15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus

How is Bacteria different from Virus?
Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in a variety of environments such as extreme cold and heat conditions or even within an organism.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which require a living host for its survival. The debate on the status of virus as living or non-living is still open. Undoubtedly, viruses can be considered as sub-cellular particles that exhibit some properties of life.
15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus
Bacteria
Virus
Unicellular prokaryotes (without a true nucleus)
Sub cellular or acellular particles or without cellular organization
Visible under compound light microscope (~200-5000 nm in diameter)
Only visible under electron microscope (~20 to 400 nm in diameter)
Can live inside or outside host. Living in a variety of environments.
Strict intracellular infectious agents, always requires a living host.
Bacteria are living unicellular organism exhibiting properties of life such as cellular organization, metabolism, reproduction, homeostasis etc.
Viruses are considered as a border line between living and non-living things. It exhibits some properties of life such as presence of genetic material, ability to replicate inside the host, response to heat, chemicals etc. See more: Are viruses living or non-living?
Bacteria are living and cannot be crystallized.
Virus can be crystallized preserving their living properties.
Basic bacterial shapes are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spiral (twisted).
Viral shape: helical, cubical, binal or complex symmetry
A typical prokaryotic cell with DNA, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, peptidoglycan cell wall and flagella
No cells. Only genetic material surrounded by a protein coat called capsid. In some viruses like HIV, an outer envelope is present outside capsid.
Genetic material is always DNA
Genetic material can be DNA or RNA, never both together
DNA is always double stranded
DNA or RNA can be single stranded or double stranded
Cellular machinery for DNA replication and protein synthesis.
No cellular machinery. Replication of genetic material and protein synthesis using machinery of the host
Reproduce by itself by binary fission, an asexual reproduction method
Inject genetic material into the host and replicates inside the host using hosts cellular machinery; either causing breakage of cell releasing intact infectious virions (lytic cycle) or attaching to the host genome as prophage and replicate along with host genome replication (lysogenic cycle)
The majority of bacteria ~90% are harmless, or beneficial, or even essential to life. Only less than 10% are harmful and disease causing.
Viruses are harmful infectious agents. But genetically engineered viruses are widely used in rDNA technology and gene therapy as vectors. Lentivirus in gene therapy and phage vectors like cosmid in rDNA technology
Bacteria often cause localized infection (in one part of the body or confined to an organ) and often associated with fever. Eg: Skin infection(eczema),wound infection
Virus often cause systemic infection (spreads throughout the body) and may or may not induce fever. Eg: AIDS
Bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics Eg: Penicillin, Amoxicillin etc
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Vaccines are widely used to prevent viral infection.
Eg: Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine
Common Bacterial diseases:
Food poisoning: Escherichia coli 
Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Common Viral diseases:
Common cold: Corona virus, Rhino virus etc
Chickenpox caused by Varicella zoster virus

How is Bacteria different from Virus?
Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in a variety of environments such as extreme cold and heat conditions or even within an organism.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which require a living host for its survival. The debate on the status of virus as living or non-living is still open. Undoubtedly, viruses can be considered as sub-cellular particles that exhibit some properties of life.
15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus
Bacteria
Virus
Unicellular prokaryotes (without a true nucleus)
Sub cellular or acellular particles or without cellular organization
Visible under compound light microscope (~200-5000 nm in diameter)
Only visible under electron microscope (~20 to 400 nm in diameter)
Can live inside or outside host. Living in a variety of environments.
Strict intracellular infectious agents, always requires a living host.
Bacteria are living unicellular organism exhibiting properties of life such as cellular organization, metabolism, reproduction, homeostasis etc.
Viruses are considered as a border line between living and non-living things. It exhibits some properties of life such as presence of genetic material, ability to replicate inside the host, response to heat, chemicals etc. See more: Are viruses living or non-living?
Bacteria are living and cannot be crystallized.
Virus can be crystallized preserving their living properties.
Basic bacterial shapes are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spiral (twisted).
Viral shape: helical, cubical, binal or complex symmetry
A typical prokaryotic cell with DNA, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, peptidoglycan cell wall and flagella
No cells. Only genetic material surrounded by a protein coat called capsid. In some viruses like HIV, an outer envelope is present outside capsid.
Genetic material is always DNA
Genetic material can be DNA or RNA, never both together
DNA is always double stranded
DNA or RNA can be single stranded or double stranded
Cellular machinery for DNA replication and protein synthesis.
No cellular machinery. Replication of genetic material and protein synthesis using machinery of the host
Reproduce by itself by binary fission, an asexual reproduction method
Inject genetic material into the host and replicates inside the host using hosts cellular machinery; either causing breakage of cell releasing intact infectious virions (lytic cycle) or attaching to the host genome as prophage and replicate along with host genome replication (lysogenic cycle)
The majority of bacteria ~90% are harmless, or beneficial, or even essential to life. Only less than 10% are harmful and disease causing.
Viruses are harmful infectious agents. But genetically engineered viruses are widely used in rDNA technology and gene therapy as vectors. Lentivirus in gene therapy and phage vectors like cosmid in rDNA technology
Bacteria often cause localized infection (in one part of the body or confined to an organ) and often associated with fever. Eg: Skin infection(eczema),wound infection
Virus often cause systemic infection (spreads throughout the body) and may or may not induce fever. Eg: AIDS
Bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics Eg: Penicillin, Amoxicillin etc
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Vaccines are widely used to prevent viral infection.
Eg: Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine
Common Bacterial diseases:
Food poisoning: Escherichia coli 
Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Common Viral diseases:
Common cold: Corona virus, Rhino virus etc
Chickenpox caused by Varicella zoster virus

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7 Differences between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Cell membrane or plasma membrane is thin, outermost boundary in animal cell as animal cell lacks cell wall. In plant cell it is seen inner to cell wall. Each cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is made up of lipids, proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. There are two types of proteins on the plasma membrane based on its location.
1) Intrinsic or Integral or internal proteins
2) Extrinsic, peripheral or external proteins
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Proteins
 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Extrinsic Proteins or Peripheral protein
Intrinsic Proteins or Integral proteins
They occur on the surface of the plasma membrane.
They are embedded in the plasma membrane either partially or completely sometimes span the membrane many times.
External proteins are hardly 30% of the total membrane proteins.
They constitute 70% of the total membrane proteins.
They are more hydrophilic and less hydrophobic
They are more hydrophobic and less hydrophilic towards the
They are loosely bounded to the lipid bilayer by weak non-covalent molecular attractions (ionic, hydrogen, and/or Van der Waals bonds) without much contact with the hydrophobic core.
They are embedded in the lipid bilayer firmly having direct contact with the hydrophobic core. These proteins contain non-polar sequences that are hydrophobically bonded to the lipid bilayer.
Easily removed with mild treatment such as shaking with a dilute salt solution.
Difficult to separate from the cell membranes and removal of such proteins using detergents from the membrane often destroys the membrane structure.
They function as receptors, antigens, recognition centres etc.
They function as carrier proteins, enzymes, transport channels (translocases), permeases.
Example: Erythrocyte spectrin, mitochondrial cytochrome c in Electron transport chain
Example: Glycophorin, Rhodopsin, NADH dehydrogenase in ETC
Cell membrane or plasma membrane is thin, outermost boundary in animal cell as animal cell lacks cell wall. In plant cell it is seen inner to cell wall. Each cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is made up of lipids, proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. There are two types of proteins on the plasma membrane based on its location.
1) Intrinsic or Integral or internal proteins
2) Extrinsic, peripheral or external proteins
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Proteins
 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Extrinsic Proteins or Peripheral protein
Intrinsic Proteins or Integral proteins
They occur on the surface of the plasma membrane.
They are embedded in the plasma membrane either partially or completely sometimes span the membrane many times.
External proteins are hardly 30% of the total membrane proteins.
They constitute 70% of the total membrane proteins.
They are more hydrophilic and less hydrophobic
They are more hydrophobic and less hydrophilic towards the
They are loosely bounded to the lipid bilayer by weak non-covalent molecular attractions (ionic, hydrogen, and/or Van der Waals bonds) without much contact with the hydrophobic core.
They are embedded in the lipid bilayer firmly having direct contact with the hydrophobic core. These proteins contain non-polar sequences that are hydrophobically bonded to the lipid bilayer.
Easily removed with mild treatment such as shaking with a dilute salt solution.
Difficult to separate from the cell membranes and removal of such proteins using detergents from the membrane often destroys the membrane structure.
They function as receptors, antigens, recognition centres etc.
They function as carrier proteins, enzymes, transport channels (translocases), permeases.
Example: Erythrocyte spectrin, mitochondrial cytochrome c in Electron transport chain
Example: Glycophorin, Rhodopsin, NADH dehydrogenase in ETC
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10 Differences between Southern Blotting and Western Blotting

Southern blotting: The Southern blot is used to detect the presence of a particular DNA fragment in a sample.The technique was developed by E.M. Southern in 1975.

Western Blotting: Technique for detecting specific proteins separated by electrophoresis by use of labelled antibodies. The technique was developed by Towbin et al in 1979.
 Southern Blotting VS Western Blotting
Southern Blotting
Western Blotting
Technique for the identification of specific DNA in a sample
Technique for the identification of specific protein in a sample
Developed by E.M. Southern therefore called “ Southern”
The term “Western” has no scientific significance just a misnomer to match with Southern blotting
Principle is Hybridization; the process of forming a double-stranded DNA molecule between a single-stranded DNA probe and a single-stranded target DNA. (Southern Blotting Steps)
Principle: Antigen-antibody interaction, an immunodetection method

(Refer: Western Blotting)
Probe used is single stranded DNA or sometimes RNA
Probe used is antibodies specifically targeted against epitopes of antigens
DNA-DNA hybridization or RNA-DNA hybridization
Antibody-antigen complex formation
DNA fragments separated by Agarose gel electrophoresis
Proteins separated by SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate-PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis)
DNA is denatured with an alkaline solution such as NaOH before blotting. This causes the double stranded to become single-stranded.

SDS denatures protein and imparts an overall negative charge
No such step as blocking
(SouthernBlotting- Principle, Procedure and Applications)
Blocking nonspecific antibody sites on the nitrocellulose paper with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or milk powder
ssDNA or rarely RNA as probe
Probe include primary antibody followed by labelled secondary antibody
Common labeling methods include radio labeling or fluorescent labeling or use of chromogenic dyes.

Common labeling methods include horseradish peroxidase-anti-Ig conjugate or formation of a diaminobenzidine (DAB) precipitate (chromogenic dye), radiolabelling or use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibody.
Southern blotting: The Southern blot is used to detect the presence of a particular DNA fragment in a sample.The technique was developed by E.M. Southern in 1975.

Western Blotting: Technique for detecting specific proteins separated by electrophoresis by use of labelled antibodies. The technique was developed by Towbin et al in 1979.
 Southern Blotting VS Western Blotting
Southern Blotting
Western Blotting
Technique for the identification of specific DNA in a sample
Technique for the identification of specific protein in a sample
Developed by E.M. Southern therefore called “ Southern”
The term “Western” has no scientific significance just a misnomer to match with Southern blotting
Principle is Hybridization; the process of forming a double-stranded DNA molecule between a single-stranded DNA probe and a single-stranded target DNA. (Southern Blotting Steps)
Principle: Antigen-antibody interaction, an immunodetection method

(Refer: Western Blotting)
Probe used is single stranded DNA or sometimes RNA
Probe used is antibodies specifically targeted against epitopes of antigens
DNA-DNA hybridization or RNA-DNA hybridization
Antibody-antigen complex formation
DNA fragments separated by Agarose gel electrophoresis
Proteins separated by SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate-PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis)
DNA is denatured with an alkaline solution such as NaOH before blotting. This causes the double stranded to become single-stranded.

SDS denatures protein and imparts an overall negative charge
No such step as blocking
(SouthernBlotting- Principle, Procedure and Applications)
Blocking nonspecific antibody sites on the nitrocellulose paper with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or milk powder
ssDNA or rarely RNA as probe
Probe include primary antibody followed by labelled secondary antibody
Common labeling methods include radio labeling or fluorescent labeling or use of chromogenic dyes.

Common labeling methods include horseradish peroxidase-anti-Ig conjugate or formation of a diaminobenzidine (DAB) precipitate (chromogenic dye), radiolabelling or use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibody.
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9 Differences between Sympathetic Nervous system and Parasympathetic Nervous System

In man, the nervous system consists of central nervous system (CNS), autonomic nervous system (PNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS).  Central nerves system (CNS) includes brain and spinal cord, peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes nerve chains on either side of the vertebral column. It includes sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

The ANS regulates the internal environment of the animal’s body by controlling smooth and cardiac muscles and other involuntary actions. ANS consisting of motor nerves and ganglia. ANS is also called visceral efferent nervous system, is made up of two opposing divisions -sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Sympathetic nervous system (Thoracico-lumbar outflow) is represented by 21 sympathetic ganglia on either side of spinal cord. It receives preganglionic sympathetic fibres from the spinal cord which make their exit along with thoracic and lumbar nerves.

Parasympathetic nervous system (Cranio sacral outflow) consists of preganglionic para sympatheic fibres, parasympathetic ganglia and postganglionic parasysympathetic fibres. 
Sympathetic Nervous system vs Parasympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous system vs Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous system
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Preganglionic nerve fibre is small sized
Preganglionic nerve fibre is larger
Dilates pupil
Constricts pupil
Increases lacrimal glands secretion
Inhibits lacrimal glands secretion
Inhibits salivary and digestive glands
Stimulates salivary and digestive glands
Accelerates heart beat
Retards heart beat
Inhibits gut peristalsis
Stimulates gut peristalsis
Contracts anal sphincter
Relaxes anal sphincter
Relaxes urinary bladder
Contrasts urinary bladder
Vasoconstriction in general and vasodilation  (brain, heart, lungs and skeletal muscles
Vasodilation of coronary vessel
In man, the nervous system consists of central nervous system (CNS), autonomic nervous system (PNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS).  Central nerves system (CNS) includes brain and spinal cord, peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes nerve chains on either side of the vertebral column. It includes sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

The ANS regulates the internal environment of the animal’s body by controlling smooth and cardiac muscles and other involuntary actions. ANS consisting of motor nerves and ganglia. ANS is also called visceral efferent nervous system, is made up of two opposing divisions -sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Sympathetic nervous system (Thoracico-lumbar outflow) is represented by 21 sympathetic ganglia on either side of spinal cord. It receives preganglionic sympathetic fibres from the spinal cord which make their exit along with thoracic and lumbar nerves.

Parasympathetic nervous system (Cranio sacral outflow) consists of preganglionic para sympatheic fibres, parasympathetic ganglia and postganglionic parasysympathetic fibres. 
Sympathetic Nervous system vs Parasympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous system vs Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous system
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Preganglionic nerve fibre is small sized
Preganglionic nerve fibre is larger
Dilates pupil
Constricts pupil
Increases lacrimal glands secretion
Inhibits lacrimal glands secretion
Inhibits salivary and digestive glands
Stimulates salivary and digestive glands
Accelerates heart beat
Retards heart beat
Inhibits gut peristalsis
Stimulates gut peristalsis
Contracts anal sphincter
Relaxes anal sphincter
Relaxes urinary bladder
Contrasts urinary bladder
Vasoconstriction in general and vasodilation  (brain, heart, lungs and skeletal muscles
Vasodilation of coronary vessel
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6 Differences between Centromere and Kinetochore

Chromosome is the structure formed by the condensation of chromatin during cell division. It consists of long DNA strand wrapped around histone proteins. Each chromosome has a primary constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of is labeled the “p arm” and the long arm of the chromosome is called the “q arm.”

Electron microscopic studies of the centromeric region revealed the presence of a protein complex around the centromere called kinetochore. Kinetochore is the protein complex associated with the centromeric regions of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Microtubules attached to the kinetochore during cell division.
Centromere vs Kinetochore
Centromere vs Kinetochore
Centromere
Kinetochore
It is the primary constriction of the condensed chromosome.
Kinetochores are disc shaped protein complexes intimately associated with centromere.
Centromeres are clearly visible with a light microscope as a constricted region on the condensed chromosome
Kinetochrores can only be seen using electron microscope

It is the site of kinetochore assembly

It is the site of assembly and disassembly of microtubules

It is made up of  highly repetitive, condensed AT rich, heterochromatic DNA with
non-histone proteins

Made up of multiple proteins. It has a trilaminar structure. The inner layer is in close contact with condensed centromeric heterochromatin. Microtubules are attached to the outer layer. The middle layer is less dense.

Fibrous corona like structure is absent. It is made up of highly condensed repetitive DNA with some proteins
Fibrous Corona: In the absence of microtubules, a meshwork of fibers, termed the fibrous corona, can be seen to extend from the surface of the outer plate. . The fibrous corona and the outer plate contain the majority of the known Microtubule-interacting proteins (CENP-E, dynein etc) as well as checkpoint proteins (Bub1, Mad2 etc) that monitor the integrity of kinetochore attachments.
Functions of Centromere:
  • Control locus of chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis 
  •  t is the site of kinetochore assembly
  • It ensures delivery of one copy of each chromosome to each daughter at cell division.

      Functions of Kinetochore:
  • Kinetochore is the attachment site for spindle microtubule thereby directly involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
  •  It is the site at which motors generate forces to power chromosome movement.
  • It specifies the attachments between the chromosomes and microtubules of the spindle thus essential for accurate chromosome segregation.
  • Unattached kinetochores are also the signal generators for the mitotic checkpoint, which arrests mitosis until all kinetochores have correctly attached to spindle microtubules, thereby representing the major cell cycle control mechanism protecting against loss of a chromosome

References:
  • Appels, R., Morris, R., Gill, B. S., & May, C. E. (2012). Chromosome biology. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ugarković, Đ. I. (2009). Centromere-competent DNA: structure and evolution (pp. 53-76). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Chan, G. K., Liu, S. T., & Yen, T. J. (2005). Kinetochore structure and function. Trends in cell biology, 15(11), 589-598.
  • Cleveland, D. W., Mao, Y., & Sullivan, K. F. (2003). Centromeres and kinetochores: from epigenetics to mitotic checkpoint signaling. Cell, 112(4), 407-421.
  • By Afunguy at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Chromosome is the structure formed by the condensation of chromatin during cell division. It consists of long DNA strand wrapped around histone proteins. Each chromosome has a primary constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of is labeled the “p arm” and the long arm of the chromosome is called the “q arm.”

Electron microscopic studies of the centromeric region revealed the presence of a protein complex around the centromere called kinetochore. Kinetochore is the protein complex associated with the centromeric regions of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Microtubules attached to the kinetochore during cell division.
Centromere vs Kinetochore
Centromere vs Kinetochore
Centromere
Kinetochore
It is the primary constriction of the condensed chromosome.
Kinetochores are disc shaped protein complexes intimately associated with centromere.
Centromeres are clearly visible with a light microscope as a constricted region on the condensed chromosome
Kinetochrores can only be seen using electron microscope

It is the site of kinetochore assembly

It is the site of assembly and disassembly of microtubules

It is made up of  highly repetitive, condensed AT rich, heterochromatic DNA with
non-histone proteins

Made up of multiple proteins. It has a trilaminar structure. The inner layer is in close contact with condensed centromeric heterochromatin. Microtubules are attached to the outer layer. The middle layer is less dense.

Fibrous corona like structure is absent. It is made up of highly condensed repetitive DNA with some proteins
Fibrous Corona: In the absence of microtubules, a meshwork of fibers, termed the fibrous corona, can be seen to extend from the surface of the outer plate. . The fibrous corona and the outer plate contain the majority of the known Microtubule-interacting proteins (CENP-E, dynein etc) as well as checkpoint proteins (Bub1, Mad2 etc) that monitor the integrity of kinetochore attachments.
Functions of Centromere:
  • Control locus of chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis 
  •  t is the site of kinetochore assembly
  • It ensures delivery of one copy of each chromosome to each daughter at cell division.

      Functions of Kinetochore:
  • Kinetochore is the attachment site for spindle microtubule thereby directly involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
  •  It is the site at which motors generate forces to power chromosome movement.
  • It specifies the attachments between the chromosomes and microtubules of the spindle thus essential for accurate chromosome segregation.
  • Unattached kinetochores are also the signal generators for the mitotic checkpoint, which arrests mitosis until all kinetochores have correctly attached to spindle microtubules, thereby representing the major cell cycle control mechanism protecting against loss of a chromosome

References:
  • Appels, R., Morris, R., Gill, B. S., & May, C. E. (2012). Chromosome biology. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ugarković, Đ. I. (2009). Centromere-competent DNA: structure and evolution (pp. 53-76). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Chan, G. K., Liu, S. T., & Yen, T. J. (2005). Kinetochore structure and function. Trends in cell biology, 15(11), 589-598.
  • Cleveland, D. W., Mao, Y., & Sullivan, K. F. (2003). Centromeres and kinetochores: from epigenetics to mitotic checkpoint signaling. Cell, 112(4), 407-421.
  • By Afunguy at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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5 Differences between Milk teeth and Permanent teeth

Humans dentition is described as thecodont, heterodont and diphyodont. 
  • Thecodont: Teeth are placed in the socket of jaw bones
  • Heterodont : teeth are four different types both in structure and function
  • Diphyodont: Teeth appear twice in the life time of human. They are milk teeth and permanent teeth.
These teeth are present in both jaws socket i.e., the fixed upper jaw and movable lower jaw of maxilla and mandible bone respectively. 
They have two successive sets of teeth: milk teeth (Baby teeth) and Permanent teeth.
MILK TEETH VS PERMANENT TEETH
Milk teeth vs Permanent teeth
Milk teeth ( Deciduous teeth)
Permanent teeth
Start erupting after 6 months of birth and appear between 6 to 24 months
Begin to replace milk teeth in the 6 th year  of age and usually completed by 24 years
Smaller, weaker and temporary
Stronger and permanent
3 types (incisor, canine and molars)
8 incisors + 4 canines + 8 molars
4 types (incisor, canine premolars and molars)
8 incisor+ 4 canine+ 8 premolars + 12 molars
20 in number, 10 each in the upper and lower jaw
32 in number, 16 each in the upper and lower jaw
Dental formula of milk teeth 2102
                                             2012
Dental formula of permanent teeth 2123
                                                        2123
Dental formula: Each mammalian species is characterized by its own specific dentition with a definite number and arrangement of teeth. It is expressed in dental formula.
  • An adult human being has 16 teeth on each jaw. In each half of jaws starting from the middle and going backwards, there are two incisors, one canine, two premolars and three molars (2+1+2+3).
  • Dental formula of Milk teeth: 20 in number (2+1+0+2)  
Humans dentition is described as thecodont, heterodont and diphyodont. 
  • Thecodont: Teeth are placed in the socket of jaw bones
  • Heterodont : teeth are four different types both in structure and function
  • Diphyodont: Teeth appear twice in the life time of human. They are milk teeth and permanent teeth.
These teeth are present in both jaws socket i.e., the fixed upper jaw and movable lower jaw of maxilla and mandible bone respectively. 
They have two successive sets of teeth: milk teeth (Baby teeth) and Permanent teeth.
MILK TEETH VS PERMANENT TEETH
Milk teeth vs Permanent teeth
Milk teeth ( Deciduous teeth)
Permanent teeth
Start erupting after 6 months of birth and appear between 6 to 24 months
Begin to replace milk teeth in the 6 th year  of age and usually completed by 24 years
Smaller, weaker and temporary
Stronger and permanent
3 types (incisor, canine and molars)
8 incisors + 4 canines + 8 molars
4 types (incisor, canine premolars and molars)
8 incisor+ 4 canine+ 8 premolars + 12 molars
20 in number, 10 each in the upper and lower jaw
32 in number, 16 each in the upper and lower jaw
Dental formula of milk teeth 2102
                                             2012
Dental formula of permanent teeth 2123
                                                        2123
Dental formula: Each mammalian species is characterized by its own specific dentition with a definite number and arrangement of teeth. It is expressed in dental formula.
  • An adult human being has 16 teeth on each jaw. In each half of jaws starting from the middle and going backwards, there are two incisors, one canine, two premolars and three molars (2+1+2+3).
  • Dental formula of Milk teeth: 20 in number (2+1+0+2)  
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