Difference between Gametophyte and Sporophyte

Gametophyte: It is a multi cellular structure or generation in life cycle of a plant which is capable of forming gametes directly from its cells. The cells of gametophyte are always haploid or have single genomes or one set of chromosomes.

Sporophyte: It is a multicellular structure or generation in the life cycle of a plant which possess diploid cells or cells which two genomes or two sets of chromosomes. It produces haploid spores or meiospores through the process of meiosis in its diploid cells.
Summary of alternation of diploid with haploid phases in Kingdom Plantae and Fungi
  • In Algae, the dominant phase is gametophyte (1n). Sporophytic and gametophytic stages are independent.
  • In Bryophytes, the dominant phase is free living thalloid gametophyte (1n). The gametophyte is thalloid in primitive forms (Riccia) and differentiated into stem, leaves and rhizoids in higher bryophytes (Mosses).
  • In Pteridophytes, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n). The gametophyte is called prothallus. The gametophyte is small and is usually independent. Meiospores are formed inside sporangia.
  • In Gymnosperm, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n).The gametophyte generation is reduced and dependent upon sporophyte generation.
  • A typical angiosperm plant is sporophytic (2n) and has both vegetative (root, stem, leaves) and reproductive parts.The male gametophyte develops inside the pollen grain. The female gametophyte is called as embryo sac which develops inside the ovule.
Gametophyte vs Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
It is the haploid (n) phase in the life cycle
It is the diploid (2n) phase in the life cycle.
It forms gametes.
It forms spores.
The gametes are formed either directly or through mitosis.
The spores are formed after meiosis.
Gametes take part in fertilization or fusion forming diploid (2n) zygote.
The diploid spore mother cell undergo meiosis to form haploid (n) Meiospores.
Growth of zygote produces the sporophyte.
Growth of meiospore produces the gametophyte.
The cells possess a single genome or one set of chromosomes.
The cells possess two genomes or two sets of chromosomes.
Gametophyte: It is a multi cellular structure or generation in life cycle of a plant which is capable of forming gametes directly from its cells. The cells of gametophyte are always haploid or have single genomes or one set of chromosomes.

Sporophyte: It is a multicellular structure or generation in the life cycle of a plant which possess diploid cells or cells which two genomes or two sets of chromosomes. It produces haploid spores or meiospores through the process of meiosis in its diploid cells.
Summary of alternation of diploid with haploid phases in Kingdom Plantae and Fungi
  • In Algae, the dominant phase is gametophyte (1n). Sporophytic and gametophytic stages are independent.
  • In Bryophytes, the dominant phase is free living thalloid gametophyte (1n). The gametophyte is thalloid in primitive forms (Riccia) and differentiated into stem, leaves and rhizoids in higher bryophytes (Mosses).
  • In Pteridophytes, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n). The gametophyte is called prothallus. The gametophyte is small and is usually independent. Meiospores are formed inside sporangia.
  • In Gymnosperm, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n).The gametophyte generation is reduced and dependent upon sporophyte generation.
  • A typical angiosperm plant is sporophytic (2n) and has both vegetative (root, stem, leaves) and reproductive parts.The male gametophyte develops inside the pollen grain. The female gametophyte is called as embryo sac which develops inside the ovule.
Gametophyte vs Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
It is the haploid (n) phase in the life cycle
It is the diploid (2n) phase in the life cycle.
It forms gametes.
It forms spores.
The gametes are formed either directly or through mitosis.
The spores are formed after meiosis.
Gametes take part in fertilization or fusion forming diploid (2n) zygote.
The diploid spore mother cell undergo meiosis to form haploid (n) Meiospores.
Growth of zygote produces the sporophyte.
Growth of meiospore produces the gametophyte.
The cells possess a single genome or one set of chromosomes.
The cells possess two genomes or two sets of chromosomes.
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Difference between Corm and Bulb

Bulb and corm are the underground stem modifications in which stems are seen below the surface of the soil and are modified to store the food.
Bulb vs Corm
Bulb


Corm

The stem is a condensed, discoid structure.
The stem is a cylindrical, vertically growing structure.
Adventitious roots develop from the ventral side of the stem.
Adventitious roots develop all over the stem.
Contractile roots are absent.
Contractile roots are present.
Terminal bud is small.
Terminal bud is large.
Food is stored in the leaf bases.
Food is stored in the stem.
Example of Bulb: Onion(Allium cepa)
Example of Corm: Gladious, Colocasia Amorphophallus
Bulb and corm are the underground stem modifications in which stems are seen below the surface of the soil and are modified to store the food.
Bulb vs Corm
Bulb


Corm

The stem is a condensed, discoid structure.
The stem is a cylindrical, vertically growing structure.
Adventitious roots develop from the ventral side of the stem.
Adventitious roots develop all over the stem.
Contractile roots are absent.
Contractile roots are present.
Terminal bud is small.
Terminal bud is large.
Food is stored in the leaf bases.
Food is stored in the stem.
Example of Bulb: Onion(Allium cepa)
Example of Corm: Gladious, Colocasia Amorphophallus
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Difference between Chlorenchyma and Collenchyma

Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma are the important permanent tissues found in plants. Parenchyma cells of leaf and stem contain chlorophyll and they are called chlorenchyma (assimiltory parenchyma).
Collenchyma The cells of this tissue are living cells with vacuolated protoplast. The most important distinctive character of collenchyma is that either walls are unevenly thickened or these thickenings are confined to the corners of the cells. It is usually absent in monocot.
Chlorenchyma vs Collenchyma

Chlorenchyma

Collenchyma

Chloroplast containing parenchyma cells.
Chloroplast may be present or absent within the cells.
Isodiametric cells
In transverse section the cells look elongated and angular.
Chlorenchyma cells are not interlocked.
By their end walls the cells are interlocked.
Soft uniformly thin cell wall.
Hard unevenly thickened cell wall.
Photosynthetic and storage in function.
Photosynthetic and mechanical in function.
Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma are the important permanent tissues found in plants. Parenchyma cells of leaf and stem contain chlorophyll and they are called chlorenchyma (assimiltory parenchyma).
Collenchyma The cells of this tissue are living cells with vacuolated protoplast. The most important distinctive character of collenchyma is that either walls are unevenly thickened or these thickenings are confined to the corners of the cells. It is usually absent in monocot.
Chlorenchyma vs Collenchyma

Chlorenchyma

Collenchyma

Chloroplast containing parenchyma cells.
Chloroplast may be present or absent within the cells.
Isodiametric cells
In transverse section the cells look elongated and angular.
Chlorenchyma cells are not interlocked.
By their end walls the cells are interlocked.
Soft uniformly thin cell wall.
Hard unevenly thickened cell wall.
Photosynthetic and storage in function.
Photosynthetic and mechanical in function.
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Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma

A simple tissue is made up of one type of cell forming a homogenous or uniform mass. Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma are the important simple permanent tissues found in plants.

Parenchyma is the most common type of unspecilalised simple tissue. It is composed of collection of cells which are more or less isodiametric in shape with or without intercellular space. These are the living cells with active protoplast.

Collenchyma The cells of this tissue are living cells with vacuolated protoplast. The most important distinctive character of collenchyma is that either walls are unevenly thickened or these thickenings are confined to the corners of the cells. It is usually absent in monocot.
Parenchyma vs Collenchyma


Parenchyma

Collenchyma

Parenchyma cells are present in the epidermis, cortex, pith and pericycle. Meristematic cells are parenchymatous.
It occurs in the peripheral part of elongating organs like stem and petiole, usually appearing as a continuous ring beneath the epidermis.
Thin cell wall
Unequally thickened cell wall
Intercellular space is present
Intercellular space is absent.
No pectin deposition
Pectin deposition is found at the corners.
Shape - Isodiametric
Shape - Polygonal.
Permanent tissue
Permanent tissue sometimes revives meristematic activity.
Functions:
a) Storage of food materials.
b) Chlorenchyma carries out photosynthesis.
c) Aerenchyma helps aquatic plants in floating and gaseous exchange.
Functions: 
a) It gives mechanical support.
b) It can resist bending and stretching caused by winds.
c) It carries out photosynthesis if chloroplast are present. 
A simple tissue is made up of one type of cell forming a homogenous or uniform mass. Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma are the important simple permanent tissues found in plants.

Parenchyma is the most common type of unspecilalised simple tissue. It is composed of collection of cells which are more or less isodiametric in shape with or without intercellular space. These are the living cells with active protoplast.

Collenchyma The cells of this tissue are living cells with vacuolated protoplast. The most important distinctive character of collenchyma is that either walls are unevenly thickened or these thickenings are confined to the corners of the cells. It is usually absent in monocot.
Parenchyma vs Collenchyma


Parenchyma

Collenchyma

Parenchyma cells are present in the epidermis, cortex, pith and pericycle. Meristematic cells are parenchymatous.
It occurs in the peripheral part of elongating organs like stem and petiole, usually appearing as a continuous ring beneath the epidermis.
Thin cell wall
Unequally thickened cell wall
Intercellular space is present
Intercellular space is absent.
No pectin deposition
Pectin deposition is found at the corners.
Shape - Isodiametric
Shape - Polygonal.
Permanent tissue
Permanent tissue sometimes revives meristematic activity.
Functions:
a) Storage of food materials.
b) Chlorenchyma carries out photosynthesis.
c) Aerenchyma helps aquatic plants in floating and gaseous exchange.
Functions: 
a) It gives mechanical support.
b) It can resist bending and stretching caused by winds.
c) It carries out photosynthesis if chloroplast are present. 
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Difference between Oxidation and Reduction

Electron transfer reactions are called oxidation reduction reactions or reactions involving transfer of negative charge (ie. electrons) from one reactant to another. Oxidation and reduction are complementary processes. See the figure for better understanding.

In the above reaction, Sodium (Na) metal is the reducing agent as it supplies electrons for the reduction of chlorine and chlorine is the oxidizing agent as its accepts electrons form sodium thereby sodium gets oxidized.
Oxidation vs Reduction
Oxidation 
(with respect to A)
Reduction 
(with respect to A)
Oxidation is the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms or gain of oxygen atoms.
Reduction is the gain of electrons or hydrogen atoms or loss of oxygen atoms.
Removal or loss of electrons
A ->A++e-
Addition or gain of electrons
A +e- -> A-
Removal of Hydrogen
AH+B -> A+BH
Addition of Hydrogen
A+BH ->AH+B
Addition of oxygen
A+B-> AO+B
Removal of oxygen
AO+B -> A+BO
All the above reactions releases energy
All the above reactions stores energy











Examples of oxidation reduction reactions are corrosion, respiration, the operation of battery etc.
Electron transfer reactions are called oxidation reduction reactions or reactions involving transfer of negative charge (ie. electrons) from one reactant to another. Oxidation and reduction are complementary processes. See the figure for better understanding.

In the above reaction, Sodium (Na) metal is the reducing agent as it supplies electrons for the reduction of chlorine and chlorine is the oxidizing agent as its accepts electrons form sodium thereby sodium gets oxidized.
Oxidation vs Reduction
Oxidation 
(with respect to A)
Reduction 
(with respect to A)
Oxidation is the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms or gain of oxygen atoms.
Reduction is the gain of electrons or hydrogen atoms or loss of oxygen atoms.
Removal or loss of electrons
A ->A++e-
Addition or gain of electrons
A +e- -> A-
Removal of Hydrogen
AH+B -> A+BH
Addition of Hydrogen
A+BH ->AH+B
Addition of oxygen
A+B-> AO+B
Removal of oxygen
AO+B -> A+BO
All the above reactions releases energy
All the above reactions stores energy











Examples of oxidation reduction reactions are corrosion, respiration, the operation of battery etc.
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Difference between DNA, Gene and Chromosome

DNA vs Gene vs Chromosome
Within the cell, DNA is complexed with histone proteins called chromatin. At the time of cell division, the chromatin condensed to form chromosome.

Gene vs Chromosome

In order to understand it clearly, Let us see how chromosomes are formed from double stranded DNA.
Level 1: Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. Nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester bond to form a DNA strand.

Level 2: Double stranded DNA helix is formed by the hydrogen bonding between nitrogenous bases of two strands. Double helical DNA is 2 nm or 20 A0 .

Level 3: Formation of chromatin:
This DNA is wrapped around histone proteins forming “beads on a string appearance”. Each unit comprising of DNA wrapped around histone octamer (8 histones) is called nucleosome. Now the structure is called chromatin (DNA + histone protein complex). This is the 10nm chromatin fibril.

Further condensation forms 30 nm chromatin fibril followed by non condensed loop and condensed loop formation ultimately forming the metaphase chromosome of 1400nm. Maximum condensation of chromosome occurs at the metaphase stage. Therefore the term ‘chromosome’ often refers to the metaphase chromosome.
Gene
‘Gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a functional protein and RNAs like tRNA, rRNA or ribozymes’.
Gene vs Chromosome


Gene
Chromosome
Gene is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that codes for a functional protein and RNAs like tRNA, rRNA or ribozymes’.
Chromosome is the structure formed by the condensation of chromatin during cell division.
Genes basically refers to the DNA fragment that directs the synthesis of a protein.
Chromosome consists of long DNA strand wrapped around histone proteins.
Gene is segment of DNA molecule made up of nucleotides.
A mitotic chromosome consists of a centromere, pair of telomeres and an origin of replication.
The position of each gene on a chromosome is called loci.
Chromosome is a long strand of DNA containing many genes.
Gene contain coding sequence called exons and non-coding sequence called introns on the chromosome that directs synthesis of a protein.
Chromosome is a long DNA strand  containing both coding (genes) and non-coding DNA (junk DNA or spacer DNA) between genes.
DNA vs Gene vs Chromosome
Within the cell, DNA is complexed with histone proteins called chromatin. At the time of cell division, the chromatin condensed to form chromosome.

Gene vs Chromosome

In order to understand it clearly, Let us see how chromosomes are formed from double stranded DNA.
Level 1: Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. Nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester bond to form a DNA strand.

Level 2: Double stranded DNA helix is formed by the hydrogen bonding between nitrogenous bases of two strands. Double helical DNA is 2 nm or 20 A0 .

Level 3: Formation of chromatin:
This DNA is wrapped around histone proteins forming “beads on a string appearance”. Each unit comprising of DNA wrapped around histone octamer (8 histones) is called nucleosome. Now the structure is called chromatin (DNA + histone protein complex). This is the 10nm chromatin fibril.

Further condensation forms 30 nm chromatin fibril followed by non condensed loop and condensed loop formation ultimately forming the metaphase chromosome of 1400nm. Maximum condensation of chromosome occurs at the metaphase stage. Therefore the term ‘chromosome’ often refers to the metaphase chromosome.
Gene
‘Gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a functional protein and RNAs like tRNA, rRNA or ribozymes’.
Gene vs Chromosome


Gene
Chromosome
Gene is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that codes for a functional protein and RNAs like tRNA, rRNA or ribozymes’.
Chromosome is the structure formed by the condensation of chromatin during cell division.
Genes basically refers to the DNA fragment that directs the synthesis of a protein.
Chromosome consists of long DNA strand wrapped around histone proteins.
Gene is segment of DNA molecule made up of nucleotides.
A mitotic chromosome consists of a centromere, pair of telomeres and an origin of replication.
The position of each gene on a chromosome is called loci.
Chromosome is a long strand of DNA containing many genes.
Gene contain coding sequence called exons and non-coding sequence called introns on the chromosome that directs synthesis of a protein.
Chromosome is a long DNA strand  containing both coding (genes) and non-coding DNA (junk DNA or spacer DNA) between genes.
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Difference between Genomics and Proteomics

Genomics vs Proteomics
Difference between genomics and proteomics

Genomics
Proteomics
Genomics is the study of genome of an organism. Genome represents the entire genes of an organism or a cell type
Proteomics is the study of proteome of an organism. Proteome refers to the entire protein set coded by the genome of an organism or a cell type
Genomics include mapping, sequencing and analysis of genome
Proteomics include characterization of all proteins of an organism or study of structure and function of proteins
Genomics can be broadly classified into structural and functional genomics
a)Structural genomics: is the study of the structure of all genes and its relative position on the chromosome
b)Functional genomics: study of function of all genes or the role of these genes in regulating metabolic activities of the cell
Proteomics can be classified into structural functional and expression proteomics
a)Structural proteomics: is the study of the structure of proteins and their location in the cell
b)Functional proteomics: study of function of all proteins which primarily include protein-protein interaction and interaction of proteins with other biomolecules
c) Expression proteomics: is the study of identification and quantification or expression level  of proteins of the cell at different developmental stages or at different environmental conditions
Techniques in genomics include
a) gene sequencing strategies like directed gene sequencing, whole genome short gun sequencing,
b)Construction of ESTs (expressed sequence Tags),
c) Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),
d) Analysis and interpretation of sequenced data using different databases and software.
Techniques in proteomics include
a) protein extraction, electrophoretic separation, digestion of separated proteins into small fragments using trypsin, mass spectroscopy to find out amino acid sequences and finally protein identification using standard databases.
b) Protein 3D structure prediction using software.
c) Protein expression study using protein microarray.
Thrust areas in Genomics: Genome Sequencing projects of many organisms including Human Genome Project
Proteome database development like SWISS-2D PAGE and software development for computer aided drug design
Genomics vs Proteomics
Difference between genomics and proteomics

Genomics
Proteomics
Genomics is the study of genome of an organism. Genome represents the entire genes of an organism or a cell type
Proteomics is the study of proteome of an organism. Proteome refers to the entire protein set coded by the genome of an organism or a cell type
Genomics include mapping, sequencing and analysis of genome
Proteomics include characterization of all proteins of an organism or study of structure and function of proteins
Genomics can be broadly classified into structural and functional genomics
a)Structural genomics: is the study of the structure of all genes and its relative position on the chromosome
b)Functional genomics: study of function of all genes or the role of these genes in regulating metabolic activities of the cell
Proteomics can be classified into structural functional and expression proteomics
a)Structural proteomics: is the study of the structure of proteins and their location in the cell
b)Functional proteomics: study of function of all proteins which primarily include protein-protein interaction and interaction of proteins with other biomolecules
c) Expression proteomics: is the study of identification and quantification or expression level  of proteins of the cell at different developmental stages or at different environmental conditions
Techniques in genomics include
a) gene sequencing strategies like directed gene sequencing, whole genome short gun sequencing,
b)Construction of ESTs (expressed sequence Tags),
c) Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),
d) Analysis and interpretation of sequenced data using different databases and software.
Techniques in proteomics include
a) protein extraction, electrophoretic separation, digestion of separated proteins into small fragments using trypsin, mass spectroscopy to find out amino acid sequences and finally protein identification using standard databases.
b) Protein 3D structure prediction using software.
c) Protein expression study using protein microarray.
Thrust areas in Genomics: Genome Sequencing projects of many organisms including Human Genome Project
Proteome database development like SWISS-2D PAGE and software development for computer aided drug design
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Difference between Male Urethra and Female Urethra

Human excretory system consists of two kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra.
The urethra is a membranous tube starting from the neck of the bladder up to the external urethral orifice.
Male Urethra vs Female Urethra

Male Urethra

Female Urethra
It is about 20 cm in length
It is about 4 cm in length
It has three regions: prostatic urethra(3-4cm), membranous(1cm) and penial(15cm)
It is not differentiated into regions
It opens out at the tip of the penis by urinogenital aperture
It opens by urinary aperture in front of vaginal aperture.
It carries urine as well as semen to the exterior
It carries urine only to the exterior
Human excretory system consists of two kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra.
The urethra is a membranous tube starting from the neck of the bladder up to the external urethral orifice.
Male Urethra vs Female Urethra

Male Urethra

Female Urethra
It is about 20 cm in length
It is about 4 cm in length
It has three regions: prostatic urethra(3-4cm), membranous(1cm) and penial(15cm)
It is not differentiated into regions
It opens out at the tip of the penis by urinogenital aperture
It opens by urinary aperture in front of vaginal aperture.
It carries urine as well as semen to the exterior
It carries urine only to the exterior
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Difference between Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism

 Ammonia, urea and uric acid are the main nitrogenous waste product in different animals. The major role of excretory system is the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. In animals, nitrogenous excretion is grouped into three categories based on the form in which nitrogenous wastes are removed;

1) Ammonotelism 2)Ureotelism and 3)Uricotelism
Difference between Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism:

Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism

Ammonotelism vs Ureotelism vs Uricotelism

Ammonotelism
Ureotelism
Uricotelism
Chief nitrogenous waste is ammonia
Chief nitrogenous waste is urea
Chief nitrogenous waste is uric acid
 Solubility: Easily  dissolves in liver cells by deamination of aminoacids
It is less soluble in water
It is almost insoluble in water.
Ammonia is formed by deamination of amino acids in liver cells
Urea is formed in liver and is produced from an amino acid arginine. Arginase is the enzyme involved. 
Potassium ureate reacts with water and carbon dioxide to form uric acid
Ammonia is very toxic
Urea is less toxic
Uric acid has very low toxicity
 Ammonia, urea and uric acid are the main nitrogenous waste product in different animals. The major role of excretory system is the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. In animals, nitrogenous excretion is grouped into three categories based on the form in which nitrogenous wastes are removed;

1) Ammonotelism 2)Ureotelism and 3)Uricotelism
Difference between Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism:

Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism

Ammonotelism vs Ureotelism vs Uricotelism

Ammonotelism
Ureotelism
Uricotelism
Chief nitrogenous waste is ammonia
Chief nitrogenous waste is urea
Chief nitrogenous waste is uric acid
 Solubility: Easily  dissolves in liver cells by deamination of aminoacids
It is less soluble in water
It is almost insoluble in water.
Ammonia is formed by deamination of amino acids in liver cells
Urea is formed in liver and is produced from an amino acid arginine. Arginase is the enzyme involved. 
Potassium ureate reacts with water and carbon dioxide to form uric acid
Ammonia is very toxic
Urea is less toxic
Uric acid has very low toxicity
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Difference between FISH and GISH

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) vs Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)
In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), is widely used to identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis.
Difference between FIAH and GISH
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a laboratory technique for detecting and locating a specific DNA sequence or a gene on a chromosome within a person’s genome.
The technique relies on exposing chromosomes to a small DNA sequence called a probe that has a fluorescent molecule attached to it.
FISH helps scientist to visualize the location of particular gene to check for a variety of chromosomal abnormalities.
FISH procedure
Summary of steps
1. Cells cultured, harvested, prepared on microscopic slides and are denatured (now DNA is single stranded for probe attachment)
Cells on metaphase stage of division is selected (as maximum condensation on metaphase stage)
2. Fluorescently labeled hybridization probe is added
(The hybridization probe is a short fragment of DNA that has a fluorescent dye attached that enable scientist to visualize the site of probe attachment. A typical FISH probe would be 10 - 100 kb long)
3. If the DNA corresponding to the probe is present in the sample, then the fluorescently labeled probe will attach to the DNA and will be visible under a fluorescent microscope.
4. This allows deletions (no fluorescent spot at the expected position) and rearrangements (spot present, but in an unexpected chromosomal location) to be detected. Thus helps in diagnosis of genetic diseases.
FISH example
Figure. An example of FISH-treated metaphase chromosomes: Here, chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were labeled yellow with FISH and the other chromosomes were stained red. Translocations between yellow and red chromosomes are detected. The left picture represents a normal cell (the numbers in the figure indicate chromosome numbers) and the right picture is an example of reciprocal translocation with two bi-color chromosomes (indicated by two arrows). http://www.rerf.jp/dept/genetics/fish_e.html
Applications:
  • To detect chromosomal aberrations or abnormalities in humans
  • To study somaclonal variation* in plants
  • In chromosome mapping
Genome in situ hybridization (GISH) is an in situ hybridization method that uses whole genomic DNA as a probe to study the relationships, divergence and evolution of the genome between different species.
clip_image006

Summary of Steps
  • Extraction of total genomic DNA of one of the species of interest (to be used as probe)
  • Chromosome preparations of the species 2 being studied
  • Repeated sequences in both species anneal quickly than the unique sequences of the genome
  • Thus helps in assessing genome relationship between species
Applications
  • GISH allows characterization of the genome and chromosome of hybrid plats and recombinant breeding lines
  • Helps in assessing phylogenetic relationship between different species of plants
Reference
· Devi, J., Ko, J. M., & Seo, B. B. (2005). FISH and GISH: Modern cytogenetic techniques. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 4(3), 307.
· Younis, A., Ramzan, F., Hwang, Y. J., & Lim, K. B. (2015). FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants. Plant Cell Reports, 34(9), 1477-1488.
· http://www.geneticseducation.nhs.uk/laboratory-process-and-testing-techniques/fish
· Snowdon, R. J., Köhler, A., Köhler, W., & Friedt, W. (1999). FISHing for new rapeseed lines: the application of molecular cytogenetic techniques to Brassica breeding. New horizons for an old crop. Proc 10th Int Rapeseed Congr. The Regional Institute, Gosford, NSW, Australia. (GISH image credit)
*Somaclonal variation: genetic variation in plants raised by tissue culture.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) vs Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)
In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), is widely used to identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis.
Difference between FIAH and GISH
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a laboratory technique for detecting and locating a specific DNA sequence or a gene on a chromosome within a person’s genome.
The technique relies on exposing chromosomes to a small DNA sequence called a probe that has a fluorescent molecule attached to it.
FISH helps scientist to visualize the location of particular gene to check for a variety of chromosomal abnormalities.
FISH procedure
Summary of steps
1. Cells cultured, harvested, prepared on microscopic slides and are denatured (now DNA is single stranded for probe attachment)
Cells on metaphase stage of division is selected (as maximum condensation on metaphase stage)
2. Fluorescently labeled hybridization probe is added
(The hybridization probe is a short fragment of DNA that has a fluorescent dye attached that enable scientist to visualize the site of probe attachment. A typical FISH probe would be 10 - 100 kb long)
3. If the DNA corresponding to the probe is present in the sample, then the fluorescently labeled probe will attach to the DNA and will be visible under a fluorescent microscope.
4. This allows deletions (no fluorescent spot at the expected position) and rearrangements (spot present, but in an unexpected chromosomal location) to be detected. Thus helps in diagnosis of genetic diseases.
FISH example
Figure. An example of FISH-treated metaphase chromosomes: Here, chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were labeled yellow with FISH and the other chromosomes were stained red. Translocations between yellow and red chromosomes are detected. The left picture represents a normal cell (the numbers in the figure indicate chromosome numbers) and the right picture is an example of reciprocal translocation with two bi-color chromosomes (indicated by two arrows). http://www.rerf.jp/dept/genetics/fish_e.html
Applications:
  • To detect chromosomal aberrations or abnormalities in humans
  • To study somaclonal variation* in plants
  • In chromosome mapping
Genome in situ hybridization (GISH) is an in situ hybridization method that uses whole genomic DNA as a probe to study the relationships, divergence and evolution of the genome between different species.
clip_image006

Summary of Steps
  • Extraction of total genomic DNA of one of the species of interest (to be used as probe)
  • Chromosome preparations of the species 2 being studied
  • Repeated sequences in both species anneal quickly than the unique sequences of the genome
  • Thus helps in assessing genome relationship between species
Applications
  • GISH allows characterization of the genome and chromosome of hybrid plats and recombinant breeding lines
  • Helps in assessing phylogenetic relationship between different species of plants
Reference
· Devi, J., Ko, J. M., & Seo, B. B. (2005). FISH and GISH: Modern cytogenetic techniques. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 4(3), 307.
· Younis, A., Ramzan, F., Hwang, Y. J., & Lim, K. B. (2015). FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants. Plant Cell Reports, 34(9), 1477-1488.
· http://www.geneticseducation.nhs.uk/laboratory-process-and-testing-techniques/fish
· Snowdon, R. J., Köhler, A., Köhler, W., & Friedt, W. (1999). FISHing for new rapeseed lines: the application of molecular cytogenetic techniques to Brassica breeding. New horizons for an old crop. Proc 10th Int Rapeseed Congr. The Regional Institute, Gosford, NSW, Australia. (GISH image credit)
*Somaclonal variation: genetic variation in plants raised by tissue culture.
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