Difference between Plasma and Lymph

Plasma is the matrix or the extracellular fluid of the blood tissue. It is straw coloured, non living, and slightly alkaline aqueous fluid with pH of 7.4. About 30-35% of blood is plasma.

Plasma contains: Water (About 91%), Plasma proteins (about 7%), Organic substances and inorganic substances (2%)
Functions of Plasma:
  • Transport: Plasma transport the digested food products like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.
  • Body immunity: one type of globulins called immunoglobulins act as antibodies. They inactive invading microorganisms and their toxins.
  • Prevention of blood loss:  Fibrinogen helps in blood clotting and thus prevents blood loss. During blood clotting the soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin.
  • Retention of fluid in blood
  • Maintenance of blood pH: Plasma proteins act as acid base buffers and thus maintain the blood pH by neutralizing strong acids and bases.
  • Regulation of body temperature: Plasma helps in the uniform distribution of heat all over the body, and in conducting heat to skin for dissipation.
Lymph: It is an interstitial fluid, present between the cells of a tissue. Exchange of metabolites, gases and waste products takes place through the fluid.
Functions of Lymph:

  • It maintains balance between blood and tissue fluid.
  • Add lymphocytes for the release of antibodies.
  • It destroys the invading micro organisms and foreign particles in the lymph nodes.
  • Plasma proteins and some other micromolecules synthesized by liver enter the blood through lymph.
  • Fat is absorbed in the intestine by lymph as chylomicron
  • Some waste products are carried by it into blood.
  • It destroys the invading microorganisms and foreign particles in the lymph nodes.

Plasma vs Lymph

Plasma
Lymph
Cell free part of blood, contains salt, considerable amount of proteins as well as more or less all constituents of the body.
Modified tissue fluid, contains cells like lymphocytes and monocytes, salts and small amount of proteins.
Flows within blood vessels
Flows within lymphatic vessels
Can coagulate because it contains fibrinogen and prothrombin.
Can coagulate but very slowly because it contains these two in small quantities.
Function: Take part in nutrition, excretion, respiration etc. by transporting various materials and defence mechanism body by producing antibodies.
Function: Supplies nutrition to tissue devoid of blood supply, take part in fat absorption and defence mechanism of the body.
Learn more: Blood vs Lymph
Plasma is the matrix or the extracellular fluid of the blood tissue. It is straw coloured, non living, and slightly alkaline aqueous fluid with pH of 7.4. About 30-35% of blood is plasma.

Plasma contains: Water (About 91%), Plasma proteins (about 7%), Organic substances and inorganic substances (2%)
Functions of Plasma:
  • Transport: Plasma transport the digested food products like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.
  • Body immunity: one type of globulins called immunoglobulins act as antibodies. They inactive invading microorganisms and their toxins.
  • Prevention of blood loss:  Fibrinogen helps in blood clotting and thus prevents blood loss. During blood clotting the soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin.
  • Retention of fluid in blood
  • Maintenance of blood pH: Plasma proteins act as acid base buffers and thus maintain the blood pH by neutralizing strong acids and bases.
  • Regulation of body temperature: Plasma helps in the uniform distribution of heat all over the body, and in conducting heat to skin for dissipation.
Lymph: It is an interstitial fluid, present between the cells of a tissue. Exchange of metabolites, gases and waste products takes place through the fluid.
Functions of Lymph:

  • It maintains balance between blood and tissue fluid.
  • Add lymphocytes for the release of antibodies.
  • It destroys the invading micro organisms and foreign particles in the lymph nodes.
  • Plasma proteins and some other micromolecules synthesized by liver enter the blood through lymph.
  • Fat is absorbed in the intestine by lymph as chylomicron
  • Some waste products are carried by it into blood.
  • It destroys the invading microorganisms and foreign particles in the lymph nodes.

Plasma vs Lymph

Plasma
Lymph
Cell free part of blood, contains salt, considerable amount of proteins as well as more or less all constituents of the body.
Modified tissue fluid, contains cells like lymphocytes and monocytes, salts and small amount of proteins.
Flows within blood vessels
Flows within lymphatic vessels
Can coagulate because it contains fibrinogen and prothrombin.
Can coagulate but very slowly because it contains these two in small quantities.
Function: Take part in nutrition, excretion, respiration etc. by transporting various materials and defence mechanism body by producing antibodies.
Function: Supplies nutrition to tissue devoid of blood supply, take part in fat absorption and defence mechanism of the body.
Learn more: Blood vs Lymph
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Difference between Compact bone and Spongy bone

On the basis of  the nature of the matrix present, bones are classified into two types:
They are spongy bone and compact bone.
Compact bone or Dense bone or Periosteal bone: 
  • in compact bone the matrix contains no air spaces
  • It is found in the shaft of long bones. 
Spongy bone or Tubecular bone or Cancellous bone:
  • It is found at the ends of long bones, and in the inner parts of round and irregular bones.  
    Compact bone vs Spongy bone
  • Compact Bone vs Spongy Bone
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Lamellae arranged in  regular Haversian systems with canaliculi and Volkman's canal are present.
Lamellae arranged as interlacing network. Haversian systems are absent in the spongy bone
No gaps between lamellae hence compact bone
Small spaces occur between lamellae, hence spongy bone.
It is found in the shaft (diaphysis) of long bones
Forms epiphyses of long bones, besides forming skull bones, vertebrae and ribs
Presence of marrow cavity
Marrow cavity lacking
Marrow cavity has yellow bone marrow.
Compact Bone


Spaces between lamellae contain red marrow 
(Red bone marrow vs Yellow bone marrow)

Marrow stores fat
Marrow produces red corpuscles and granular white corpuscles.
On the basis of  the nature of the matrix present, bones are classified into two types:
They are spongy bone and compact bone.
Compact bone or Dense bone or Periosteal bone: 
  • in compact bone the matrix contains no air spaces
  • It is found in the shaft of long bones. 
Spongy bone or Tubecular bone or Cancellous bone:
  • It is found at the ends of long bones, and in the inner parts of round and irregular bones.  
    Compact bone vs Spongy bone
  • Compact Bone vs Spongy Bone
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Lamellae arranged in  regular Haversian systems with canaliculi and Volkman's canal are present.
Lamellae arranged as interlacing network. Haversian systems are absent in the spongy bone
No gaps between lamellae hence compact bone
Small spaces occur between lamellae, hence spongy bone.
It is found in the shaft (diaphysis) of long bones
Forms epiphyses of long bones, besides forming skull bones, vertebrae and ribs
Presence of marrow cavity
Marrow cavity lacking
Marrow cavity has yellow bone marrow.
Compact Bone


Spaces between lamellae contain red marrow 
(Red bone marrow vs Yellow bone marrow)

Marrow stores fat
Marrow produces red corpuscles and granular white corpuscles.
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Difference between Red bone marrow and Yellow bone marrow

Bone marrow cavity is the cavity present inner to the endosteum. The cavity is filled with a soft and semisolid fatty neurovascular tissue called bone marrow. Bone marrow has haematogenic and osetogenic potentials. Bone marrow is of two types: red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow.
 In spongy bone  tissue the matrix contains many intercommunicating spaces which are filled with red bone marrow. The red bone marrow contains the parent cell that produce blood cells (RBC and WBC).  
In compact bone the matrix contains no air spaces. Long compact bone have a centralc avity called maarow cavity ehich is filled with yellow bone marrow. The yellow bone marrow stores fats.
Red Bone Marrow  vs  Yellow  Bone Marrow
Red Bone marrow vs Yellow Bone marrow
Red Bone Marrow
Yellow Bone Marrow
Red coloured due to erythrocytes.

Yellow coloured due to presence of fat (Adipocytes)
Has few fat cells.
Fat cells are more.
Produces red blood corpuscles.
Produces blood corpuscles in emergency.
During foetal life and at birth it occurs throughout the skeleton.
With age red bone marrow is gradually replaced in the long bones by yellow bone marrow.
Bone marrow cavity is the cavity present inner to the endosteum. The cavity is filled with a soft and semisolid fatty neurovascular tissue called bone marrow. Bone marrow has haematogenic and osetogenic potentials. Bone marrow is of two types: red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow.
 In spongy bone  tissue the matrix contains many intercommunicating spaces which are filled with red bone marrow. The red bone marrow contains the parent cell that produce blood cells (RBC and WBC).  
In compact bone the matrix contains no air spaces. Long compact bone have a centralc avity called maarow cavity ehich is filled with yellow bone marrow. The yellow bone marrow stores fats.
Red Bone Marrow  vs  Yellow  Bone Marrow
Red Bone marrow vs Yellow Bone marrow
Red Bone Marrow
Yellow Bone Marrow
Red coloured due to erythrocytes.

Yellow coloured due to presence of fat (Adipocytes)
Has few fat cells.
Fat cells are more.
Produces red blood corpuscles.
Produces blood corpuscles in emergency.
During foetal life and at birth it occurs throughout the skeleton.
With age red bone marrow is gradually replaced in the long bones by yellow bone marrow.
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Difference between Cilia and Stereocilia

Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia. 
Stereocilia are long cytoplasmic projections that have no motility. In Epididymis stereocilia are present. Some portion of urethra is lined with stereocilia layer
Cilia vs Stereocilia
Cilia 
cilia
Stereocilia
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM WITH STEREOCILIA (Epididymal duct)
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in some parts of male reproductive system (Vas deferens and Epididymis) and some portions of Urethra
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are cylindrical
Function: Movement
for more: Function of cilia
Function:  stereocilia in the epididymis are more like the long, absorptive microvilli.  They increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.

Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia. 
Stereocilia are long cytoplasmic projections that have no motility. In Epididymis stereocilia are present. Some portion of urethra is lined with stereocilia layer
Cilia vs Stereocilia
Cilia 
cilia
Stereocilia
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM WITH STEREOCILIA (Epididymal duct)
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in some parts of male reproductive system (Vas deferens and Epididymis) and some portions of Urethra
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are cylindrical
Function: Movement
for more: Function of cilia
Function:  stereocilia in the epididymis are more like the long, absorptive microvilli.  They increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.

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Difference between Cellulose and Cellulase

Cellulose is the most abundant natural organic compound on earth. On average, cellulose accounts as 50% of the dry weight of plant biomass. It is the major structural homopolysaccharide in higher plants. It is made up of long linear chains of beta glucose units.

Cellulase is an enzyme that breaks down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides such as beta-glucose. It is primarily produced by fungi, bacteria and protozoans.
The three types of reaction catalyzed by cellulases:

1. Breakage of the noncovalent interactions present in the amorphous structure of cellulose (endocellulase) 

2. Hydrolysis of chain ends to break the polymer into smaller sugars (exocellulase) 

3. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and tetrasaccharides into glucose (beta-glucosidase).

Cellulose vs Cellulase
Cellulose(C6H10O5)n
Cellulase
Cellulose is a carbohydrate (Polysaccharide)
Cellulase is an enzyme (Protein)
Made up of beta glucose units
Made up of amino acids
Beta glucose units (monomers) are joined by glycosidic bonds.
Peptide bonds between monomers
Fibrous in nature
Globular in nature
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are absent
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are present.
Alternate beta glucose rotated through 1800
No rotation of amino acids.
Cellulose is the most abundant natural organic compound on earth. On average, cellulose accounts as 50% of the dry weight of plant biomass. It is the major structural homopolysaccharide in higher plants. It is made up of long linear chains of beta glucose units.

Cellulase is an enzyme that breaks down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides such as beta-glucose. It is primarily produced by fungi, bacteria and protozoans.
The three types of reaction catalyzed by cellulases:

1. Breakage of the noncovalent interactions present in the amorphous structure of cellulose (endocellulase) 

2. Hydrolysis of chain ends to break the polymer into smaller sugars (exocellulase) 

3. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and tetrasaccharides into glucose (beta-glucosidase).

Cellulose vs Cellulase
Cellulose(C6H10O5)n
Cellulase
Cellulose is a carbohydrate (Polysaccharide)
Cellulase is an enzyme (Protein)
Made up of beta glucose units
Made up of amino acids
Beta glucose units (monomers) are joined by glycosidic bonds.
Peptide bonds between monomers
Fibrous in nature
Globular in nature
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are absent
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are present.
Alternate beta glucose rotated through 1800
No rotation of amino acids.
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8 Differences between Mitochondria and Peroxisome

Mitochondrion are self duplicating, semi autonomous, double membrane bound, cytoplasmic organelles found in all eukaryotic cells. 
Peroxisomes are microbodies or self duplicating; single membrane bound organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They contain oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and urate oxidase, at such high concentrations.
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes 
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Double membrane bound organelle
Single membrane bound organelle
Semi-autonomous organelle, contains DNA called mt DNA or mitochondrial genome
No DNA
New mitochondrion arise by growth and fission
New peroxisome also  arise by growth and fission
Mitochondrial proteins are coded by both mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA
Peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA
Mitochondrial proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomes inside mitochondrion
Peroxisomal proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Unfolded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins complexes called TIM, TOM and OXA complex
Folded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins coded by PEX genes named peroxins
Import signal sequence is called "mitochondria-targeting sequence" (MTS), which is located at the amino termini or N termini of the preproteins or unfolded protein
Import signal is a  specific sequence of three amino acids located at the C terminus of many peroxisomal proteins
Signal sequences at N terminus are removed after import by a protease called signal peptidase in the mitochondrial matrix.
Generally, Signal sequences are not removed after import
Function: Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis which is used to drive various cellular activities.
Matrix is the site of β oxidation


Functions: Involved many metabolic processes or oxidative reactions, such as β‐oxidation of very long‐chain fatty acids releasing energy,
 and synthesis of plasmalogen, an important membrane component in brain and heart and bile acids as well as generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide during detoxification.
TIM: Translocase Inner Membrane; TOM: Translocase Outer Membrane
Reference:
  • Platta, H. W., & Erdmann, R. (2007). The peroxisomal protein import machinery. FEBS letters, 581(15), 2811-2819.
  • Rehling, P., Wiedemann, N., Pfanner, N., & Truscott, K. N. (2001). The mitochondrial import machinery for preproteins. Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 36(3), 291-336.
  • Fujiki, Yukio, Okumoto, Kanji, and Honsho, Masanori(Apr 2015) Protein Import into Peroxisomes: The Principles and Methods of Studying. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 
Mitochondrion are self duplicating, semi autonomous, double membrane bound, cytoplasmic organelles found in all eukaryotic cells. 
Peroxisomes are microbodies or self duplicating; single membrane bound organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They contain oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and urate oxidase, at such high concentrations.
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes 
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Double membrane bound organelle
Single membrane bound organelle
Semi-autonomous organelle, contains DNA called mt DNA or mitochondrial genome
No DNA
New mitochondrion arise by growth and fission
New peroxisome also  arise by growth and fission
Mitochondrial proteins are coded by both mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA
Peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA
Mitochondrial proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomes inside mitochondrion
Peroxisomal proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Unfolded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins complexes called TIM, TOM and OXA complex
Folded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins coded by PEX genes named peroxins
Import signal sequence is called "mitochondria-targeting sequence" (MTS), which is located at the amino termini or N termini of the preproteins or unfolded protein
Import signal is a  specific sequence of three amino acids located at the C terminus of many peroxisomal proteins
Signal sequences at N terminus are removed after import by a protease called signal peptidase in the mitochondrial matrix.
Generally, Signal sequences are not removed after import
Function: Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis which is used to drive various cellular activities.
Matrix is the site of β oxidation


Functions: Involved many metabolic processes or oxidative reactions, such as β‐oxidation of very long‐chain fatty acids releasing energy,
 and synthesis of plasmalogen, an important membrane component in brain and heart and bile acids as well as generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide during detoxification.
TIM: Translocase Inner Membrane; TOM: Translocase Outer Membrane
Reference:
  • Platta, H. W., & Erdmann, R. (2007). The peroxisomal protein import machinery. FEBS letters, 581(15), 2811-2819.
  • Rehling, P., Wiedemann, N., Pfanner, N., & Truscott, K. N. (2001). The mitochondrial import machinery for preproteins. Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 36(3), 291-336.
  • Fujiki, Yukio, Okumoto, Kanji, and Honsho, Masanori(Apr 2015) Protein Import into Peroxisomes: The Principles and Methods of Studying. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 
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Difference between Hard wood and Soft wood

Hard wood and soft wood is a misnomer as the terms do not actually mean the softness or hardness of wood.

The wood produced by angiosperms is called hard wood. It is composed mainly of vessels and is also called porous wood. The wood produced by gymnosperm is called softwood. It is composed mainly of tracheids and is known as non-porous wood. 
Soft wood vs Hard wood
Hard wood
Porous wood
Angiosperm wood
Soft wood
Non-Porous wood
Gymnosperm wood
 Wood with vessels or pores is called porous wood.
Wood without vessels or pores is called non-porous wood.
  Porous wood is found in angiosperms.                                         
 Non Porous wood is found in gymnosperms.     
 The porous wood of angiosperms is technically called as hard wood.
 The non-porous wood of gymnosperms is technically called as softwood.                  
It possesses vessels, fibres and parenchyma. Tracheids are rare or absent. Tracheid percentage often less than 5%.
It is mainly formed of tracheids and ray cells. Tracheid percentage ranges about 90-95%.
Xylem fibres are plenty.
Fewer Xylem fibres.
Eg: Teak wood
eg: Pinus wood
Hard wood and soft wood is a misnomer as the terms do not actually mean the softness or hardness of wood.

The wood produced by angiosperms is called hard wood. It is composed mainly of vessels and is also called porous wood. The wood produced by gymnosperm is called softwood. It is composed mainly of tracheids and is known as non-porous wood. 
Soft wood vs Hard wood
Hard wood
Porous wood
Angiosperm wood
Soft wood
Non-Porous wood
Gymnosperm wood
 Wood with vessels or pores is called porous wood.
Wood without vessels or pores is called non-porous wood.
  Porous wood is found in angiosperms.                                         
 Non Porous wood is found in gymnosperms.     
 The porous wood of angiosperms is technically called as hard wood.
 The non-porous wood of gymnosperms is technically called as softwood.                  
It possesses vessels, fibres and parenchyma. Tracheids are rare or absent. Tracheid percentage often less than 5%.
It is mainly formed of tracheids and ray cells. Tracheid percentage ranges about 90-95%.
Xylem fibres are plenty.
Fewer Xylem fibres.
Eg: Teak wood
eg: Pinus wood
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Difference between Spring wood and Autumn wood

The activity of the cambium ring is influenced by the climatic charges. Reactivation of the cambium takes place during spring season.  The cambium becomes more active during this season and forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities known as spring wood. It is also known as early wood.  In winter, however, the cambial activity slows down and gives rise to narrower xylem elements. The wood thus formed in winter is called autumn wood. It is also known as late wood.
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood
Autumn Wood
It is formed during spring season
It is formed during winter season.
It constitutes the major part of the annual ring.
It constitutes as a narrow strip in the annual ring.
Spring wood is present in the beginning of an annual ring.
Autumn wood is present a the end of an annual ring.
Forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities.
The cavities of xylem vessels are narrower.
Xylem fibers are fewer in number.
Abundant xylem fibres are produced.
Wood is lighter in colour.
Wood is darker in colour.
It  has a lower density
It has a higher density
It is also called early wood.
It is also called late wood.
The activity of the cambium ring is influenced by the climatic charges. Reactivation of the cambium takes place during spring season.  The cambium becomes more active during this season and forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities known as spring wood. It is also known as early wood.  In winter, however, the cambial activity slows down and gives rise to narrower xylem elements. The wood thus formed in winter is called autumn wood. It is also known as late wood.
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood
Autumn Wood
It is formed during spring season
It is formed during winter season.
It constitutes the major part of the annual ring.
It constitutes as a narrow strip in the annual ring.
Spring wood is present in the beginning of an annual ring.
Autumn wood is present a the end of an annual ring.
Forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities.
The cavities of xylem vessels are narrower.
Xylem fibers are fewer in number.
Abundant xylem fibres are produced.
Wood is lighter in colour.
Wood is darker in colour.
It  has a lower density
It has a higher density
It is also called early wood.
It is also called late wood.
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5 Differences between Chlorosis and Etiolation

Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
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