Difference between Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain (Citric acid vs ETC)

Difference between Citric acid cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Cellular Respiration is a catabolic process where respiratory substrates like glucose is broken down or oxidised to form carbon dioxide and water with release of energy as ATP. This energy is used to drive all cellular activities.
Stages of Cellular respiration
1. Glycolysis: glucose broken down to two pyruvate molecules
2. Link reaction: Pyruvate transported to mitochondria and converted to Acetyl CoA with the release of CO2
3.Krebs cycle: Acetyl CoA enters krebs cycle by combining with oxaloacetate to form citrate; the first compound formed in Krebs cycle (therefore krebs cycle also called as citric acid cycle)
4. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation: NADH and FADH2 produced in Krebs cycle enters electron transport chain, creating a proton motive force and finally produces ATP with O2 as terminal electron acceptor forming H2O.
Difference between Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain (Citric acid vs ETC)
Krebs Cycle vs Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Electron transport chain occurs in the mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
Net gain of ATP per glucose molecule is 2
Net gain of ATP per glucose molecule is 34 (1 NADH=3 ATP & 1 FADH2=2 ATP)
Reduced NAD and FAD are produced as NADH and FADH2 (6 NADH & 2FADH2 per glucose molecule)
NADH and FADH2 are reoxidised to NAD and FAD
The phosphorylation for ATP synthesis is substrate level phosphorylation
The phosphorylation for ATP synthesis is oxidative phosphorylation
CO2 release or decarboxylation occurs at various steps
No decarboxylation
Chemiosmosis; not involved in ATP production
Chemiosmosis (proton gradient formation and associated ATP synthesis) involved in ATP production
Aerobic process, but oxygen not directly involved. It needs byproducts from ETC like NAD and FAD
Aerobic process; oxygen directly involved as terminal electron acceptor
Carbon dioxide is released as a waste product of these reactions.
Water is released as a waste product of these reactions.
Difference between Citric acid cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Cellular Respiration is a catabolic process where respiratory substrates like glucose is broken down or oxidised to form carbon dioxide and water with release of energy as ATP. This energy is used to drive all cellular activities.
Stages of Cellular respiration
1. Glycolysis: glucose broken down to two pyruvate molecules
2. Link reaction: Pyruvate transported to mitochondria and converted to Acetyl CoA with the release of CO2
3.Krebs cycle: Acetyl CoA enters krebs cycle by combining with oxaloacetate to form citrate; the first compound formed in Krebs cycle (therefore krebs cycle also called as citric acid cycle)
4. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation: NADH and FADH2 produced in Krebs cycle enters electron transport chain, creating a proton motive force and finally produces ATP with O2 as terminal electron acceptor forming H2O.
Difference between Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain (Citric acid vs ETC)
Krebs Cycle vs Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Electron transport chain occurs in the mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
Net gain of ATP per glucose molecule is 2
Net gain of ATP per glucose molecule is 34 (1 NADH=3 ATP & 1 FADH2=2 ATP)
Reduced NAD and FAD are produced as NADH and FADH2 (6 NADH & 2FADH2 per glucose molecule)
NADH and FADH2 are reoxidised to NAD and FAD
The phosphorylation for ATP synthesis is substrate level phosphorylation
The phosphorylation for ATP synthesis is oxidative phosphorylation
CO2 release or decarboxylation occurs at various steps
No decarboxylation
Chemiosmosis; not involved in ATP production
Chemiosmosis (proton gradient formation and associated ATP synthesis) involved in ATP production
Aerobic process, but oxygen not directly involved. It needs byproducts from ETC like NAD and FAD
Aerobic process; oxygen directly involved as terminal electron acceptor
Carbon dioxide is released as a waste product of these reactions.
Water is released as a waste product of these reactions.
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10 Differences between Natural selection and Artificial selection

Both natural selection and artificial selection (selective breeding) can cause changes in animals and plants. Artificial selection is the method of making varieties with desirable traits. Here the individuals with desired character is selected and used them to parent the next generation. Artificial selection has played a crucial role in agriculture for production of high yielding and disease resistant varieties of food crops. In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations that help them to adapt better to an environment.
Natural Selection vs  Artificial Selection
Natural selection vs Artificial selection
Natural selection
Artificial selection
(Selective breeding)
In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations for better survival in an environment
It is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring’s with characters desirable to humans
The nature selects the best or the most favourable variation.
Man selects the desirable characteristic that is to be passed on to the next generation.
Selection pressure is exerted by environmental factors.
Selection pressure is exerted by humans
It always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It may not always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It takes about hundreds of years for new species to emerge.
It leads to the formation of new species in a much shorter time, may be in a few years.
In operates on a wide scale in natural populations
It involves selective breeding of economically important plant and animal populations only
It leads to great diversity in nature.
It promotes evolution of a few economically important plants and animals only.
Genetic diversity remains high
Genetic diversity is lowered
Out breeding is common, leading to hybrid vigour.
Inbreeding is common ensuring preservation of desired trait, leading to loss of vigour in offspring
Proportion of heterozygous in the population remains high.
Proportion of heterozygous in the population is reduced as inbreeding increases homozygosity
Examples: Insecticide resistance, Giraffes long neck, beaks of Darwin’s Finches
Breeding of cows, sheep other domesticated animals
high yielding varieties of wheat, rice etc.
Both natural selection and artificial selection (selective breeding) can cause changes in animals and plants. Artificial selection is the method of making varieties with desirable traits. Here the individuals with desired character is selected and used them to parent the next generation. Artificial selection has played a crucial role in agriculture for production of high yielding and disease resistant varieties of food crops. In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations that help them to adapt better to an environment.
Natural Selection vs  Artificial Selection
Natural selection vs Artificial selection
Natural selection
Artificial selection
(Selective breeding)
In natural selection, nature selects the individuals with favourable variations for better survival in an environment
It is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring’s with characters desirable to humans
The nature selects the best or the most favourable variation.
Man selects the desirable characteristic that is to be passed on to the next generation.
Selection pressure is exerted by environmental factors.
Selection pressure is exerted by humans
It always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It may not always increases the species chance for survival in its natural environment
It takes about hundreds of years for new species to emerge.
It leads to the formation of new species in a much shorter time, may be in a few years.
In operates on a wide scale in natural populations
It involves selective breeding of economically important plant and animal populations only
It leads to great diversity in nature.
It promotes evolution of a few economically important plants and animals only.
Genetic diversity remains high
Genetic diversity is lowered
Out breeding is common, leading to hybrid vigour.
Inbreeding is common ensuring preservation of desired trait, leading to loss of vigour in offspring
Proportion of heterozygous in the population remains high.
Proportion of heterozygous in the population is reduced as inbreeding increases homozygosity
Examples: Insecticide resistance, Giraffes long neck, beaks of Darwin’s Finches
Breeding of cows, sheep other domesticated animals
high yielding varieties of wheat, rice etc.
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Difference between Antibodies and Interferons (Antibodies vs Interferons)

Antibodies are globular proteins produced by the plasma cells of B cells that react specifically with antigen that stimulated their production. Antibodies are made up of light or heavy polypeptide chains. Difference between Antigen and Antibody (Antigen vs Antibody Video)

Interferons are antiviral glycoproteins released by living cells in response to viral attack and induce a viral resistant state to neighbouring cells. Interferons also exhibit anti-microbial and anti-tumor properties.
Difference between Antibodies and Interferons (Antibodies vs Interferons)

Antibodies vs Interferons
Antibodies
Interferons
1. Antibodies are produced by plasma B cells only
Interferons are produced by any microbe infected cell especially virus infected cells
2. Antibodies produced are circulated in blood and lymph to dispose off the antigens.
Interferons released by the infected cell enter the neighbouring healthy cell to enhance their anti-viral defences.
3. They selectively bind to the specific antigens immobilize them for easy engulfing by phagocytes.
They induce the healthy cell to synthesise the antimicrobial proteins such as protein Kinase R thereby preparing cells against viral infection
4. They are slow in action but give a long lasting protection against antigens because of immunologic memory
They are quick in action but give only temporary protection against microbes.
5. They act outside the cells and can directly bind to the epitopes of antigens
They act inside the cells and induce synthesize of many defence proteins finally establishing an anti-viral state
6. They form the body’s third line of defence which involves specific immune response.
They form the body’s second line of defence which involves non-specific response.
7. Different Classes of antibodies:
 IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE etc
Different Classes of Interferons:
 IFα, IFβ, IFϒ etc
Antibodies are globular proteins produced by the plasma cells of B cells that react specifically with antigen that stimulated their production. Antibodies are made up of light or heavy polypeptide chains. Difference between Antigen and Antibody (Antigen vs Antibody Video)

Interferons are antiviral glycoproteins released by living cells in response to viral attack and induce a viral resistant state to neighbouring cells. Interferons also exhibit anti-microbial and anti-tumor properties.
Difference between Antibodies and Interferons (Antibodies vs Interferons)

Antibodies vs Interferons
Antibodies
Interferons
1. Antibodies are produced by plasma B cells only
Interferons are produced by any microbe infected cell especially virus infected cells
2. Antibodies produced are circulated in blood and lymph to dispose off the antigens.
Interferons released by the infected cell enter the neighbouring healthy cell to enhance their anti-viral defences.
3. They selectively bind to the specific antigens immobilize them for easy engulfing by phagocytes.
They induce the healthy cell to synthesise the antimicrobial proteins such as protein Kinase R thereby preparing cells against viral infection
4. They are slow in action but give a long lasting protection against antigens because of immunologic memory
They are quick in action but give only temporary protection against microbes.
5. They act outside the cells and can directly bind to the epitopes of antigens
They act inside the cells and induce synthesize of many defence proteins finally establishing an anti-viral state
6. They form the body’s third line of defence which involves specific immune response.
They form the body’s second line of defence which involves non-specific response.
7. Different Classes of antibodies:
 IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE etc
Different Classes of Interferons:
 IFα, IFβ, IFϒ etc
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10 Differences between Crocodile and Alligator (Crocodile vs Alligator)

The crocodilians includes Crocodiles, Alligators, Gavials, Caimans. Crocodiles has a stout snout. Alligators has a short broad and round snout. Gavialis has  a long narrow slender snout. Crocodiles are the largest living reptiles. They are the most advanced among reptiles. They are mainly found in fresh water. They resembles mammals in the presence of a completely four chambered heart and muscular diaphragm, thecodont teeth and pharyngeal internal nares. They may dig tunnels under water in which nest is build and eggs are laid. They are carnivorous  and feed on fish, occasionally attacking large animals including human beings. 
10 Differences between Crocodile and Alligator (Crocodile vs Alligator)

Comparison Table - Crocodile vs Alligator 
10 Differences between Crocodile and Alligator
Characteristics of Crocodile
1. Found in Asia, Africa, Central America, Malaya, Indonesia and North Australia.
2. Crocodile live in freshwater, They can also live in salt water. 
3. More aggressive, dangerous to man
4. Snout - Moderately long and pointed.
5. Long pointed jaw is V shaped
6. V shaped snout designed for snatching prey.
7. Four mandibular tooth - First into a maxillary groove and visible externally
8. Teeth unequal
9. Body length - 8 metres long
10. Skin color - Olive green with black spot or bands.
Characteristics of Alligator
1. Mostly found in North America and China.
2. Alligator live in fresh water. Lakes, swamps and streams have fresh water.
3. Less aggressive, attack when provoked.
4. Snout - Short and broad.
5. Wide round jaw is U shaped.
6. U shaped snout  designed for more leverage for crushing.
7. Four mandibular tooth -Fits into a pit and not visible externally.
8. Teeth very unequal
9. Body length - 3 metres long
10. Skin color - Steel grey
The crocodilians includes Crocodiles, Alligators, Gavials, Caimans. Crocodiles has a stout snout. Alligators has a short broad and round snout. Gavialis has  a long narrow slender snout. Crocodiles are the largest living reptiles. They are the most advanced among reptiles. They are mainly found in fresh water. They resembles mammals in the presence of a completely four chambered heart and muscular diaphragm, thecodont teeth and pharyngeal internal nares. They may dig tunnels under water in which nest is build and eggs are laid. They are carnivorous  and feed on fish, occasionally attacking large animals including human beings. 
10 Differences between Crocodile and Alligator (Crocodile vs Alligator)

Comparison Table - Crocodile vs Alligator 
10 Differences between Crocodile and Alligator
Characteristics of Crocodile
1. Found in Asia, Africa, Central America, Malaya, Indonesia and North Australia.
2. Crocodile live in freshwater, They can also live in salt water. 
3. More aggressive, dangerous to man
4. Snout - Moderately long and pointed.
5. Long pointed jaw is V shaped
6. V shaped snout designed for snatching prey.
7. Four mandibular tooth - First into a maxillary groove and visible externally
8. Teeth unequal
9. Body length - 8 metres long
10. Skin color - Olive green with black spot or bands.
Characteristics of Alligator
1. Mostly found in North America and China.
2. Alligator live in fresh water. Lakes, swamps and streams have fresh water.
3. Less aggressive, attack when provoked.
4. Snout - Short and broad.
5. Wide round jaw is U shaped.
6. U shaped snout  designed for more leverage for crushing.
7. Four mandibular tooth -Fits into a pit and not visible externally.
8. Teeth very unequal
9. Body length - 3 metres long
10. Skin color - Steel grey
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Difference between Turtle and Tortoise (Turtle vs Tortoise)

Reptiles represents the first class of vertebrates fully adapted for life in dry places on land. The characters of reptiles are in fact a combination of characters that are found in fish and amphibians on one hand and in  birds and mammals on the other. They are about 7000 species of living reptiles. The study of reptiles are called herpetology (Greek; herpeton, reptiles). Reptiles are abundant in the tropical regions. Very few are found in the colder parts of the temperature region and none in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Most reptiles are carnivorous or insectivores. Tortoises are herbivorous.
Turtle vs Tortoise (Comparison Table - 5 Differences between Turtle and Tortoise)
The names turtles and tortoise are often used interchangeably. However the term turtle is usually applied to the aquatic or semi aquatic forms and tortoise are land dwelling reptiles.
Difference between Turtle and Tortoise (Turtle vs Tortoise) - Comparison table
 Characteristics of Turtle
1. It is an aquatic and marine form.
2. It is comparatively smaller in size.
3. Turtle has heart shaped carapace.
4. Fore and hind limbs are modified into paddles.
5. Head of turtle is partially withdrawn into the shell.
6. Some turtle are flesh eaters.
Example of Turtle: Chelonia mydas is commonly called as green turtle.
Characteristics of Tortoise
1. It is a semi terrestrial and fresh water form.
2. It is usually large in size.
 3. Tortoise bears somewhat ovoid carapace (top    shell).
 4. Fore and hind limbs are not modified into paddles.
 5. Head of the tortoise can be completely withdraw onto the shell.
6. Tortoises are herbivorous. They feed almost entirely on vegetation.
Example of Tortoise: Testudo is common called land tortoise. 
Reptiles represents the first class of vertebrates fully adapted for life in dry places on land. The characters of reptiles are in fact a combination of characters that are found in fish and amphibians on one hand and in  birds and mammals on the other. They are about 7000 species of living reptiles. The study of reptiles are called herpetology (Greek; herpeton, reptiles). Reptiles are abundant in the tropical regions. Very few are found in the colder parts of the temperature region and none in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Most reptiles are carnivorous or insectivores. Tortoises are herbivorous.
Turtle vs Tortoise (Comparison Table - 5 Differences between Turtle and Tortoise)
The names turtles and tortoise are often used interchangeably. However the term turtle is usually applied to the aquatic or semi aquatic forms and tortoise are land dwelling reptiles.
Difference between Turtle and Tortoise (Turtle vs Tortoise) - Comparison table
 Characteristics of Turtle
1. It is an aquatic and marine form.
2. It is comparatively smaller in size.
3. Turtle has heart shaped carapace.
4. Fore and hind limbs are modified into paddles.
5. Head of turtle is partially withdrawn into the shell.
6. Some turtle are flesh eaters.
Example of Turtle: Chelonia mydas is commonly called as green turtle.
Characteristics of Tortoise
1. It is a semi terrestrial and fresh water form.
2. It is usually large in size.
 3. Tortoise bears somewhat ovoid carapace (top    shell).
 4. Fore and hind limbs are not modified into paddles.
 5. Head of the tortoise can be completely withdraw onto the shell.
6. Tortoises are herbivorous. They feed almost entirely on vegetation.
Example of Tortoise: Testudo is common called land tortoise. 
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10 Differences between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus)

When balanced diet is not consumed by a person for a sufficient length of time, it leads to nutritional deficiencies or disorders. The nutritional status is called malnutrition. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). PEM is classified as Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Kwashiorkor or edematous PEM and Marasmus (Greek; “waste”) is nonedematous PEM.

Difference Between Marasmus And Kwashiorkor In Table Form
Kwashiorkor is an African word that means weaning disease. It is a protein energy malnutrition (PEM). It occurs due to deficiency of proteins in the diet of children, through the diet may contain adequate amount of carbohydrates. It is most common among children between 1 to 3 years of age. The symptoms of Kwashiorkor are oedema, stunted growth, mental retardation, wrinkled skin, thin legs, bulged eyes, protruded belly etc.
Marasmus: It is a form of prolonged malnutrition. It affects infants under one year of age. It occurs due to deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. The symptoms of Marasmus are physical weakness, flabby body, elevated ribs, depressed eyes, dry skin etc. 
                                                  Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus
Characteristics of Kwashiorkor
1. It develops in children whose diets are deficient of protein.
2. It occurs in children between 6 months and 3 years of age.
3. Subcutaneous fat is preserved.
4. Oedema is present.
5. Enlarged fatty liver.
6. Ribs are not very prominent.
7. Lethargic
8. Muscle wasting mild or absent.
9. Poor appetite.
10. The person suffering from Kwashiorkor needs adequate amounts of proteins.

Characteristics of Marasmus
1. It is due to deficiency of proteins and calories.
2. It is common in infants under 1 year of age.
3. Subcutaneous fat is not preserved.
4. Oedema is absent
5. No fatty liver.
6. Ribs become very prominent.
7. Alert and irritable.
8. Severe muscle wasting
9. Voracious feeder.
10. The person suffering from Marasmus needs adequate amount of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
When balanced diet is not consumed by a person for a sufficient length of time, it leads to nutritional deficiencies or disorders. The nutritional status is called malnutrition. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). PEM is classified as Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Kwashiorkor or edematous PEM and Marasmus (Greek; “waste”) is nonedematous PEM.

Difference Between Marasmus And Kwashiorkor In Table Form
Kwashiorkor is an African word that means weaning disease. It is a protein energy malnutrition (PEM). It occurs due to deficiency of proteins in the diet of children, through the diet may contain adequate amount of carbohydrates. It is most common among children between 1 to 3 years of age. The symptoms of Kwashiorkor are oedema, stunted growth, mental retardation, wrinkled skin, thin legs, bulged eyes, protruded belly etc.
Marasmus: It is a form of prolonged malnutrition. It affects infants under one year of age. It occurs due to deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. The symptoms of Marasmus are physical weakness, flabby body, elevated ribs, depressed eyes, dry skin etc. 
                                                  Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus
Characteristics of Kwashiorkor
1. It develops in children whose diets are deficient of protein.
2. It occurs in children between 6 months and 3 years of age.
3. Subcutaneous fat is preserved.
4. Oedema is present.
5. Enlarged fatty liver.
6. Ribs are not very prominent.
7. Lethargic
8. Muscle wasting mild or absent.
9. Poor appetite.
10. The person suffering from Kwashiorkor needs adequate amounts of proteins.

Characteristics of Marasmus
1. It is due to deficiency of proteins and calories.
2. It is common in infants under 1 year of age.
3. Subcutaneous fat is not preserved.
4. Oedema is absent
5. No fatty liver.
6. Ribs become very prominent.
7. Alert and irritable.
8. Severe muscle wasting
9. Voracious feeder.
10. The person suffering from Marasmus needs adequate amount of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
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Difference between External Fertilization and Internal Fertilization (External fertilization vs Internal fertilization)

Fertilization is defined as the fusion of male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete (an ovum or egg) to form a zygote during sexual reproduction. 
Two types of fertilization: External and Internal.
External fertilization vs Internal fertilization
External fertilization
Internal fertilization 
 The fusion of male gamete and female gamete occurs outside the body
The fusion of gametes occurs inside the body.
 Both individuals discharge their gametes outside the body. 
 Only male discharges sperms into female genital tract.
Development occur outside the body. 
 Development occurs inside the body.

External fertilization occurs in Fish, Toads, and Frogs (Amphibians). 
 Internal fertilization occurs in Human, cattle, Birds etc. The site of fertilization in human beings is in the fallopian tube of female reproductive system. 
Difference between External Fertilization and Internal Fertilization (External fertilization vs Internal fertilization)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Fertilization and External fertilization
Internal fertilization Advantages: 
  • More offspring survive due to protection of embryo and parental care.
  • High chance of successful fertilization. 
Internal fertilization Disadvantages:
  • Requires more energy to find a mate.
  • less number of offspring produced.
  • Large investment from female parent, may leave her vulnerable. 
External Fertilization Advantages: 
  • Little energy needed to find a mate.
  • Many offspring produced.
  • Offspring not in competition with parents.
External Fertilization Disadvantages: 
  • Many gametes do not survive or are not fertilized.
  • Zygotes and embryos are unprotected. 
  • No parental care mean many offspring do not survive to adulthood.
Fertilization is defined as the fusion of male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete (an ovum or egg) to form a zygote during sexual reproduction. 
Two types of fertilization: External and Internal.
External fertilization vs Internal fertilization
External fertilization
Internal fertilization 
 The fusion of male gamete and female gamete occurs outside the body
The fusion of gametes occurs inside the body.
 Both individuals discharge their gametes outside the body. 
 Only male discharges sperms into female genital tract.
Development occur outside the body. 
 Development occurs inside the body.

External fertilization occurs in Fish, Toads, and Frogs (Amphibians). 
 Internal fertilization occurs in Human, cattle, Birds etc. The site of fertilization in human beings is in the fallopian tube of female reproductive system. 
Difference between External Fertilization and Internal Fertilization (External fertilization vs Internal fertilization)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Fertilization and External fertilization
Internal fertilization Advantages: 
  • More offspring survive due to protection of embryo and parental care.
  • High chance of successful fertilization. 
Internal fertilization Disadvantages:
  • Requires more energy to find a mate.
  • less number of offspring produced.
  • Large investment from female parent, may leave her vulnerable. 
External Fertilization Advantages: 
  • Little energy needed to find a mate.
  • Many offspring produced.
  • Offspring not in competition with parents.
External Fertilization Disadvantages: 
  • Many gametes do not survive or are not fertilized.
  • Zygotes and embryos are unprotected. 
  • No parental care mean many offspring do not survive to adulthood.
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Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas Table (Solids vs Liquids vs Gases)

Define matter: All things around us that occupy space and have mass are known as matter.

Example of matter: Air we breath, Water we drink, the food we eat, stones, clouds, stars, plants and animals, even a small drop of water or a particle of sand – every thing is matter

Matter around us exists in three different states– solid, liquid and gas. These states of matter arise due to the variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter.
With the advancement of physical science, scientists are talking of five states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma and BoseEinstein Condensate.

States of Matter -Solid, Liquid and Gas
Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas in Tabular form
Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas in Tabular form
Solids vs Liquids vs Gases
Characteristics of Solids:
1. Volume: Definite volume, as intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are very strong.
2. Diffusion: Can diffuse into liquids.
3. Compressibility : Negligible
4. Rigidity or Fluidity : Very rigid and cannot flow
5. Density: High
6. Shape: They have a definite shape
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Least energy
8. Interparticle space: Least
9. Interparticle force of attraction: Very strong
10. Intermolecular forces: Strong enough to hold the constituent particles in fixed positions.
11. Arrangement of molecules: Packed in definite pattern so they possess a definite geometry.

Characteristics of Liquids:
1. Volume: Definite volume, as intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are strong.
2. Diffusion: Diffusion is higher than solids.
3. Compressibility: Negligible
4. Rigidity or Fluidity: Less rigid and can flow easily.
5. Density:Moderate
6. Shape: They do not have a definite shape.
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Higher than solids
8. Interparticle space: Lesser
9. Interparticle force of attraction: Less strong
10. Intermolecular forces: Strong enough to hold the constituent particles in aggregation within the bulk but not in  fixed positions.
11. Arrangement of molecules: Packed weak in comparison to solids, shape not fixed.

Characteristics of Gases:
1. Volume: No definite volume, as  intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are weak.
2. Diffusion: Highly diffusible as particles move randomly at high speed.
3. Compressibility: High
4. Rigidity or Fluidity: No rigidity and can flow most easily.
5. Density: Low
6. Shape: They do not have a definite shape.
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Maximum energy
8. Interparticle space:More than others
9. Interparticle force of attraction:Weak
10. Intermolecular forces: Extremely low, so that the constituent particles are free to move in a continuous random motion.
11. Arrangement of molecules:Packed very poorly so they fill the container, no definite shape. 
Define matter: All things around us that occupy space and have mass are known as matter.

Example of matter: Air we breath, Water we drink, the food we eat, stones, clouds, stars, plants and animals, even a small drop of water or a particle of sand – every thing is matter

Matter around us exists in three different states– solid, liquid and gas. These states of matter arise due to the variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter.
With the advancement of physical science, scientists are talking of five states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma and BoseEinstein Condensate.

States of Matter -Solid, Liquid and Gas
Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas in Tabular form
Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas in Tabular form
Solids vs Liquids vs Gases
Characteristics of Solids:
1. Volume: Definite volume, as intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are very strong.
2. Diffusion: Can diffuse into liquids.
3. Compressibility : Negligible
4. Rigidity or Fluidity : Very rigid and cannot flow
5. Density: High
6. Shape: They have a definite shape
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Least energy
8. Interparticle space: Least
9. Interparticle force of attraction: Very strong
10. Intermolecular forces: Strong enough to hold the constituent particles in fixed positions.
11. Arrangement of molecules: Packed in definite pattern so they possess a definite geometry.

Characteristics of Liquids:
1. Volume: Definite volume, as intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are strong.
2. Diffusion: Diffusion is higher than solids.
3. Compressibility: Negligible
4. Rigidity or Fluidity: Less rigid and can flow easily.
5. Density:Moderate
6. Shape: They do not have a definite shape.
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Higher than solids
8. Interparticle space: Lesser
9. Interparticle force of attraction: Less strong
10. Intermolecular forces: Strong enough to hold the constituent particles in aggregation within the bulk but not in  fixed positions.
11. Arrangement of molecules: Packed weak in comparison to solids, shape not fixed.

Characteristics of Gases:
1. Volume: No definite volume, as  intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are weak.
2. Diffusion: Highly diffusible as particles move randomly at high speed.
3. Compressibility: High
4. Rigidity or Fluidity: No rigidity and can flow most easily.
5. Density: Low
6. Shape: They do not have a definite shape.
7. Kinetic energy of particles at a given temperature: Maximum energy
8. Interparticle space:More than others
9. Interparticle force of attraction:Weak
10. Intermolecular forces: Extremely low, so that the constituent particles are free to move in a continuous random motion.
11. Arrangement of molecules:Packed very poorly so they fill the container, no definite shape. 
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Difference between B Lymphocytes and T Lymphocytes (B cell vs T cell)

Lymphocytes are mononucleate, nongranular leukocytes of lymphoid tissue, participating in immunity. They are found in blood, lymph and lymphoid  tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches, appendix. etc. 
The lymphocytes are of two types. They are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

Comparison of B and T cells  (B cell vs T cell)
B cells
T cells
Origin : Bone marrow in adults
Origin :Bone marrow in adults
Maturation : Lymphoid tissue or bone marrow; Bursa of Fabricius in birds
Maturation: Thymus
Longevity : Short (Few days to a week)
Longevity :Long (Months to years)
Complement receptors : Present
Complement receptors: Absent
Surface immunoglobulins :Present
Surface immunoglobulins :Absent
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation, differentiate into plasma and memory cells
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation
Type of immunity :  Humoral immunity
Type of immunity ;Cell mediated and humoral
Secretary product :Antibodies
Secretary product : Lymphokines
Distribution :
High in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues, Low in blood
Distribution:
High in blood, lymph and lymphoid tissue
Types and Functions

  • Memory cells- along lived cell responsible for the anamnestic response.
  • Plasma cell- a cell arising from a B cell that manufactures specific antibodies



Types and Functions

  • Tc Cell- Lysis cells recognized as non self and parasite infected cells.
  • TH cell- It is necessary for B cell activation by T-dependent antigens and T effector cell.
  • T regulator cell- It develops into TH or Ts cells and control balance between enhancement and suppression of response to antigen.
  • Ts cell: It blocks induction  and or/ activation of TH cells and B cells. It helps maintain tolerance.
  • TD TH cell: It provides protection against infectious agents, mediates inflammation and activates macrophages in delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Null cells- Lymphocytes that lacks surface cell markers.


Lymphocytes are mononucleate, nongranular leukocytes of lymphoid tissue, participating in immunity. They are found in blood, lymph and lymphoid  tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches, appendix. etc. 
The lymphocytes are of two types. They are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

Comparison of B and T cells  (B cell vs T cell)
B cells
T cells
Origin : Bone marrow in adults
Origin :Bone marrow in adults
Maturation : Lymphoid tissue or bone marrow; Bursa of Fabricius in birds
Maturation: Thymus
Longevity : Short (Few days to a week)
Longevity :Long (Months to years)
Complement receptors : Present
Complement receptors: Absent
Surface immunoglobulins :Present
Surface immunoglobulins :Absent
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation, differentiate into plasma and memory cells
Proliferation : Proliferate upon antigenic stimulation
Type of immunity :  Humoral immunity
Type of immunity ;Cell mediated and humoral
Secretary product :Antibodies
Secretary product : Lymphokines
Distribution :
High in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues, Low in blood
Distribution:
High in blood, lymph and lymphoid tissue
Types and Functions

  • Memory cells- along lived cell responsible for the anamnestic response.
  • Plasma cell- a cell arising from a B cell that manufactures specific antibodies



Types and Functions

  • Tc Cell- Lysis cells recognized as non self and parasite infected cells.
  • TH cell- It is necessary for B cell activation by T-dependent antigens and T effector cell.
  • T regulator cell- It develops into TH or Ts cells and control balance between enhancement and suppression of response to antigen.
  • Ts cell: It blocks induction  and or/ activation of TH cells and B cells. It helps maintain tolerance.
  • TD TH cell: It provides protection against infectious agents, mediates inflammation and activates macrophages in delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Null cells- Lymphocytes that lacks surface cell markers.


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