Difference between B Lymphocytes and T Lymphocytes (B cell vs T cell)

Lymphocytes are mononucleate, nongranular leukocytes of lymphoid tissue, participating in immunity. They are found in blood, lymph and lymphoid  tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches, appendix. etc. 
The lymphocytes are of two types. They are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

Comparison of B and T cells  (B cell vs T cell)
B cells
T cells
Origin : Bone marrow in adults
Origin :Bone marrow in adults
Maturation : Lymphoid tissue or bone marrow; Bursa of Fabricius in birds
Maturation: Thymus
Longevity : Short (Few days to a week)
Longevity :Long (Months to years)
Complement receptors : Present
Complement receptors: Absent
Surface immunoglobulins :Present
Surface immunoglobulins :Absent
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation, differentiate into plasma and memory cells
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation
Type of immunity :  Humoral immunity
Type of immunity ;Cell mediated and humoral
Secretary product :Antibodies
Secretary product : Lymphokines
Distribution :
High in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues, Low in blood
Distribution:
High in blood, lymph and lymphoid tissue
Types and Functions

  • Memory cells- along lived cell responsible for the anamnestic response.
  • Plasma cell- a cell arising from a B cell that manufactures specific antibodies



Types and Functions

  • Tc Cell- Lysis cells recognized as non self and parasite infected cells.
  • TH cell- It is necessary for B cell activation by T-dependent antigens and T effector cell.
  • T regulator cell- It develops into TH or Ts cells and control balance between enhancement and suppression of response to antigen.
  • Ts cell: It blocks induction  and or/ activation of TH cells and B cells. It helps maintain tolerance.
  • TD TH cell: It provides protection against infectious agents, mediates inflammation and activates macrophages in delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Null cells- Lymphocytes that lacks surface cell markers.


Lymphocytes are mononucleate, nongranular leukocytes of lymphoid tissue, participating in immunity. They are found in blood, lymph and lymphoid  tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches, appendix. etc. 
The lymphocytes are of two types. They are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

Comparison of B and T cells  (B cell vs T cell)
B cells
T cells
Origin : Bone marrow in adults
Origin :Bone marrow in adults
Maturation : Lymphoid tissue or bone marrow; Bursa of Fabricius in birds
Maturation: Thymus
Longevity : Short (Few days to a week)
Longevity :Long (Months to years)
Complement receptors : Present
Complement receptors: Absent
Surface immunoglobulins :Present
Surface immunoglobulins :Absent
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation, differentiate into plasma and memory cells
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation
Type of immunity :  Humoral immunity
Type of immunity ;Cell mediated and humoral
Secretary product :Antibodies
Secretary product : Lymphokines
Distribution :
High in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues, Low in blood
Distribution:
High in blood, lymph and lymphoid tissue
Types and Functions

  • Memory cells- along lived cell responsible for the anamnestic response.
  • Plasma cell- a cell arising from a B cell that manufactures specific antibodies



Types and Functions

  • Tc Cell- Lysis cells recognized as non self and parasite infected cells.
  • TH cell- It is necessary for B cell activation by T-dependent antigens and T effector cell.
  • T regulator cell- It develops into TH or Ts cells and control balance between enhancement and suppression of response to antigen.
  • Ts cell: It blocks induction  and or/ activation of TH cells and B cells. It helps maintain tolerance.
  • TD TH cell: It provides protection against infectious agents, mediates inflammation and activates macrophages in delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Null cells- Lymphocytes that lacks surface cell markers.


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Strong Electrolytes vs Weak Electrolytes

Electrolytes are of two types: Strong electrolytes and Weak electrolytes
Strong electrolytes: These are substances which dissociate almost completely in solution and hence conduct electricity to a large extent.
Example of  Strong electrolytes: Strong acids (HNO3, H2SO4 etc, strong bases (NaOH, KOH) etc and salts (KCl, NaCl) etc.

Weak electrolytes:These are substances which undergo only slight dissociation  in solution and hence conduct electricity to a small extent.
Example of  Weak electrolytes: Weak acids(CH3COOH, H2CO3, HCN etc) and weak bases (NH4OH, Ca(OH)2 etc. 
Strong electrolytes vs Weak electrolytes
Strong Electrolytes vs  Weak Electrolytes

Strong electrolytes
Weak electrolytes
1. Completely dissociated at moderate concentrations
Not completely dissociated at moderate concentrations 
2. Conductance increases with dilution but the increase is only slight.
Conductance increases rapidly with dilution especially near infinite dilution
3. There are strong interionic attraction at moderate concentrations.
Interionic attractions are not strong even at higher concentrations
4. The λm vs √c plot is linear at low concentrations.
Variations of molar conductance with concentration
The λm vs √c plot is not linear even at low concentrations.

Here Lm is λm 

Variations of molar conductance with concentration 
Electrolytes are of two types: Strong electrolytes and Weak electrolytes
Strong electrolytes: These are substances which dissociate almost completely in solution and hence conduct electricity to a large extent.
Example of  Strong electrolytes: Strong acids (HNO3, H2SO4 etc, strong bases (NaOH, KOH) etc and salts (KCl, NaCl) etc.

Weak electrolytes:These are substances which undergo only slight dissociation  in solution and hence conduct electricity to a small extent.
Example of  Weak electrolytes: Weak acids(CH3COOH, H2CO3, HCN etc) and weak bases (NH4OH, Ca(OH)2 etc. 
Strong electrolytes vs Weak electrolytes
Strong Electrolytes vs  Weak Electrolytes

Strong electrolytes
Weak electrolytes
1. Completely dissociated at moderate concentrations
Not completely dissociated at moderate concentrations 
2. Conductance increases with dilution but the increase is only slight.
Conductance increases rapidly with dilution especially near infinite dilution
3. There are strong interionic attraction at moderate concentrations.
Interionic attractions are not strong even at higher concentrations
4. The λm vs √c plot is linear at low concentrations.
Variations of molar conductance with concentration
The λm vs √c plot is not linear even at low concentrations.

Here Lm is λm 

Variations of molar conductance with concentration 
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Metallic Conduction vs Electrolytic Conduction

The substances which allow electricity  to pass through them are called conductors. 
 Example of conductors: Metals, bases, salts, Solution of acids.
The conductors are of two types: Metallic conductors and Electrolytic conductors.
Difference between Metallic Conduction and Electrolytic Conduction

a) Metallic conductors or Electronic conductors are substances which allow the passage of electricity through them without undergoing any chemical change. In these, electricity is carried exclusively by the transport of electrons. Hence these are also called electronic conductors.
 Example of Metallic conductors: Alloys, Graphite, Metals
b) Electrolytic Conductors or Ionic conductors  are substances which allow the passage of electricity through them in their molten states or more commonly, in their aqueous solutions and undergo chemical  decomposition. In these, electricity is carried by the movement of positive and negative ions. Hence these are also called ionic conductors.
Example of Electrolytic conductors: Acids, bases and salts.
Metallic Conduction vs Electrolytic Conduction
Metallic Conduction
Electrolytic Conduction
The flow of electric current is due to the flow of electrons.
The flow of electric current is due to the flow of positive and negative ions.
There is no transport of matter during the flow of electricity.
There is actual transport of matter (in the form of ions)during the flow of electricity.
Metallic conduction decreases with increase in temperature.
Electrolytic conduction increases with increase in temperature.
The flow of electricity occurs without any chemical decomposition.
The flow of electricity take place with chemical decomposition of the electrolyte.
The substances which allow electricity  to pass through them are called conductors. 
 Example of conductors: Metals, bases, salts, Solution of acids.
The conductors are of two types: Metallic conductors and Electrolytic conductors.
Difference between Metallic Conduction and Electrolytic Conduction

a) Metallic conductors or Electronic conductors are substances which allow the passage of electricity through them without undergoing any chemical change. In these, electricity is carried exclusively by the transport of electrons. Hence these are also called electronic conductors.
 Example of Metallic conductors: Alloys, Graphite, Metals
b) Electrolytic Conductors or Ionic conductors  are substances which allow the passage of electricity through them in their molten states or more commonly, in their aqueous solutions and undergo chemical  decomposition. In these, electricity is carried by the movement of positive and negative ions. Hence these are also called ionic conductors.
Example of Electrolytic conductors: Acids, bases and salts.
Metallic Conduction vs Electrolytic Conduction
Metallic Conduction
Electrolytic Conduction
The flow of electric current is due to the flow of electrons.
The flow of electric current is due to the flow of positive and negative ions.
There is no transport of matter during the flow of electricity.
There is actual transport of matter (in the form of ions)during the flow of electricity.
Metallic conduction decreases with increase in temperature.
Electrolytic conduction increases with increase in temperature.
The flow of electricity occurs without any chemical decomposition.
The flow of electricity take place with chemical decomposition of the electrolyte.
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Difference between Inductive effect and Resonance effect

Inductive effect vs Resonance effect
Inductive effect vs Resonance effect 
Inductive effect
Resonance effect
Based on electronegativity.
Based on Conjugation.
Electron moves via sigma bonds.
Electron moves via pi bonds or lone pairs.

It involves displacement of only σ electrons and hence occurs only in saturated compounds.
It involves delocalization of π (pi) or n lone pairs of electrons and hence occurs in unsaturated and conjugated systems.
During inductive effect the electron pair is only slightly displaced towards the more electronegative atom and hence only partial positive and negative charges appear.
During resonance effect , the electron pair I completely transferred and hence full positive and negative charges  appear.
Inductive effect are transmitted over short  distance over short distances in saturated carbon chains and the magnitude of the effect decreases rapidly as distance from the heteroatom increases. The effect almost become  negligible beyond three carbon atoms from the heteroatom.
The resonance effect  are transmitted all along the length of the conjugated system without suffering much change in magnitude.
crotonaldehyde resonance effect

 C3 in crotonaldehyde is almost as positive as C1.
Distance short range.
Distance may be long range.
Inductive effect vs Resonance effect
Inductive effect vs Resonance effect 
Inductive effect
Resonance effect
Based on electronegativity.
Based on Conjugation.
Electron moves via sigma bonds.
Electron moves via pi bonds or lone pairs.

It involves displacement of only σ electrons and hence occurs only in saturated compounds.
It involves delocalization of π (pi) or n lone pairs of electrons and hence occurs in unsaturated and conjugated systems.
During inductive effect the electron pair is only slightly displaced towards the more electronegative atom and hence only partial positive and negative charges appear.
During resonance effect , the electron pair I completely transferred and hence full positive and negative charges  appear.
Inductive effect are transmitted over short  distance over short distances in saturated carbon chains and the magnitude of the effect decreases rapidly as distance from the heteroatom increases. The effect almost become  negligible beyond three carbon atoms from the heteroatom.
The resonance effect  are transmitted all along the length of the conjugated system without suffering much change in magnitude.
crotonaldehyde resonance effect

 C3 in crotonaldehyde is almost as positive as C1.
Distance short range.
Distance may be long range.
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Difference between London Smog and Los Angeles Smog (Classical Smog vs Photochemical Smog)

The word smog is combination of smoke and fog. At least two distinct types of smog are recognized: Classical smog and photochemical smog.
Classical  smog is also known as sulfurous smog or London smog. Sulfurous smog, which results from a high concentration of sulfur oxides in the air and is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal.
Photochemical smog: This type of smog was observed in Los Angeles(1940s) and hence named as Los Angeles smog. It is formed when the air contains  NO2 and hydrocarbons and the mixture is exposed to sunlight. As the reaction take place in the presence of light to form the smog, it is called photochemical smog.
London Smog and Los Angeles Smog (Classical Smog vs Photochemical Smog)
London Smog vs Los Angeles Smog (Main constituents and chemistry)
Classical Smog vs Photochemical Smog
London smog
 or 
Classical smog
Los Angeles smog 
or
Photochemical smog
This type of smog is first observed in 1952 in London.
This type of smog was first observed  in 1943 in Los Angeles.
It involves smoke and fog (smog)
The word smog is misnomer here as it does not involve any smoke or fog.
It is formed due to presence of SO2 and humidity in the air which combine to form H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid) fog which deposits on the particulates. Therefore London smog  is also known as Sulfurous smog
It is formed due to photochemical reaction (presence of sunlight) taking place when air contains NO2 and hydrocarbons forming toxic chemicals like peroxyacylnitrates (PAN), Ozone etc.. 
Los Angeles smog is also known as Photochemical smog.
It is reducing* in character. Chemically it is reducing mixture  and hence is called reducing smog.
It is oxidizing* in character. It has high concentration of oxidizing agents hence it is known as oxidizing smog.
It causes bronchitis irritation, i.e., problem in the lungs.
It causes irritation in the eyes.
It is formed in the months of winter particularly in the morning hours when temperature is low.
It is formed in the months of summer during afternoon when there is bright sunlight so that photochemical reactions can take place.
*Reduction: in simple terms addition of hydrogen
*Oxidation: addition of oxygen
The word smog is combination of smoke and fog. At least two distinct types of smog are recognized: Classical smog and photochemical smog.
Classical  smog is also known as sulfurous smog or London smog. Sulfurous smog, which results from a high concentration of sulfur oxides in the air and is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal.
Photochemical smog: This type of smog was observed in Los Angeles(1940s) and hence named as Los Angeles smog. It is formed when the air contains  NO2 and hydrocarbons and the mixture is exposed to sunlight. As the reaction take place in the presence of light to form the smog, it is called photochemical smog.
London Smog and Los Angeles Smog (Classical Smog vs Photochemical Smog)
London Smog vs Los Angeles Smog (Main constituents and chemistry)
Classical Smog vs Photochemical Smog
London smog
 or 
Classical smog
Los Angeles smog 
or
Photochemical smog
This type of smog is first observed in 1952 in London.
This type of smog was first observed  in 1943 in Los Angeles.
It involves smoke and fog (smog)
The word smog is misnomer here as it does not involve any smoke or fog.
It is formed due to presence of SO2 and humidity in the air which combine to form H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid) fog which deposits on the particulates. Therefore London smog  is also known as Sulfurous smog
It is formed due to photochemical reaction (presence of sunlight) taking place when air contains NO2 and hydrocarbons forming toxic chemicals like peroxyacylnitrates (PAN), Ozone etc.. 
Los Angeles smog is also known as Photochemical smog.
It is reducing* in character. Chemically it is reducing mixture  and hence is called reducing smog.
It is oxidizing* in character. It has high concentration of oxidizing agents hence it is known as oxidizing smog.
It causes bronchitis irritation, i.e., problem in the lungs.
It causes irritation in the eyes.
It is formed in the months of winter particularly in the morning hours when temperature is low.
It is formed in the months of summer during afternoon when there is bright sunlight so that photochemical reactions can take place.
*Reduction: in simple terms addition of hydrogen
*Oxidation: addition of oxygen
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6 Differences between Plant cell and Yeast cell

Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany.
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a fungus belongs to the phylum Ascomycota.  Yeast is an unicellular eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. It is a widely studied model organism for understanding the eukaryotic cell structure and function.
Difference between Plant cell and Yeast cell

Plant cell
Yeast cell
Generally multicellular eukaryotic organism
Yeast is unicellular eukaryotic organism
Cell wall is made up of cellulose
Cell wall is primarily made up  of polysaccharides glucans and mannan and small amount of chitin
Plant cell possess chloroplast therefore carrying out photosynthesis (autotrophs)
Chloroplast is absent in yeast cells therefore mostly living as saprophytes (feeding on dead decayed matter) or as parasites (heterotrophs)
In plant cells, phytosterols are associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles
In yeast cells, ergosterol is the most common sterol associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles
In plant cell, starch granules are present as stored food is starch
In yeast cells, glycogen granules are present as stored food is glycogen
Individual cells generally reproduce by mitosis as each cell is a part of multicellular organism
Yeast reproduce by binary fission or budding


Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany.
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a fungus belongs to the phylum Ascomycota.  Yeast is an unicellular eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. It is a widely studied model organism for understanding the eukaryotic cell structure and function.
Difference between Plant cell and Yeast cell

Plant cell
Yeast cell
Generally multicellular eukaryotic organism
Yeast is unicellular eukaryotic organism
Cell wall is made up of cellulose
Cell wall is primarily made up  of polysaccharides glucans and mannan and small amount of chitin
Plant cell possess chloroplast therefore carrying out photosynthesis (autotrophs)
Chloroplast is absent in yeast cells therefore mostly living as saprophytes (feeding on dead decayed matter) or as parasites (heterotrophs)
In plant cells, phytosterols are associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles
In yeast cells, ergosterol is the most common sterol associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles
In plant cell, starch granules are present as stored food is starch
In yeast cells, glycogen granules are present as stored food is glycogen
Individual cells generally reproduce by mitosis as each cell is a part of multicellular organism
Yeast reproduce by binary fission or budding


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5 Differences between Plant cell and Fungal cell

Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany. 
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called mycology. 
6 Differences between Plant cell and Fungal cell
Plant cell  vs Fungal cell
Plant cell
Fungal cell
Plants have definite cell wall.
Fungi may be septate (with internal cross wall) or aseptate (without internal cross  wall).
Plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.
Fungal  cell wall is made up of chitin.
Plant cell generally possess single nucleus per cell
Fungal cell may be uninucleated or multinucleated (many nuclei per cell)
Plant cell possess chloroplast therefore carrying out photosynthesis (autotrophs).
Chloroplast is absent in fungal cells therefore living as saprophytes (feeding on dead decayed matter) or parasites (heterotrophs).
In plant cells, phytosterols are associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles.
In fungal cells, ergosterol is the most common sterol associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles.
In plant cell, starch granules are present as stored food is starch.
In fungal cells, glycogen granules are present as stored food is glycogen.
Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany. 
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called mycology. 
6 Differences between Plant cell and Fungal cell
Plant cell  vs Fungal cell
Plant cell
Fungal cell
Plants have definite cell wall.
Fungi may be septate (with internal cross wall) or aseptate (without internal cross  wall).
Plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.
Fungal  cell wall is made up of chitin.
Plant cell generally possess single nucleus per cell
Fungal cell may be uninucleated or multinucleated (many nuclei per cell)
Plant cell possess chloroplast therefore carrying out photosynthesis (autotrophs).
Chloroplast is absent in fungal cells therefore living as saprophytes (feeding on dead decayed matter) or parasites (heterotrophs).
In plant cells, phytosterols are associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles.
In fungal cells, ergosterol is the most common sterol associated with plasma membrane and membranes of other organelles.
In plant cell, starch granules are present as stored food is starch.
In fungal cells, glycogen granules are present as stored food is glycogen.
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10 Differences between RAM and ROM in Tabular form

There are two types of memory in a computer: RAM (Random Access memory) and ROM (Read Only memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory) is used for booting up the computer and to run initial diagnostics.  Let us take an example, BIOS (basic input and output system) is stored in ROM. BIOS controls everything when the computer is switched on. It checks for hardware errors and load basic software before the operating system takes the control. Simply it is a permanent memory setting for starting the computer.
RAM ((Random Access Memory) load the operating system and drivers for particular devices, load an application program, create, change and store data and shut down the computer. Programs are loaded in RAM that’s why we need to save the data often otherwise it loses data when power is turned off.
RAM vs ROM
10 Differences between RAM and ROM (RAM vs ROM)

RAM
ROM
Stands for Random Access Memory
Stands for Read Only Memory
It keeps operating system, application program, data in use
It contains programs used for booting up the computer and to run initial diagnostics.
Data in RAM can be accessed in any order an can be modified (changed or deleted)
ROM is fixed or data cannot be modified (read only memory)
RAM memory holds data temporarily while the program is being used
ROM is a fixed memory system and virtually indestructible
RAM is volatile (It loses data when power is turned off)
ROM is non-volatile (retains data even when power is off)
Higher units of space recommended up to GB (meant for running application programs)
Storage capacity not an issue as it is not used in running application programs
Cheaper
More expensive
RAM is fast
ROM memory is extremely fast compared to ROM
Types of RAM-dynamic RAM & static RAM
Types of ROM: PROM (programmable read-only memory) like CD ROM, EPROM, (Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory) EEPROM.(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) .
Example of RAM: RAM chips like 2GB, 4GB, 8GB etc of different companies like Corsair, Kingston etc.
Example of ROM: cartridge in video game consoles, computer BIOS.
There are two types of memory in a computer: RAM (Random Access memory) and ROM (Read Only memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory) is used for booting up the computer and to run initial diagnostics.  Let us take an example, BIOS (basic input and output system) is stored in ROM. BIOS controls everything when the computer is switched on. It checks for hardware errors and load basic software before the operating system takes the control. Simply it is a permanent memory setting for starting the computer.
RAM ((Random Access Memory) load the operating system and drivers for particular devices, load an application program, create, change and store data and shut down the computer. Programs are loaded in RAM that’s why we need to save the data often otherwise it loses data when power is turned off.
RAM vs ROM
10 Differences between RAM and ROM (RAM vs ROM)

RAM
ROM
Stands for Random Access Memory
Stands for Read Only Memory
It keeps operating system, application program, data in use
It contains programs used for booting up the computer and to run initial diagnostics.
Data in RAM can be accessed in any order an can be modified (changed or deleted)
ROM is fixed or data cannot be modified (read only memory)
RAM memory holds data temporarily while the program is being used
ROM is a fixed memory system and virtually indestructible
RAM is volatile (It loses data when power is turned off)
ROM is non-volatile (retains data even when power is off)
Higher units of space recommended up to GB (meant for running application programs)
Storage capacity not an issue as it is not used in running application programs
Cheaper
More expensive
RAM is fast
ROM memory is extremely fast compared to ROM
Types of RAM-dynamic RAM & static RAM
Types of ROM: PROM (programmable read-only memory) like CD ROM, EPROM, (Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory) EEPROM.(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) .
Example of RAM: RAM chips like 2GB, 4GB, 8GB etc of different companies like Corsair, Kingston etc.
Example of ROM: cartridge in video game consoles, computer BIOS.
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