5 Differences between Chlorosis and Etiolation

Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
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5 Differences between Absorption Spectrum and Action Spectrum

Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
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7 Differences between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
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5 Differences between Control Group and Experimental Group

An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
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5 Differences between Independent variable and Dependent variable

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment
Three types of variables:
1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
            3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable is the variable that the researcher changes in an experiment.
Dependant  variable is the variable that researcher thinks will be affected by change  in independent variable
Usually denoted by ‘x’
Usually denoted by ‘y’
It is the ‘cause’ or reason that the researcher assumes to influence dependent variable
It is the ‘effect’ or ‘outcome’ caused by the change in independent variable

The values of independent variable are manipulated by the researcher
The values of dependent variable are observed and measured by the researcher in an experiment
The value of independent variable can be changed
The value of dependent variable cannot be changed
A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment
Three types of variables:
1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
            3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable vs Dependent variable
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable is the variable that the researcher changes in an experiment.
Dependant  variable is the variable that researcher thinks will be affected by change  in independent variable
Usually denoted by ‘x’
Usually denoted by ‘y’
It is the ‘cause’ or reason that the researcher assumes to influence dependent variable
It is the ‘effect’ or ‘outcome’ caused by the change in independent variable

The values of independent variable are manipulated by the researcher
The values of dependent variable are observed and measured by the researcher in an experiment
The value of independent variable can be changed
The value of dependent variable cannot be changed
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Difference between Respiration and Breathing

 The terms breathing and respiration are not synonymous. Respiration is a biochemical process by which organic compounds are oxidized to liberate chemical energy from the food in a step wise manner.
Breathing refers to the muscular movement that sends fresh air to respiratory organs and removal of foul air from them.
Respiration vs Breathing
Respiration

Breathing

It is an oxidation of food to form carbon dioxide, water and energy.

It is simply an intake of fresh air and removal of foul air.












It is the process of taking in oxygen to the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs.
Oxidative process
Diffusion process
It is an involuntary action
It is an voluntary action
In occurs inside the cells, hence it is an intracellular process.
It occurs outside the cells; hence it is an extracellular process.
It is a biochemical process.
It is physical process.
Takes place in two stages: Glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
Takes place by inspiration and expiration.
Energy is released in the form of ATP.
No energy is released, rather used or ATP is used.
A large number of enzymes are involved in the process.
No enzymes are involved in the process.
Gaseous exchange through the cell or within the cell organelles like mitochondrion
Gaseous exchange through respiratory organs such as lungs
 The terms breathing and respiration are not synonymous. Respiration is a biochemical process by which organic compounds are oxidized to liberate chemical energy from the food in a step wise manner.
Breathing refers to the muscular movement that sends fresh air to respiratory organs and removal of foul air from them.
Respiration vs Breathing
Respiration

Breathing

It is an oxidation of food to form carbon dioxide, water and energy.

It is simply an intake of fresh air and removal of foul air.












It is the process of taking in oxygen to the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs.
Oxidative process
Diffusion process
It is an involuntary action
It is an voluntary action
In occurs inside the cells, hence it is an intracellular process.
It occurs outside the cells; hence it is an extracellular process.
It is a biochemical process.
It is physical process.
Takes place in two stages: Glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
Takes place by inspiration and expiration.
Energy is released in the form of ATP.
No energy is released, rather used or ATP is used.
A large number of enzymes are involved in the process.
No enzymes are involved in the process.
Gaseous exchange through the cell or within the cell organelles like mitochondrion
Gaseous exchange through respiratory organs such as lungs
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Difference between Orbit and Orbital

Electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom and thus we can identify regions of space around the nucleus where there is high probability of finding an electron. This leads to the concept of orbitals in place of definite orbits proposed by Bohr. An orbital may be defined as the region of space around the nucleus where there is maximum probability of finding an electron. Diagrammatic representation of orbitals is difficult.
The electrons revolve around the nucleus only in certain selected circular paths called orbits. These orbits are associated with definite energies and are called energy levels or energy shells or quantum levels. These are numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. or designated as K, L, M, N etc.
Orbit vs Orbital
Orbit
Orbital
It is well defined circular path followed by revolving electron around the nucleus.
It is a region of space around the nucleus where the electron is most likely to be found.
It represents planar motion of an electron.
It represents three dimensional motion of an electron around the nucleus.
The maximum number of electrons is an orbit is 2n2 where n stands for number of the orbit.
An orbital cannot accommodate mote than two electrons.
Orbit are circular in shape.
Bohr's Orbit

Orbital have different shapes.
Orbital Shape

Orbits are non directional in character hence they cannot explain shape of molecules.
Orbitals have directional character and hence they can account for shapes of molecules.
Concept of well defined orbit is against Heisenberg’s principle.
Concept of orbital is in accordance with Heisenberg’s principle.
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: He pointed out that it is not possible to determine simultaneously the position and momentum of a small moving particle, such as electron, with entire certainty.
Electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom and thus we can identify regions of space around the nucleus where there is high probability of finding an electron. This leads to the concept of orbitals in place of definite orbits proposed by Bohr. An orbital may be defined as the region of space around the nucleus where there is maximum probability of finding an electron. Diagrammatic representation of orbitals is difficult.
The electrons revolve around the nucleus only in certain selected circular paths called orbits. These orbits are associated with definite energies and are called energy levels or energy shells or quantum levels. These are numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. or designated as K, L, M, N etc.
Orbit vs Orbital
Orbit
Orbital
It is well defined circular path followed by revolving electron around the nucleus.
It is a region of space around the nucleus where the electron is most likely to be found.
It represents planar motion of an electron.
It represents three dimensional motion of an electron around the nucleus.
The maximum number of electrons is an orbit is 2n2 where n stands for number of the orbit.
An orbital cannot accommodate mote than two electrons.
Orbit are circular in shape.
Bohr's Orbit

Orbital have different shapes.
Orbital Shape

Orbits are non directional in character hence they cannot explain shape of molecules.
Orbitals have directional character and hence they can account for shapes of molecules.
Concept of well defined orbit is against Heisenberg’s principle.
Concept of orbital is in accordance with Heisenberg’s principle.
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: He pointed out that it is not possible to determine simultaneously the position and momentum of a small moving particle, such as electron, with entire certainty.
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5 Differences between Null and Alternative Hypothesis with example

Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.
Scientific method begins with observation and defining the problem by asking questions. This is followed by formulation of hypothesis. 
Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be tested by scientific methods or scientifically testable or measurable. This statement is based on our previous experience on the topic or based on existing knowledge or review of literature. There are two types of hypothesis; alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis.
Example of null and alternative hypothesis
Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis
Example: Suppose this is the problem defined for scientific research “Effect of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ on pea plant growth and fruit setting
Application of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ increase pea plant growth and fruit setting (Refer Figure)
Application of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ do not increase pea plant growth and fruit setting
The alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to prove.
The null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.
It is denoted by H1
It is denoted by H0
Simply, it is the opposite of the null hypothesis (H0)
It is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis (H1)
The Alternative hypothesis predicts that there is statistical significance or relationship between variables in the hypothesis under study.
Here the variables are bio-fertilizer ‘x’ (independent variable) and pea plant growth and fruit setting (dependent variable)
The Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no statistical significance or relationship between the variables in the hypothesis under study.

Watch video on: 
Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the alternative hypothesis. Accepting the alternative hypothesis proves that the researchers reasoning is true.
Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis. Accepting the null hypothesis suggest that alternative hypothesis needs revision and further research is needed to find out the exact reason of the phenomenon under study.
Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.
Scientific method begins with observation and defining the problem by asking questions. This is followed by formulation of hypothesis. 
Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be tested by scientific methods or scientifically testable or measurable. This statement is based on our previous experience on the topic or based on existing knowledge or review of literature. There are two types of hypothesis; alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis.
Example of null and alternative hypothesis
Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis
Example: Suppose this is the problem defined for scientific research “Effect of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ on pea plant growth and fruit setting
Application of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ increase pea plant growth and fruit setting (Refer Figure)
Application of bio-fertilizer ‘x’ do not increase pea plant growth and fruit setting
The alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to prove.
The null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.
It is denoted by H1
It is denoted by H0
Simply, it is the opposite of the null hypothesis (H0)
It is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis (H1)
The Alternative hypothesis predicts that there is statistical significance or relationship between variables in the hypothesis under study.
Here the variables are bio-fertilizer ‘x’ (independent variable) and pea plant growth and fruit setting (dependent variable)
The Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no statistical significance or relationship between the variables in the hypothesis under study.

Watch video on: 
Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the alternative hypothesis. Accepting the alternative hypothesis proves that the researchers reasoning is true.
Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis. Accepting the null hypothesis suggest that alternative hypothesis needs revision and further research is needed to find out the exact reason of the phenomenon under study.
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7 Differences between Theory and Law

Scientific method is an organised and systematized or logical way of finding answers to questions or finding solutions to problems.
One of the most important steps in scientific method is theorizing or formulating laws based on the experimental result.
Both theory and law should be logical, rational, scientifically testable deduced with existing observation and experimental evidence. Valid scientific laws are more valuable than valid scientific theories.
law vs theory
 Theory vs Law
Let us start with examples for better understanding. Think of an example of theory or law while moving through each point.
Theory
Law
Let us take the first statement of cell theory
*All living organism are made up of cells
Newton’s first law of motion states that
*An object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion remains in motion, and at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.
Scientific theories are the best explanations of observations that are based on large body of scientific evidence, enable valid predictions, and have been scientifically tested in many ways
The statement “All living organism are made up of cells” is based on numerous repeated observation under microscope
An universally accepted fact, statement or equation capable of making true reliable predictions
or
A law describes what nature does under certain conditions
Theories are explanations of a phenomenon.
Laws are generalization about a phenomena
Theory explains how nature works.
Law explains what is nature doing under certain conditions and it can predict the future if the conditions are satisfied.
Theory is often descriptive and complex than laws with detailed explanation or contains several supported hypothesis.
It is a concise summary of large number of facts.
It is often expressed as a statement or an equation
A theory might have exceptions.
 For example, take the case of cell theory, now we know sub cellular particles like viruses, viroids, prions etc showing some characteristics of life.
A law has no exceptions when it is proposed or framed.

Theories are subjected to revision and may be replaced or revised from time to time based on new findings.
Example: Neo Darwinism revised Darwinism by addition of findings in genetics.
Theory of spontaneous generation of life is rejected or disproved.
Generally a law is an universally observable solid fact which are not subjected to revision or replacement (There are exceptions, sometimes laws are revised with the addition of new knowledge)
The credibility or authenticity of theory depends on the amount of evidence that supports the theory.
A law is an established universally observable solid fact. No further evidences are required to make it more authentic.
Scientific method is an organised and systematized or logical way of finding answers to questions or finding solutions to problems.
One of the most important steps in scientific method is theorizing or formulating laws based on the experimental result.
Both theory and law should be logical, rational, scientifically testable deduced with existing observation and experimental evidence. Valid scientific laws are more valuable than valid scientific theories.
law vs theory
 Theory vs Law
Let us start with examples for better understanding. Think of an example of theory or law while moving through each point.
Theory
Law
Let us take the first statement of cell theory
*All living organism are made up of cells
Newton’s first law of motion states that
*An object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion remains in motion, and at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.
Scientific theories are the best explanations of observations that are based on large body of scientific evidence, enable valid predictions, and have been scientifically tested in many ways
The statement “All living organism are made up of cells” is based on numerous repeated observation under microscope
An universally accepted fact, statement or equation capable of making true reliable predictions
or
A law describes what nature does under certain conditions
Theories are explanations of a phenomenon.
Laws are generalization about a phenomena
Theory explains how nature works.
Law explains what is nature doing under certain conditions and it can predict the future if the conditions are satisfied.
Theory is often descriptive and complex than laws with detailed explanation or contains several supported hypothesis.
It is a concise summary of large number of facts.
It is often expressed as a statement or an equation
A theory might have exceptions.
 For example, take the case of cell theory, now we know sub cellular particles like viruses, viroids, prions etc showing some characteristics of life.
A law has no exceptions when it is proposed or framed.

Theories are subjected to revision and may be replaced or revised from time to time based on new findings.
Example: Neo Darwinism revised Darwinism by addition of findings in genetics.
Theory of spontaneous generation of life is rejected or disproved.
Generally a law is an universally observable solid fact which are not subjected to revision or replacement (There are exceptions, sometimes laws are revised with the addition of new knowledge)
The credibility or authenticity of theory depends on the amount of evidence that supports the theory.
A law is an established universally observable solid fact. No further evidences are required to make it more authentic.
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