lithocysts in leaves.
Raphide  are needle shaped crystals of Calcium oxalate.
Raphide
  • Found in Pistia, Colacasia etc. in their petiole
Cystolith:
Cystolith
  • Calcium carbonate crystals  found in the leaves of Ficus
  • Also found in members of the families of Acanthaceae, Curcurbitaceae .
  • In Ficus leaves, these crystals are arranged in the form of bunch of grapes.
  • In Momordica, double cystoliths are found in the epidermal cells.
  • Cystolith are formed in specialized cells called lithocysts in leaves.
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Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosome

Chromosome  are the most significant of all cell components. They are the carrier of genes and in that  they control hereditary and variation. Chromosome were first observed by Hofmeister (1849) in the pollen mother cells of Tradescantia. But, the term chromosome was introduced by Waldeyer (1988). There exists a sharp distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome. Prokaryotic chromosome is very simple and composed of a single DNA molecule. Eukaryotic chromosome is highly complex with different components, namely DNA, RNA, basic proteins and nonbasic proteins. there are two kinds of eukaryotic chromosomes, namely autosomes and sex chromosomes. Autosomes carry the genes which control somatic or non sexual characters, and sex chromosomes contain the genes which control sexual characteristics.
Prokaryotic chromosome vs Eukaryotic Chromosome
Prokaryotic chromosome
prokaryotic chromosome
1. Primarily haploid
2. DNA is not complexed with proteins
3. The basic proteins histones are altogether absent.
4. Chromosomal DNA is localized in the cytoplasm.
5. Chromosomal DNA is a closed circular polymer
6. No definite morphological stage for DNA replication.

Eukaryotic Chromosome
eukaryotic chromosome ultra structure
1. Primarily diploid
2. DNA is complexed with proteins forming deoxyribonucleoprotein
3. Histones are chacteristically present.
4. Chromosomal DNA is confined within the nucleus.
5. Chromosomal DNA is a linear polymer
6. DNA replication occurs in the S phase of mitotically cycle.

Chromosome  are the most significant of all cell components. They are the carrier of genes and in that  they control hereditary and variation. Chromosome were first observed by Hofmeister (1849) in the pollen mother cells of Tradescantia. But, the term chromosome was introduced by Waldeyer (1988). There exists a sharp distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome. Prokaryotic chromosome is very simple and composed of a single DNA molecule. Eukaryotic chromosome is highly complex with different components, namely DNA, RNA, basic proteins and nonbasic proteins. there are two kinds of eukaryotic chromosomes, namely autosomes and sex chromosomes. Autosomes carry the genes which control somatic or non sexual characters, and sex chromosomes contain the genes which control sexual characteristics.
Prokaryotic chromosome vs Eukaryotic Chromosome
Prokaryotic chromosome
prokaryotic chromosome
1. Primarily haploid
2. DNA is not complexed with proteins
3. The basic proteins histones are altogether absent.
4. Chromosomal DNA is localized in the cytoplasm.
5. Chromosomal DNA is a closed circular polymer
6. No definite morphological stage for DNA replication.

Eukaryotic Chromosome
eukaryotic chromosome ultra structure
1. Primarily diploid
2. DNA is complexed with proteins forming deoxyribonucleoprotein
3. Histones are chacteristically present.
4. Chromosomal DNA is confined within the nucleus.
5. Chromosomal DNA is a linear polymer
6. DNA replication occurs in the S phase of mitotically cycle.

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Difference between Striated and Non Striated Muscle

The tissue concerned with the movement of body parts and the locomotion of animals is called muscle tissue. It is also called muscular tissue or contractile tissue. According to their structure, location, and functions, muscle tissues are classified into three groups. They are striated muscles, non striated muscles and cardiac muscles.
Striated Muscle: The muscle which shows cross striations are called striated muscles or striped muscles. They are mostly attached to the bones by tendons and so called skeletal muscles. Their activity is under the control of will. So, they are also called voluntary muscles.
Nonstriated muscle fibres
Non striated muscle: The muscle which show no cross striations are called non striated muscles or unstriped muscles. They look smooth, hence are called smooth muscles. Their activity of these muscles are not under the control of the will of the animal, so they are known as involuntary muscles. These muscles are seen in hollow internal organs (viscera) such as stomach, intestine, blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus etc.
Striated vs Non Striated Muscle
Striated Muscle
1. Striations present.
2. It is voluntary in action
3. The muscle fibres are long and cylindrical with blunt ends.
4. The fibres are multinucleated.
5.Sarcoplasmic reticulum is well developed.
6. Sarcomeres present.
7. Numerous mitochondria and glycogen granules are present
8. Striated muscle is seen attached to skeleton.
Example: Biceps muscle
Non Striated Muscle
1. Striations absent.
2. It is involuntary in action
3. The muscle fibres are long spindle shaped with pointed ends.
4. The fibres are uninucleated.
5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed.
6. Sarcomeres absent.
7. Less mitochondria and glycogen granules are present.
8. Non striated muscle is seen in internal organs.
Example: Intestinal muscles.
Read more: Difference between Striated and Cardiac muscle
The tissue concerned with the movement of body parts and the locomotion of animals is called muscle tissue. It is also called muscular tissue or contractile tissue. According to their structure, location, and functions, muscle tissues are classified into three groups. They are striated muscles, non striated muscles and cardiac muscles.
Striated Muscle: The muscle which shows cross striations are called striated muscles or striped muscles. They are mostly attached to the bones by tendons and so called skeletal muscles. Their activity is under the control of will. So, they are also called voluntary muscles.
Nonstriated muscle fibres
Non striated muscle: The muscle which show no cross striations are called non striated muscles or unstriped muscles. They look smooth, hence are called smooth muscles. Their activity of these muscles are not under the control of the will of the animal, so they are known as involuntary muscles. These muscles are seen in hollow internal organs (viscera) such as stomach, intestine, blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus etc.
Striated vs Non Striated Muscle
Striated Muscle
1. Striations present.
2. It is voluntary in action
3. The muscle fibres are long and cylindrical with blunt ends.
4. The fibres are multinucleated.
5.Sarcoplasmic reticulum is well developed.
6. Sarcomeres present.
7. Numerous mitochondria and glycogen granules are present
8. Striated muscle is seen attached to skeleton.
Example: Biceps muscle
Non Striated Muscle
1. Striations absent.
2. It is involuntary in action
3. The muscle fibres are long spindle shaped with pointed ends.
4. The fibres are uninucleated.
5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed.
6. Sarcomeres absent.
7. Less mitochondria and glycogen granules are present.
8. Non striated muscle is seen in internal organs.
Example: Intestinal muscles.
Read more: Difference between Striated and Cardiac muscle
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Difference between Cutting and Layering

Cutting  and layering are artificial methods of vegetative propagation widely practiced by agriculturists and plant breeders.
Cutting: Many economically important plants like Tapioca, sugarcane etc are propagated by stem cuttings. Most of them form roots without any special treatments. Other examples include  croton, potato, Yams etc. Even root cuttings of plants are  used for propagation in the case of  bread fruit tree, citrus, Psidium etc. These also strike roots easily without pre-treatment.
cutting
If root initiation is difficult as in the case of jack fruit tree, it can be induced by the application of hormones especially auxins like Indole acetic acid (IAA) Indole butyric acid,(IBA), Naphthalene acetic acid etc.
Layering: It is a method for root production when stem cuttings are used for propagation. This is done for better production of the tender roots that are produced and for convenience of transferring the rooted twigs to distinct places.
layering
The stem cutting is taken only after root formation.
Cutting vs Layering
Cutting
1. Cutting planted before rooting.
2. Any vegetative part is used.
3. Simple process.
4. Cutting may dry up, not suitable for all plants.
Layering
1. Planted after rooting.
2. Only stem portion used.
3. Not a simple process. A ring of tissues from a convenient part of branch is removed that contains both bark and vascular cambium. The portion is covered with moist earth and kept moist by regular watering. The branch is cut just below the portion of root formation and is planted.
4. Very effective method as stem cuttings have roots
Cutting  and layering are artificial methods of vegetative propagation widely practiced by agriculturists and plant breeders.
Cutting: Many economically important plants like Tapioca, sugarcane etc are propagated by stem cuttings. Most of them form roots without any special treatments. Other examples include  croton, potato, Yams etc. Even root cuttings of plants are  used for propagation in the case of  bread fruit tree, citrus, Psidium etc. These also strike roots easily without pre-treatment.
cutting
If root initiation is difficult as in the case of jack fruit tree, it can be induced by the application of hormones especially auxins like Indole acetic acid (IAA) Indole butyric acid,(IBA), Naphthalene acetic acid etc.
Layering: It is a method for root production when stem cuttings are used for propagation. This is done for better production of the tender roots that are produced and for convenience of transferring the rooted twigs to distinct places.
layering
The stem cutting is taken only after root formation.
Cutting vs Layering
Cutting
1. Cutting planted before rooting.
2. Any vegetative part is used.
3. Simple process.
4. Cutting may dry up, not suitable for all plants.
Layering
1. Planted after rooting.
2. Only stem portion used.
3. Not a simple process. A ring of tissues from a convenient part of branch is removed that contains both bark and vascular cambium. The portion is covered with moist earth and kept moist by regular watering. The branch is cut just below the portion of root formation and is planted.
4. Very effective method as stem cuttings have roots
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Difference between Bentham and Hooker’s and Engler and Prantl’s System of Classification

Bentham and Hooker jointly published a vast  work the Genera Plantarum in which they arranged their species according to a system.Since this was last of the natural systems and is widely accepted in the commonwealth countries.
Engler and PrantlBentham and Hooker Engler and Prantl  are names associated with a system published in 1886.Like Benthem and Hooker, he conceived the idea of providing the details of his taxonomic system.It is often claimed that this was the first of the phylogenetic systems. Engler and Prantl’s system is widely followed in Europe and in certain parts of the United states also. Speaking broadly the following differences are noticed between the systems of Engler and Prantl and that of Bentham and Hooker.
Benthem and Hooker’s System vs Engler and Prantl System of Classification
Benthem and Hooker’s System (1862-1883)
1. It is a natural system
2. Based on de Candolle’s system (1818).
3. Phanerogams were classified.
4. Gymnosperms were kept between dicots and monocots.
5. Bennettitalian origin of angiospermic flower is taken.
6. Dicots divided into polypetalae, gamopetalae and monochlamydae.
7. Euphorbiaceae highly advanced in dicots.
8. Gramineae highly advanced in monocots.
9. There are 202 families.
10. Fixity of species was taken into account.
Engler and Prantl System of Classification (1887-1899)
1. It is aphylogenetic system.
2. Based on Eichler’s system.
3. Entire plant kingdom was classified.
4. Gymnosperms are more primitive to angiosperms.
5. Unisexual, anemophilous flowers are primitive (like Amentiferae)
6. Dicots divide into Archichlamydae and Metachlamydae.
7. Compositae highly advanced in dicots.
8. Orchidaceae highly advanced into monocots.
9. There are 280 families in 1964 syllabus (Englar and Diels)
10.Concept of evolution was taken into account.
    Bentham and Hooker jointly published a vast  work the Genera Plantarum in which they arranged their species according to a system.Since this was last of the natural systems and is widely accepted in the commonwealth countries.
    Engler and PrantlBentham and Hooker Engler and Prantl  are names associated with a system published in 1886.Like Benthem and Hooker, he conceived the idea of providing the details of his taxonomic system.It is often claimed that this was the first of the phylogenetic systems. Engler and Prantl’s system is widely followed in Europe and in certain parts of the United states also. Speaking broadly the following differences are noticed between the systems of Engler and Prantl and that of Bentham and Hooker.
    Benthem and Hooker’s System vs Engler and Prantl System of Classification
    Benthem and Hooker’s System (1862-1883)
    1. It is a natural system
    2. Based on de Candolle’s system (1818).
    3. Phanerogams were classified.
    4. Gymnosperms were kept between dicots and monocots.
    5. Bennettitalian origin of angiospermic flower is taken.
    6. Dicots divided into polypetalae, gamopetalae and monochlamydae.
    7. Euphorbiaceae highly advanced in dicots.
    8. Gramineae highly advanced in monocots.
    9. There are 202 families.
    10. Fixity of species was taken into account.
    Engler and Prantl System of Classification (1887-1899)
    1. It is aphylogenetic system.
    2. Based on Eichler’s system.
    3. Entire plant kingdom was classified.
    4. Gymnosperms are more primitive to angiosperms.
    5. Unisexual, anemophilous flowers are primitive (like Amentiferae)
    6. Dicots divide into Archichlamydae and Metachlamydae.
    7. Compositae highly advanced in dicots.
    8. Orchidaceae highly advanced into monocots.
    9. There are 280 families in 1964 syllabus (Englar and Diels)
    10.Concept of evolution was taken into account.
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      Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession

      Ecological succession or biotic succession is the natural development of a series of biotic communities at the same site, one after the other till a climax community develops which does not evolve further because it is perfect harmony with the environment of the area.
      It is of two types: Primary and Secondary succession. Primary succession is a biotic succession which occurs on a previously bare or unoccupied are, e.g., new exposed rock area, sand dunes, igneous rocks, deltas, newly created pond or reservoir. Example: Lithosere (A xerosere on rock), Hydrosere
      Different stages  of Lithosere

      Secondary succession this is the succession of communities in previously inhabited areas which have been naturally or artificially disturbed and where soil and some organisms are already present. Secondary succession is a biotic succession that occurs in an area from which a community has been removed and where nutrients and conditions for existence are present, e.g., cut over forest, abandoned crop land, ploughed fields and lands that have been flooded.
      Primary vs Secondary Succession
      Primary Succession
      1. It occurs in an area which has been bare from the beginning
      2. Soil is absent at the beginning of primary succession.
      3. There is no humus in the beginning.
      4. Reproductive structures of any previous community are absent.
      5. Pioneer community comes from outside.
      6. Seral communities are many.
      7. Primary succession takes a long time for completion, 1000 years or more.
      Secondary Succession
      1. Secondary succession occurs in an area which has been denuded recently.
      2. Soil is present at the beginning of secondary succession.
      3. Humus is present from the very beginning
      4. Reproductive structures of the previous occupants are present in the area.
      5. Pioneer community develops partly from previous occupants and partly from migrants.
      6. Seral communities are a few.
      7. Secondary succession takes a less time for completion, 50-200 years.
      Ecological succession or biotic succession is the natural development of a series of biotic communities at the same site, one after the other till a climax community develops which does not evolve further because it is perfect harmony with the environment of the area.
      It is of two types: Primary and Secondary succession. Primary succession is a biotic succession which occurs on a previously bare or unoccupied are, e.g., new exposed rock area, sand dunes, igneous rocks, deltas, newly created pond or reservoir. Example: Lithosere (A xerosere on rock), Hydrosere
      Different stages  of Lithosere

      Secondary succession this is the succession of communities in previously inhabited areas which have been naturally or artificially disturbed and where soil and some organisms are already present. Secondary succession is a biotic succession that occurs in an area from which a community has been removed and where nutrients and conditions for existence are present, e.g., cut over forest, abandoned crop land, ploughed fields and lands that have been flooded.
      Primary vs Secondary Succession
      Primary Succession
      1. It occurs in an area which has been bare from the beginning
      2. Soil is absent at the beginning of primary succession.
      3. There is no humus in the beginning.
      4. Reproductive structures of any previous community are absent.
      5. Pioneer community comes from outside.
      6. Seral communities are many.
      7. Primary succession takes a long time for completion, 1000 years or more.
      Secondary Succession
      1. Secondary succession occurs in an area which has been denuded recently.
      2. Soil is present at the beginning of secondary succession.
      3. Humus is present from the very beginning
      4. Reproductive structures of the previous occupants are present in the area.
      5. Pioneer community develops partly from previous occupants and partly from migrants.
      6. Seral communities are a few.
      7. Secondary succession takes a less time for completion, 50-200 years.
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      Difference between Active and Passive Immunity

      Immunity is defined as the body’s ability to destroy pathogens or other foreign materials and to prevent further cases of certain infectious diseases. The different types of immunity or defence mechanism: Innate immunity and Adaptive or Acquired Immunity.
      active and passive immunity
      Innate immunity is inherited by the organisms from the parents and protects it from birth throughout life. It is also known as innate or natural or familial or genetic immunity. It is of two types external (first line of defence) and internal (second line of defence). Acquired immunity  is also known as specific defence mechanism or third line of defence. It is of two types: natural or active and artificial or passive. Active immunity is produced by clonal selection and expansion. Passive immunity occurs when antibodies produced artificially are injected into a person to counteract antigens such as snake venom, rabies, tetanus toxin and Salmonella infection.
      active and passive immunity
      Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
      Active Immunity
      1. It is produced due to contact with pathogen or its antigen.
      2. Immunity is not immediate. A time lapse occurs for its development.
      3. It lasts for sufficiently long period, may be life long.
      4. Antibodies are produced by the body in response to pathogen or antigen.
      5. Side effects are very few.
      Passive Immunity
      1. It is produced due to antibodies obtained from outside
      2. Immunity develops immediately.
      3. It lasts for a few days
      4. Antibodies are obtained from outside.
      5. At times the body reacts to the introduction of antisera. It is called serum sickness.
      Immunity is defined as the body’s ability to destroy pathogens or other foreign materials and to prevent further cases of certain infectious diseases. The different types of immunity or defence mechanism: Innate immunity and Adaptive or Acquired Immunity.
      active and passive immunity
      Innate immunity is inherited by the organisms from the parents and protects it from birth throughout life. It is also known as innate or natural or familial or genetic immunity. It is of two types external (first line of defence) and internal (second line of defence). Acquired immunity  is also known as specific defence mechanism or third line of defence. It is of two types: natural or active and artificial or passive. Active immunity is produced by clonal selection and expansion. Passive immunity occurs when antibodies produced artificially are injected into a person to counteract antigens such as snake venom, rabies, tetanus toxin and Salmonella infection.
      active and passive immunity
      Active Immunity vs Passive Immunity
      Active Immunity
      1. It is produced due to contact with pathogen or its antigen.
      2. Immunity is not immediate. A time lapse occurs for its development.
      3. It lasts for sufficiently long period, may be life long.
      4. Antibodies are produced by the body in response to pathogen or antigen.
      5. Side effects are very few.
      Passive Immunity
      1. It is produced due to antibodies obtained from outside
      2. Immunity develops immediately.
      3. It lasts for a few days
      4. Antibodies are obtained from outside.
      5. At times the body reacts to the introduction of antisera. It is called serum sickness.
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      Difference between Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla

      Adrenal glands are paired structures located on the top of the kidneys.  Each adrenal gland has two parts: external adrenal cortex and internal adrenal medulla. Adrenal cortex shows three concentric zones: zone glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. Adrenal medulla consists of rounded groups of relatively large and granular cells called chromaffin cells.
      Adrenal gland
      Adrenal  Cortex vs Adrenal  Medulla
      Adrenal  Cortex
      1. It is outer firm part of the adrenal gland
      2. It forms about 75% part of the gland.
      3. It is enclosed by a fibrous capsule.
      4. It develops from the mesoderm.
      5. It comprises three regions or zones a) Outer thin zona glomerulosa b)middle thick zona fasciculata and c) inner thin zona reticularis.
      6. It is essential for life. Its destruction causes death.
      7. It is stimulated to release its hormones by ACTH (Addrenocorticotrophic hormone) from the anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
      8. It secretes three groups of hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids.
      9. There is no cooperation between adrenal cortex and sympathetic nervous system.

      Adrenal  Medulla
      1. It is central soft part of the adrenal gland
      2. It forms about 25% part of the gland.
      3. It is not enclosed by a fibrous capsule.
      4. It develops from ectoderm.
      5. It is not differentiated into regions. It consists of chromaffin cells. The adrenal medulla is simply an extension of the sympathetic nervous system.
      6. It is not so essential for life. Its destruction does not cause death.
      7. It is stimulated to secrete its hormone by nerve impulses reaching through sympathetic nerve fibres.
      8. It secretes two similar hormones: adrenaline and nonadrenaline.
      9. Adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system function as an integral ststem called sympatheticoadrenal system.
      Adrenal glands are paired structures located on the top of the kidneys.  Each adrenal gland has two parts: external adrenal cortex and internal adrenal medulla. Adrenal cortex shows three concentric zones: zone glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. Adrenal medulla consists of rounded groups of relatively large and granular cells called chromaffin cells.
      Adrenal gland
      Adrenal  Cortex vs Adrenal  Medulla
      Adrenal  Cortex
      1. It is outer firm part of the adrenal gland
      2. It forms about 75% part of the gland.
      3. It is enclosed by a fibrous capsule.
      4. It develops from the mesoderm.
      5. It comprises three regions or zones a) Outer thin zona glomerulosa b)middle thick zona fasciculata and c) inner thin zona reticularis.
      6. It is essential for life. Its destruction causes death.
      7. It is stimulated to release its hormones by ACTH (Addrenocorticotrophic hormone) from the anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
      8. It secretes three groups of hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids.
      9. There is no cooperation between adrenal cortex and sympathetic nervous system.

      Adrenal  Medulla
      1. It is central soft part of the adrenal gland
      2. It forms about 25% part of the gland.
      3. It is not enclosed by a fibrous capsule.
      4. It develops from ectoderm.
      5. It is not differentiated into regions. It consists of chromaffin cells. The adrenal medulla is simply an extension of the sympathetic nervous system.
      6. It is not so essential for life. Its destruction does not cause death.
      7. It is stimulated to secrete its hormone by nerve impulses reaching through sympathetic nerve fibres.
      8. It secretes two similar hormones: adrenaline and nonadrenaline.
      9. Adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system function as an integral ststem called sympatheticoadrenal system.
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      Difference between Xylem and Phloem

      The main type of complex tissues are xylem and Phloem. Xylem is complex tissue and is also called Hydrome. This is responsible for the conduction of water in the plant. Cells of xylem are heterogenous in structure and function. Tracheids, vessels(tracheary elements), fibres and parenchyma are grouped together in xylem. Phloem is food conducting tissue. It is complex tissue, with sieve elements, companion cells, fibres and parenchyma.
      xylem and phloem
      Xylem vs Phloem
      Xylem
      1. Xylem is usually found deep in the plant
      2. It conducts water or sap
      3. In older plants, xylem often constitutes bulk of the plant body.
      4. The conducting or tracheary cells are dead.
      5. Xylem is made up of three types of dead cells (vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres)
      6. There is one type of living cells (xylem parenchyma)
      7. The conducting cells have lignin thickening in the wall.
      8. Conducting elements are of two types: vessels and tracheids.
      9. Tracheary elements have different types of wall thickenings.
      10. Vessels are devoid of septa
      11. Xylem provides mechanical strength.
      Phloem
      1. Xylem is usually situated towards the outer side of the plant.
      2. It conducts organic food
      3. Phloem always forms a small part of the plant body.
      4. The conducting cells are living.
      5. Phloem contains only one type of dead cells (phloem fibres).
      6. There are three types of living cells (sieve tube cells, companion cells and phloem parenchyma)
      7. Wall of sieve tube does not possess lignin.
      8. Conducting elements are of one type: sieve tube.
      9. Wall thickenings are absent in the conducting channels.
      10. Sieve tubes have bulging and porous septa
      11. Phloem has no mechanical function.
      The main type of complex tissues are xylem and Phloem. Xylem is complex tissue and is also called Hydrome. This is responsible for the conduction of water in the plant. Cells of xylem are heterogenous in structure and function. Tracheids, vessels(tracheary elements), fibres and parenchyma are grouped together in xylem. Phloem is food conducting tissue. It is complex tissue, with sieve elements, companion cells, fibres and parenchyma.
      xylem and phloem
      Xylem vs Phloem
      Xylem
      1. Xylem is usually found deep in the plant
      2. It conducts water or sap
      3. In older plants, xylem often constitutes bulk of the plant body.
      4. The conducting or tracheary cells are dead.
      5. Xylem is made up of three types of dead cells (vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres)
      6. There is one type of living cells (xylem parenchyma)
      7. The conducting cells have lignin thickening in the wall.
      8. Conducting elements are of two types: vessels and tracheids.
      9. Tracheary elements have different types of wall thickenings.
      10. Vessels are devoid of septa
      11. Xylem provides mechanical strength.
      Phloem
      1. Xylem is usually situated towards the outer side of the plant.
      2. It conducts organic food
      3. Phloem always forms a small part of the plant body.
      4. The conducting cells are living.
      5. Phloem contains only one type of dead cells (phloem fibres).
      6. There are three types of living cells (sieve tube cells, companion cells and phloem parenchyma)
      7. Wall of sieve tube does not possess lignin.
      8. Conducting elements are of one type: sieve tube.
      9. Wall thickenings are absent in the conducting channels.
      10. Sieve tubes have bulging and porous septa
      11. Phloem has no mechanical function.
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      Difference between Monocot and Dicot Embryo

      The zygote developed inside the embryo sac divides mitotically to form the embryo. In monocot embryo only one cotyledon and a primary axis are present. The cotyledon is present at the tip of the axis and the plumule is on its lateral side. Embryo is curved. In dicot embryo has an axis and the two cotyledons are on either side in opposite direction. At the tip of the axis, the apical bud is present and at the base of the axis the root tip is present. The plumule develops into shoot system and radical into root system.
      monocotyledon vs dicotyledon plants
      Monocot Embryo vs Dicot Embryo
      Monocot Embryo
      1. Only one cotyledon attached to the embryonal axis.
      2. Plumule is latral.
      3. A single cotyledon occupies terminal position.
      4. The envelope of plumule is called coleoptile.
      5. Coleorrhiza is a protective sheath of radicle.
      6. Suspensor comparatively larger.
      7. A single cotyledon called scutellum is present.
      Dicot Embryo
      1. There are two cotyledons attached to an embryonal axis.
      2. Plumule occur distally.
      3. Cotyledons occur laterally.
      4. Coleoptile absent.
      5. Coleorrhiza absent.
      6. Suspensor large.
      7. Scutellum absent.
      The zygote developed inside the embryo sac divides mitotically to form the embryo. In monocot embryo only one cotyledon and a primary axis are present. The cotyledon is present at the tip of the axis and the plumule is on its lateral side. Embryo is curved. In dicot embryo has an axis and the two cotyledons are on either side in opposite direction. At the tip of the axis, the apical bud is present and at the base of the axis the root tip is present. The plumule develops into shoot system and radical into root system.
      monocotyledon vs dicotyledon plants
      Monocot Embryo vs Dicot Embryo
      Monocot Embryo
      1. Only one cotyledon attached to the embryonal axis.
      2. Plumule is latral.
      3. A single cotyledon occupies terminal position.
      4. The envelope of plumule is called coleoptile.
      5. Coleorrhiza is a protective sheath of radicle.
      6. Suspensor comparatively larger.
      7. A single cotyledon called scutellum is present.
      Dicot Embryo
      1. There are two cotyledons attached to an embryonal axis.
      2. Plumule occur distally.
      3. Cotyledons occur laterally.
      4. Coleoptile absent.
      5. Coleorrhiza absent.
      6. Suspensor large.
      7. Scutellum absent.
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      Difference between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

      The primary sex organs: the testis in the males and the ovaries in the female produce gametes, i.e., sperms and ovum, respectively, by the process called gametogenesis. Gametogenesis  for the formation of sperms is termed  spermatogenesis, while that of ova is called oogenesis. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are accomplished in three phases: multiplication phase, growth phase and maturation phase.
      • Multiplication phase: Here multiplication of the germ cells occurs through mitosis so as to increase their number.
      • Growth phase: The germ cells increase in size
      • Maturation phase: Germ cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes.
      Spermatogenesis: It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa (sperms) from diploid spermatogonia inside the testes of the male. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
      Oogenesis: It is the process of formation of functional haploid ova from the diploid germinal cells in the ovary.
      Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis
      oogenesis and spermatogenesis
      Spermatogenesis 
      1. It occurs inside testis
      2. All stages are completed inside testis.
      3. It is a continuous process.
      4. Spermatogonia develop from germinal epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules.
      5. Some cells of the germinal epithelium function as support , also called sertoli cells.
      6. All the spermatogonia divide to form spermatocytes.
      7. Growth phase is short.
      8. Primary spermatocyte divides by meiosis I to form two secondary spermatocytes.
      9. Secondary spermatocyte divides by meiosis II to produce two spermatids.
      10. A spermatocyte forms four spermatozoa.
      11. Sperms are smaller than spermatocytes.
      12. Nucleus undergoes condensation in the sperm.
      13. Reserve food is little in the sperms.
      14.It produces motile male gametes.
      Oogenesis
      1. It occurs inside ovary.
      2. Major part of oogenesis occurs inside ovary but last stages occur inside oviduct.
      3. It is discontinuous process with early stages taking place in foetus and the rest later in life.
      4. Oogonia develop from germinal epithelium overlying the ovary.
      5. There is no such differentiation.
      6. Only some oogoinia give rise to oocytes.
      7. Growth phase is prolonged.
      8. Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I to form one secondary oocyte and one polar body
      9. Secondary oocyte divides by meiosis II to form one ovum and one polar body.
      10. A oocyte forms only one egg or ovum.
      11. Eggs are larger than oocytes.
      12. Nucleus remains uncondensed in the ovum.
      13. Ovum collects a lot of reserve food and other biochemicals.
      14. It forms non motile female gametes.
      The primary sex organs: the testis in the males and the ovaries in the female produce gametes, i.e., sperms and ovum, respectively, by the process called gametogenesis. Gametogenesis  for the formation of sperms is termed  spermatogenesis, while that of ova is called oogenesis. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are accomplished in three phases: multiplication phase, growth phase and maturation phase.
      • Multiplication phase: Here multiplication of the germ cells occurs through mitosis so as to increase their number.
      • Growth phase: The germ cells increase in size
      • Maturation phase: Germ cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes.
      Spermatogenesis: It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa (sperms) from diploid spermatogonia inside the testes of the male. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
      Oogenesis: It is the process of formation of functional haploid ova from the diploid germinal cells in the ovary.
      Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis
      oogenesis and spermatogenesis
      Spermatogenesis 
      1. It occurs inside testis
      2. All stages are completed inside testis.
      3. It is a continuous process.
      4. Spermatogonia develop from germinal epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules.
      5. Some cells of the germinal epithelium function as support , also called sertoli cells.
      6. All the spermatogonia divide to form spermatocytes.
      7. Growth phase is short.
      8. Primary spermatocyte divides by meiosis I to form two secondary spermatocytes.
      9. Secondary spermatocyte divides by meiosis II to produce two spermatids.
      10. A spermatocyte forms four spermatozoa.
      11. Sperms are smaller than spermatocytes.
      12. Nucleus undergoes condensation in the sperm.
      13. Reserve food is little in the sperms.
      14.It produces motile male gametes.
      Oogenesis
      1. It occurs inside ovary.
      2. Major part of oogenesis occurs inside ovary but last stages occur inside oviduct.
      3. It is discontinuous process with early stages taking place in foetus and the rest later in life.
      4. Oogonia develop from germinal epithelium overlying the ovary.
      5. There is no such differentiation.
      6. Only some oogoinia give rise to oocytes.
      7. Growth phase is prolonged.
      8. Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I to form one secondary oocyte and one polar body
      9. Secondary oocyte divides by meiosis II to form one ovum and one polar body.
      10. A oocyte forms only one egg or ovum.
      11. Eggs are larger than oocytes.
      12. Nucleus remains uncondensed in the ovum.
      13. Ovum collects a lot of reserve food and other biochemicals.
      14. It forms non motile female gametes.
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      Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella

      Flagella and Cilia are fine vibratile hair like membrane covered protoplasmic outgrowths that occur on the free surface of the cells and take part in producing a current in fluid medium for passage of materials and locomotion. Flagella are longer but fewer(generally 1-4). Flagella occur  in group flagellate or protozoan protistans, euglenoids, dinoflagellates, choanocytes of sponges, gastrodermal cells of coelenterates, sperms of animal bryophytes and several pteridophytes, zoospores and gametes of several algae and primitive fungi.
      Eukaryotic flagella
      Prokaryotic Flagella vs Eukaryotic Flagella
      Prokaryotic Flagella
      Eukaryotic Flagella
      They are single stranded They are 11 stranded
      A covering membraneous sheath is absent. Flagella are covered by sheath derived from plasmalemma.
      The size is smaller. The size is larger.
      They are narrower. They are thicker.
      Each flagellum has three parts: basal body, hook and filament. There are two parts: basal body and shaft.
      Basal body bears rings. Basal body bears rootlets
      They are formed of protein flagellin. The strands are formed of protein tubulin.
      They perform rotatory movements.  They perform lashing or undulatory movements.
      Flagella and Cilia are fine vibratile hair like membrane covered protoplasmic outgrowths that occur on the free surface of the cells and take part in producing a current in fluid medium for passage of materials and locomotion. Flagella are longer but fewer(generally 1-4). Flagella occur  in group flagellate or protozoan protistans, euglenoids, dinoflagellates, choanocytes of sponges, gastrodermal cells of coelenterates, sperms of animal bryophytes and several pteridophytes, zoospores and gametes of several algae and primitive fungi.
      Eukaryotic flagella
      Prokaryotic Flagella vs Eukaryotic Flagella
      Prokaryotic Flagella
      Eukaryotic Flagella
      They are single stranded They are 11 stranded
      A covering membraneous sheath is absent. Flagella are covered by sheath derived from plasmalemma.
      The size is smaller. The size is larger.
      They are narrower. They are thicker.
      Each flagellum has three parts: basal body, hook and filament. There are two parts: basal body and shaft.
      Basal body bears rings. Basal body bears rootlets
      They are formed of protein flagellin. The strands are formed of protein tubulin.
      They perform rotatory movements.  They perform lashing or undulatory movements.
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      Difference between Erythrocytes and Leucocytes RBC vs WBC

      Blood is the main circulatory medium in the human body. The blood consists of two principal components: the fluid plasma and blood cells or corpuscles which are found suspended. Nearly 45% volume of blood consists of corpuscles or blood cells.  These are of different types: the erythrocytes or red cells containing hemoglobin; the leucocytes or white cells having no hemoglobin, and the thrombocytes in mammals only. These are essential for proper functioning of the body.
      composition of blood
      Erythrocytes vs Leucocytes
      lymphocytes and erythrocytes
      Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles or RBCs)
      1. They are red coloured blood corpules.
      2. Number: 4.5-5.5 million/mm3
      3. shape and size: Circular and bioconcave, 7-8 mm
      4. They are nonmotile
      5. Erythrocytes seldom leave blood vessels.
      6. Most of the cell organelles are absent. Nucleus is absent.
      7. They contain hemoglobin.
      8. They may form stacks called rouleaux.
      9.Erythrocyte are of one type.
      10. Life span:120 days
      11. They are specialized to transport oxygen and small amount of carbon dioxide.
      12. They have no role in defence and immunity of the body.
      13. Number increases during exercise and at high altitudes.
      Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs)
      1. They are colorless corpules.
      2. Number: 7000-10000/mm3
      3. shape and size: rounded and amoeboid shape. The size is 10-18 mm with the exception of small lymphocytes.
      4. They are generally motile
      5. They can come out of blood capillaries.
      6. Most of the cell organelles are present. Nucleus is present.
      7. They do not contain hemoglobin.
      8. Rouleaux formation is absent.
      9.Erythrocyte are of five types.
      10. Life span: 12- 13 days.
      11. They do not have any respiratory function.
      12. They have important  role in defence and immunity of the body.
      13. Number increase during infection
      Blood is the main circulatory medium in the human body. The blood consists of two principal components: the fluid plasma and blood cells or corpuscles which are found suspended. Nearly 45% volume of blood consists of corpuscles or blood cells.  These are of different types: the erythrocytes or red cells containing hemoglobin; the leucocytes or white cells having no hemoglobin, and the thrombocytes in mammals only. These are essential for proper functioning of the body.
      composition of blood
      Erythrocytes vs Leucocytes
      lymphocytes and erythrocytes
      Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles or RBCs)
      1. They are red coloured blood corpules.
      2. Number: 4.5-5.5 million/mm3
      3. shape and size: Circular and bioconcave, 7-8 mm
      4. They are nonmotile
      5. Erythrocytes seldom leave blood vessels.
      6. Most of the cell organelles are absent. Nucleus is absent.
      7. They contain hemoglobin.
      8. They may form stacks called rouleaux.
      9.Erythrocyte are of one type.
      10. Life span:120 days
      11. They are specialized to transport oxygen and small amount of carbon dioxide.
      12. They have no role in defence and immunity of the body.
      13. Number increases during exercise and at high altitudes.
      Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs)
      1. They are colorless corpules.
      2. Number: 7000-10000/mm3
      3. shape and size: rounded and amoeboid shape. The size is 10-18 mm with the exception of small lymphocytes.
      4. They are generally motile
      5. They can come out of blood capillaries.
      6. Most of the cell organelles are present. Nucleus is present.
      7. They do not contain hemoglobin.
      8. Rouleaux formation is absent.
      9.Erythrocyte are of five types.
      10. Life span: 12- 13 days.
      11. They do not have any respiratory function.
      12. They have important  role in defence and immunity of the body.
      13. Number increase during infection
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