Difference between True and False Indusium

Indusium is a delicate membranous structure that protects the sporangium or sorus in pteridophytes

Based on the origin, Indusium may be true or false.

True indusium:

True indusium

In the figure, solid red circle – True indusium

1. A delicate membranous structure arises from the lower side and covers the sorus of sporangia (refer figure)

2. Originates from the lower side of the pinnae as an epidermal outgrowth

3. Specialized structure formed on the lower side of pinnae for protection of sorus

4. Seen in Dryopteris

False indusium:

false indusium In the figure, solid red circle –false indusium originating from the margins

1. It is formed by the curving of margins of the pinnae or leaflet that protects the marginal sorus.

2. Originates from the upper side of the pinnae.

3. Formed by the curving of margins of pinnae.

4.  Seen in Pteris, Adiantum

Indusium is a delicate membranous structure that protects the sporangium or sorus in pteridophytes

Based on the origin, Indusium may be true or false.

True indusium:

True indusium

In the figure, solid red circle – True indusium

1. A delicate membranous structure arises from the lower side and covers the sorus of sporangia (refer figure)

2. Originates from the lower side of the pinnae as an epidermal outgrowth

3. Specialized structure formed on the lower side of pinnae for protection of sorus

4. Seen in Dryopteris

False indusium:

false indusium In the figure, solid red circle –false indusium originating from the margins

1. It is formed by the curving of margins of the pinnae or leaflet that protects the marginal sorus.

2. Originates from the upper side of the pinnae.

3. Formed by the curving of margins of pinnae.

4.  Seen in Pteris, Adiantum

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Difference between C3, C4 and CAM plants

A comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants
1. Found in all photosynthetic plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be hydrophytic, mesophytic and xerophytic.
3. Photoactive Stomata
4.  High rate of Photorespiration
5. Normal Leaf anatomy
6. For the synthesis of glucose molecule or 6CO2 fixation:12 NADPH and 18 ATPs are required.
7. Single CO2 fixation occurs
8. Primary CO2 atmospheric acceptor RUBP
9. First stable product 3PGA
10. First enzyme involved RUBISCO
11. Carbon dioxide compensation point: 30-70PPM
c3 and c4 plants
C4 Plants
1. Only in tropical plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  mesophytic
3. Photoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: less or negligible
5. Kranz anatomy
6. 12 NADPH and 30 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(In mesophyll cell) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(In bundle sheath cell)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 10PPM
C4 and CAM plants (C4 and CAM plants)
CAM Plants
1. Specially in succulents growing under semi arid condition.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  xerophytic
3. Scotoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: least or negligible
5. Xeromorphic
6. 12 NADPH and 39 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(During night) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(during day time)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 5PPM
A comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants
1. Found in all photosynthetic plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be hydrophytic, mesophytic and xerophytic.
3. Photoactive Stomata
4.  High rate of Photorespiration
5. Normal Leaf anatomy
6. For the synthesis of glucose molecule or 6CO2 fixation:12 NADPH and 18 ATPs are required.
7. Single CO2 fixation occurs
8. Primary CO2 atmospheric acceptor RUBP
9. First stable product 3PGA
10. First enzyme involved RUBISCO
11. Carbon dioxide compensation point: 30-70PPM
c3 and c4 plants
C4 Plants
1. Only in tropical plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  mesophytic
3. Photoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: less or negligible
5. Kranz anatomy
6. 12 NADPH and 30 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(In mesophyll cell) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(In bundle sheath cell)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 10PPM
C4 and CAM plants (C4 and CAM plants)
CAM Plants
1. Specially in succulents growing under semi arid condition.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  xerophytic
3. Scotoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: least or negligible
5. Xeromorphic
6. 12 NADPH and 39 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(During night) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(during day time)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 5PPM
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Difference between Blind spot and Yellow spot

Blind spot vs Yellow spotThe spot at the back of the eye, from where optic nerve fibres leave is free from rods and cones. This spot is devoid of the ability for vision and is called blind spot. Yellow spot or area centralis or Macula lutea is in the exact centre of the retina.
Blind spot vs Yellow spot
Blind spot
1. It lies a little away from the yellow spot.
2. It contains no pigment.
3. Optic nerve starts from this spot.
4. It lacks a depression.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is insensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are absent at blind spot.
7. No image is formed at this place.
Yellow spot
1. It lies exactly opposite the centre of the cornea.
2. It has yellow pigment.
3. No nerve starts from this spot.
4. It has a shallow depression, the fovea centralis, at its middle.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is sensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are present at yellow spot.
7. Image is formed at this place.
Blind spot vs Yellow spotThe spot at the back of the eye, from where optic nerve fibres leave is free from rods and cones. This spot is devoid of the ability for vision and is called blind spot. Yellow spot or area centralis or Macula lutea is in the exact centre of the retina.
Blind spot vs Yellow spot
Blind spot
1. It lies a little away from the yellow spot.
2. It contains no pigment.
3. Optic nerve starts from this spot.
4. It lacks a depression.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is insensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are absent at blind spot.
7. No image is formed at this place.
Yellow spot
1. It lies exactly opposite the centre of the cornea.
2. It has yellow pigment.
3. No nerve starts from this spot.
4. It has a shallow depression, the fovea centralis, at its middle.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is sensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are present at yellow spot.
7. Image is formed at this place.
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Difference between Cerebrum and Cerebellum

The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemisphere joined by a curved thick band of nerve fibres, called corpus callosum. The outer layer of the cerebrum , known as cerebral cortex , is formed of grey matter and white matter. The cerebellum is similar to cerebrum  in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, and is located at the back of the skull.
Brain's three parts
Cerebrum vs Cerebellum
Cerebrum
1. It is the largest part of the brain, forming four fifths of its weight.
2. It is a part of the centre for forebrain.
3. It consists of two cerebral hemisperes each comprising four lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal.
4. White matter does not form arbor vitae.
5. It initiates voluntary movements, and is a seat of will, intelligence, memory etc.

Cerebellum
1. It is the second largest part of the brain, forming one eighth of its mass.
2. It is a part of the hindbrain.
3. It consists of two cerebellar hemisperes and a median vermis.
4. White matter form arbor vitae.
5. It maintains posture and equilibrium.
The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemisphere joined by a curved thick band of nerve fibres, called corpus callosum. The outer layer of the cerebrum , known as cerebral cortex , is formed of grey matter and white matter. The cerebellum is similar to cerebrum  in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, and is located at the back of the skull.
Brain's three parts
Cerebrum vs Cerebellum
Cerebrum
1. It is the largest part of the brain, forming four fifths of its weight.
2. It is a part of the centre for forebrain.
3. It consists of two cerebral hemisperes each comprising four lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal.
4. White matter does not form arbor vitae.
5. It initiates voluntary movements, and is a seat of will, intelligence, memory etc.

Cerebellum
1. It is the second largest part of the brain, forming one eighth of its mass.
2. It is a part of the hindbrain.
3. It consists of two cerebellar hemisperes and a median vermis.
4. White matter form arbor vitae.
5. It maintains posture and equilibrium.
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Difference between Photorespiration and Aerobic Respiration

Photorespiration: The excess respiration taking place in green cells in the presence of light is called photorespiration. It is also called C2 cycle because two carbon glycolic acid acts as the substrate. Three organelles, namely chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria are involved in photorespiration. Generally photorespiration is found in C3 plants and absent in C4 plants.
photorespiration pathway
Aerobic Respiration: It takes place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This type of respiration is of common occurrence and it is often used as a synonym of respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration vs Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration
1. It takes place only in green photosynthesising cells.
2. It takes place predominantly in C3 plants.
3. It takes place only during day time in the presence of light.
4. Steps of photorespiration occur in chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria.
5. Saturated point is attained at high oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used is glycolic acid.
7. It does not involve glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It does not produce any usuable energy in the form of ATP; phosphorylation does not take place.
9. End products are CO2 and PGA.
10. Temperature sensitive; 25-35 0C is ideal for photorespiration.
Aerobic Respiration
1. It takes place in both green and non green cells.
2. It takes place in all plants.
3. It takes place both in light and dark.
4. Steps of respiration occur in cytoplasm and mitochondria.
5. Saturation point is reached at a comparatively low oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used are usually sugars and fats.
7. It involves glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It produces usuable energy in the form of ATP; oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
9. End products are carbon dioxide and water.
10. It is not temperature sensitive.
Photorespiration: The excess respiration taking place in green cells in the presence of light is called photorespiration. It is also called C2 cycle because two carbon glycolic acid acts as the substrate. Three organelles, namely chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria are involved in photorespiration. Generally photorespiration is found in C3 plants and absent in C4 plants.
photorespiration pathway
Aerobic Respiration: It takes place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This type of respiration is of common occurrence and it is often used as a synonym of respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration vs Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration
1. It takes place only in green photosynthesising cells.
2. It takes place predominantly in C3 plants.
3. It takes place only during day time in the presence of light.
4. Steps of photorespiration occur in chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria.
5. Saturated point is attained at high oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used is glycolic acid.
7. It does not involve glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It does not produce any usuable energy in the form of ATP; phosphorylation does not take place.
9. End products are CO2 and PGA.
10. Temperature sensitive; 25-35 0C is ideal for photorespiration.
Aerobic Respiration
1. It takes place in both green and non green cells.
2. It takes place in all plants.
3. It takes place both in light and dark.
4. Steps of respiration occur in cytoplasm and mitochondria.
5. Saturation point is reached at a comparatively low oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used are usually sugars and fats.
7. It involves glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It produces usuable energy in the form of ATP; oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
9. End products are carbon dioxide and water.
10. It is not temperature sensitive.
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Difference between C3 and C4 Plants

C3 plants: The plants exhibiting C3 pathway are called C3 plants. About 95% of the plants on earth are C3 plants.
C4 plants: The plants exhibiting  C4 pathway are called C4 plants. C4 plants live in hot moist or arid and nonsaline habitats. It occurs in grasses, sugar cane, maize, sorghum, Amarathus and Atriplex. C4 cycle is the alternate pathway of Calvin cycle (C3 cycle) taking place during dark phase of photosynthesis. In the C4 cycle the first stable compound is a 4 carbon compound, namely oxaloacetic acid. Hence it is called C4 cycle.  The C4 plants show  a specific type of leaf anatomy (Krans anatomy). C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis than the C3 plants.
C3 plants vs C4 plants
C3 plants
1. The leaves do not possess Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts do not have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of one type (monomorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually do not contain Chloroplasts.
5. In higher plants, operating C3 cycle, the chloroplasts are all granal and have both the photosystem I and II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform complete photosynthesis.
7. Perform photosynthesis only when stomata are open.
8. C3 plants are less efficient in photosynthesis.
Kranz anatomy
C4 plants
1. The leaves have Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts  have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of types dimorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually possess prominent Chloroplasts.
5. There are two types of chloroplasts, granal in mesophyll cells and agranal in bundle sheath cells. They lack photosystem II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform only initial fixation.
7. Perform photosynthesis even when stomata are closed.
8. C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis.
Learn more: Comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants: The plants exhibiting C3 pathway are called C3 plants. About 95% of the plants on earth are C3 plants.
C4 plants: The plants exhibiting  C4 pathway are called C4 plants. C4 plants live in hot moist or arid and nonsaline habitats. It occurs in grasses, sugar cane, maize, sorghum, Amarathus and Atriplex. C4 cycle is the alternate pathway of Calvin cycle (C3 cycle) taking place during dark phase of photosynthesis. In the C4 cycle the first stable compound is a 4 carbon compound, namely oxaloacetic acid. Hence it is called C4 cycle.  The C4 plants show  a specific type of leaf anatomy (Krans anatomy). C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis than the C3 plants.
C3 plants vs C4 plants
C3 plants
1. The leaves do not possess Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts do not have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of one type (monomorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually do not contain Chloroplasts.
5. In higher plants, operating C3 cycle, the chloroplasts are all granal and have both the photosystem I and II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform complete photosynthesis.
7. Perform photosynthesis only when stomata are open.
8. C3 plants are less efficient in photosynthesis.
Kranz anatomy
C4 plants
1. The leaves have Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts  have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of types dimorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually possess prominent Chloroplasts.
5. There are two types of chloroplasts, granal in mesophyll cells and agranal in bundle sheath cells. They lack photosystem II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform only initial fixation.
7. Perform photosynthesis even when stomata are closed.
8. C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis.
Learn more: Comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
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Difference Between Male and Female Skeleton

Skeleton system consists of a framework of bones and a few cartilages. This system has a significant role in movement shown by the body. Bones and cartilages are specialised connective tissues.
Male Skeleton vs Female Skeleton
Male Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity narrower and less roomier.
2. Coccyx less movable.
3. Sacrum long, narrower with concavity.
4. Pelvis heavy and thick
5. Joint surface large.
6. Greater pelvis deep.
7. Pubic arch less than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned inward.
9. Obturator foramen rounded.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet smaller.
11. Sciatic notch narrow.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines closer.
male and female skeleton
Female Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity wider, deeper.
2. Coccyx more movable.
3. Sacrum short, wide nearly flat with forward curvature in lower part.
4. Pelvis light and thin.
5. Joint surface small.
6. Greater pelvis short.
7. Pubic arch more than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned outward.
9. Obturator foramen oval.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet larger.
11. Sciatic notch wide.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines wide apart.
Skeleton system consists of a framework of bones and a few cartilages. This system has a significant role in movement shown by the body. Bones and cartilages are specialised connective tissues.
Male Skeleton vs Female Skeleton
Male Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity narrower and less roomier.
2. Coccyx less movable.
3. Sacrum long, narrower with concavity.
4. Pelvis heavy and thick
5. Joint surface large.
6. Greater pelvis deep.
7. Pubic arch less than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned inward.
9. Obturator foramen rounded.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet smaller.
11. Sciatic notch narrow.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines closer.
male and female skeleton
Female Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity wider, deeper.
2. Coccyx more movable.
3. Sacrum short, wide nearly flat with forward curvature in lower part.
4. Pelvis light and thin.
5. Joint surface small.
6. Greater pelvis short.
7. Pubic arch more than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned outward.
9. Obturator foramen oval.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet larger.
11. Sciatic notch wide.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines wide apart.
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Difference between Transpiration and Evaporation

Transpiration is the evaporative loss of water by plants. It occurs mainly through the stomata in the leaves.
transpiration
Evaporation

evaporation
Transpiration vs Evaporation
Transpiration
1. It is physiological process and occurs in plants.

2. The water moves through the epidermis with its cuticle or through the stomata.

3.  Living cells are involved.

4. Various forces such as vapour pressure, osmotic pressure, etc are involved.

5. Formation of vapours continues for some time even after the saturation of outside air.

6. The rate of transpiration is slightly lower than evaporation under the influence of wind velocity because it lowers the leaf temperature.

7. It is largely dependent upon absorption of water from the soil.
Evaporation
1. It is a physical process and occurs on any free surface.

2. Any liquid can evaporate. The living epidermis and stomata are not involved.

3. It can occur from both living and non living surfaces.

4. Not much forces are involved.

5. Evaporation stops when the air is fully saturated.

6. It varies directly according to the velocity of wind.

7. It  continues as long as water is available on the surface.

Learn more: Difference between Transpiration and Guttaion
Transpiration is the evaporative loss of water by plants. It occurs mainly through the stomata in the leaves.
transpiration
Evaporation

evaporation
Transpiration vs Evaporation
Transpiration
1. It is physiological process and occurs in plants.

2. The water moves through the epidermis with its cuticle or through the stomata.

3.  Living cells are involved.

4. Various forces such as vapour pressure, osmotic pressure, etc are involved.

5. Formation of vapours continues for some time even after the saturation of outside air.

6. The rate of transpiration is slightly lower than evaporation under the influence of wind velocity because it lowers the leaf temperature.

7. It is largely dependent upon absorption of water from the soil.
Evaporation
1. It is a physical process and occurs on any free surface.

2. Any liquid can evaporate. The living epidermis and stomata are not involved.

3. It can occur from both living and non living surfaces.

4. Not much forces are involved.

5. Evaporation stops when the air is fully saturated.

6. It varies directly according to the velocity of wind.

7. It  continues as long as water is available on the surface.

Learn more: Difference between Transpiration and Guttaion
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Difference between Oviparous and Viviparous animals

Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
birds
Example of Oviparous animals:  This is the reproductive method of most fish, amphibians, reptiles, all birds, the monotremes, and most insects, some molluscs and arachnids.
Viviparous animals are those that give birth to live young.
whales
Examples of viviparous: Marine mammals such as whales and dolphins, pinnipeds, sirenians and sea otters. Viviparous plants (Mangroves)
Oviparous animals  vs Viviparous animals
  • Oviparous animals lay fertilised or unfertilized eggs.
  • The fertilized eggs remain covered by hard calcareous shell and laid in safe place in the environment. After a period of incubation young ones hatch out.
  • Chances of survival of young ones is less as the female lay egg in the open environment.
Viviparous animals
  • Viviparous animals birth to young ones.
  • The fertilised egg (zygote) develop into a young one inside the body of the female organism.
  • Chances of survival of young one is more  because of proper embryonic care and protection inside the mother’s body.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
birds
Example of Oviparous animals:  This is the reproductive method of most fish, amphibians, reptiles, all birds, the monotremes, and most insects, some molluscs and arachnids.
Viviparous animals are those that give birth to live young.
whales
Examples of viviparous: Marine mammals such as whales and dolphins, pinnipeds, sirenians and sea otters. Viviparous plants (Mangroves)
Oviparous animals  vs Viviparous animals
  • Oviparous animals lay fertilised or unfertilized eggs.
  • The fertilized eggs remain covered by hard calcareous shell and laid in safe place in the environment. After a period of incubation young ones hatch out.
  • Chances of survival of young ones is less as the female lay egg in the open environment.
Viviparous animals
  • Viviparous animals birth to young ones.
  • The fertilised egg (zygote) develop into a young one inside the body of the female organism.
  • Chances of survival of young one is more  because of proper embryonic care and protection inside the mother’s body.
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Difference between Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms

Pteridophytes are most advanced cryptogams. Vascular tissues are present in the plant body. Therefore pteridophytes are also called vascular cryptogams. The plant body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The ferns are a large group included under pteridophytes.
Pteridophytes
Pteridophyta is divide into four classes. They are the following
  • Psilopsida- eg: Psilotum
  • Lycopsida- eg: Lycopodium, Selag inella etc
  • Sphenosida- eg: Equisetum
  • Pteridopsida-eg: Nephrolepis, Pteris , Dryopteris etc.
Gymnosperms are naked-seeded plants. The seeds are not enclosed in fruits. They do not produce flowers and they are regarded as primitive seed plants. They include mostly evergreen trees like conifers and cycads.  
Gymnosperms are divided into three different classes.

Cycas
  • Cycadopsida-eg: Cycas
  • Coniferopsida- eg: Pinus, Cedrus etc.
  • Gnetopsida-eg: Gnetum
Pteridophytes vs Gymnosperms
Pteridophyte

Gymnosperms

Seedless spore bearing
vascular plants
Naked Seeded vascular plants
Plant body: Sporophyte
Sporophyte: well differentiated comparatively smaller in size Sporophyte: well differentiated, woody, large sized trees, shrubs or climbers.
Often moisture loving or hygroscopic rarely xeric With Xerophytic adaptations
Stem: often rhizhomatous, underground or close to the soil Stem: aerial, large and woody
Roots: adventitious roots, rarely rhizoids Roots: tap root system, extensive and elaborate
Less advanced stelar system More advanced stelar system (eustelic)
Vessels are absent Vessels are absent except Gnetum
Secondary growth is absent Prominent Secondary growth from coniferales onwards
Independent sporophyte and gametophyte Gametophyte dependant on sporophytes
Gametophyte
Gametophyte independent and free living Gametophyte dependant on sporophytes
The gametophyte or prothallus is often monoecious and bears both antheridia and archegonia Dioceous; separate male and female gmaetophytes
Flagellated or ciliated male gamete Non-flagellated male gamete
Pollen tubes are not formed Pollen tubes are formed
Male gametes swim towards female gametes attracted by chemicals(chemotaxis) Male gamete moves through the pollen tube to the female gamete
Water is essential for fertilization Water is not essential for fertilization and often wind pollinated
Megaspores re shed from the sporangia and independent female protahllus develops Megaspores are retained in the megasporangium.
Archegonia with prominent neck canal cell and venter canal cell Archegonia lacks neck canal cell and venter canal cell. Archegonium is absent in Gnetum.
Pteridophytes are most advanced cryptogams. Vascular tissues are present in the plant body. Therefore pteridophytes are also called vascular cryptogams. The plant body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The ferns are a large group included under pteridophytes.
Pteridophytes
Pteridophyta is divide into four classes. They are the following
  • Psilopsida- eg: Psilotum
  • Lycopsida- eg: Lycopodium, Selag inella etc
  • Sphenosida- eg: Equisetum
  • Pteridopsida-eg: Nephrolepis, Pteris , Dryopteris etc.
Gymnosperms are naked-seeded plants. The seeds are not enclosed in fruits. They do not produce flowers and they are regarded as primitive seed plants. They include mostly evergreen trees like conifers and cycads.  
Gymnosperms are divided into three different classes.

Cycas
  • Cycadopsida-eg: Cycas
  • Coniferopsida- eg: Pinus, Cedrus etc.
  • Gnetopsida-eg: Gnetum
Pteridophytes vs Gymnosperms
Pteridophyte

Gymnosperms

Seedless spore bearing
vascular plants
Naked Seeded vascular plants
Plant body: Sporophyte
Sporophyte: well differentiated comparatively smaller in size Sporophyte: well differentiated, woody, large sized trees, shrubs or climbers.
Often moisture loving or hygroscopic rarely xeric With Xerophytic adaptations
Stem: often rhizhomatous, underground or close to the soil Stem: aerial, large and woody
Roots: adventitious roots, rarely rhizoids Roots: tap root system, extensive and elaborate
Less advanced stelar system More advanced stelar system (eustelic)
Vessels are absent Vessels are absent except Gnetum
Secondary growth is absent Prominent Secondary growth from coniferales onwards
Independent sporophyte and gametophyte Gametophyte dependant on sporophytes
Gametophyte
Gametophyte independent and free living Gametophyte dependant on sporophytes
The gametophyte or prothallus is often monoecious and bears both antheridia and archegonia Dioceous; separate male and female gmaetophytes
Flagellated or ciliated male gamete Non-flagellated male gamete
Pollen tubes are not formed Pollen tubes are formed
Male gametes swim towards female gametes attracted by chemicals(chemotaxis) Male gamete moves through the pollen tube to the female gamete
Water is essential for fertilization Water is not essential for fertilization and often wind pollinated
Megaspores re shed from the sporangia and independent female protahllus develops Megaspores are retained in the megasporangium.
Archegonia with prominent neck canal cell and venter canal cell Archegonia lacks neck canal cell and venter canal cell. Archegonium is absent in Gnetum.
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Difference between PAM and BLOSUM Matrix

Substitution matrices are used to score aligned positions in a sequence alignment procedure, usually of amino acids or nucleotide sequences.

Two commonly used matrices: PAM and BLOSUM
  • PAM = Percent Accepted Mutations (Margaret Dayhoff)
  • BLOSUM = Blocks Substitution Matrix (Steven and Henikoff)
BLOSUM matrix
 PAM VS BLOSUM
PAM
BLOSUM
PAM matrices are used to score alignments between closely related protein sequences. BLOSUM matrices are used to score alignments between evolutionarily divergent protein sequences.
Based on global alignments Based on local alignments
Alignments have high similarity than BLOSUM alignments Alignments have low similarity than PAM alignments
Mutations in global alignments are vey significant based on highly conserved stretches of alignments
Higher numbers in the PAM matrix naming denotes greater evolutionary distance Higher numbers in the BLOSUM matrix naming denotes higher sequence similarity and smaller evolutionary distance
Example: PAM 250 is used for more distant sequences than PAM 120 Example: BLOSUM 80is used for closely related sequences than BLOSUM 62

Substitution matrices are used to score aligned positions in a sequence alignment procedure, usually of amino acids or nucleotide sequences.

Two commonly used matrices: PAM and BLOSUM
  • PAM = Percent Accepted Mutations (Margaret Dayhoff)
  • BLOSUM = Blocks Substitution Matrix (Steven and Henikoff)
BLOSUM matrix
 PAM VS BLOSUM
PAM
BLOSUM
PAM matrices are used to score alignments between closely related protein sequences. BLOSUM matrices are used to score alignments between evolutionarily divergent protein sequences.
Based on global alignments Based on local alignments
Alignments have high similarity than BLOSUM alignments Alignments have low similarity than PAM alignments
Mutations in global alignments are vey significant based on highly conserved stretches of alignments
Higher numbers in the PAM matrix naming denotes greater evolutionary distance Higher numbers in the BLOSUM matrix naming denotes higher sequence similarity and smaller evolutionary distance
Example: PAM 250 is used for more distant sequences than PAM 120 Example: BLOSUM 80is used for closely related sequences than BLOSUM 62

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Difference between Plant Virus and Animal virus

Based on the types of host, viruses are of different types.i.e., plant viruses, animal viruses, bacteriophages, cyanophages, zymophages and mycophages.

Plant viruses (Phytophages) principally attack plants and majority of them possess single stranded RNA. Plant viruses or reoviridae contain of RNA as genetic material.
Example: The wound tumour virus, Califlower virus and dahlia mosiac virus contain dsDNA as their genetic material. No other ssDNA containing plant virus is known so far except Geminivirus.

Animal viruses (Zoophages) are those viruses that principally attack animals and possess double stranded DNA. influenza virus
Example: Polio virus and influenza virus, however,  contain RNA.
Plant Virus vs Animal Virus
Plant virus
  1. Capsid: It is only external boundary.
  2. Genetic material: RNA
  3. Nucleic acid strand: Single stranded
  4. Nature of nucleic acid: Linear
  5. Infection: Enter through wound or pore
Animal virus
  1. Capsid: In addition to capsid envelope is also present.
  2. Genetic material: DNA
  3. Nucleic acid strand: Double stranded
  4. Nature of nucleic acid: Linear or Circular
  5. Infection: Enter through phagocytosis

Based on the types of host, viruses are of different types.i.e., plant viruses, animal viruses, bacteriophages, cyanophages, zymophages and mycophages.

Plant viruses (Phytophages) principally attack plants and majority of them possess single stranded RNA. Plant viruses or reoviridae contain of RNA as genetic material.
Example: The wound tumour virus, Califlower virus and dahlia mosiac virus contain dsDNA as their genetic material. No other ssDNA containing plant virus is known so far except Geminivirus.

Animal viruses (Zoophages) are those viruses that principally attack animals and possess double stranded DNA. influenza virus
Example: Polio virus and influenza virus, however,  contain RNA.
Plant Virus vs Animal Virus
Plant virus
  1. Capsid: It is only external boundary.
  2. Genetic material: RNA
  3. Nucleic acid strand: Single stranded
  4. Nature of nucleic acid: Linear
  5. Infection: Enter through wound or pore
Animal virus
  1. Capsid: In addition to capsid envelope is also present.
  2. Genetic material: DNA
  3. Nucleic acid strand: Double stranded
  4. Nature of nucleic acid: Linear or Circular
  5. Infection: Enter through phagocytosis

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Difference between Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

Respiration is a process of biological oxidation where oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide is released for the purpose of releasing energy.
Mechanism of Respiration Involves:
  • Glycolysis
  • Anaerobic break down of Pyruvic acid
  • Krebs cycle: Aerobic break down of Pyruvic acid
  • Electron transport system
  • Terminal oxidation and Oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
Glycolysis or Embden - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway: The sequence of chemical reactions by which one molecule of glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid is termed as glycolysis. It take place in the cytoplasm and it does not require oxygen. Hence glycolysis is an anaerobic process. It is also known as Embden - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway.
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle): The entire Krebs cycle occurs in side the mitochondria. The oxidation of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water is called Krebs cycle. It was discovered by Krebs in 1936. This cycle is also called citric acid cycle, because the cycle begins with the formation of citric acid. The citric acid is a carboxylic acid containing three COOH groups. Hence this cycle is also called tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). It is an aerobic process.
citric acid cycle
Glycolysis vs Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
It occurs inside the cytopasm. Krebs cycle operates inside mitochondria.
The process is common to both aerobic and anaerobic mode of respiration. It occurs only in aerobic respiration.
It is first step of respiration in which glucose is broken down to the level of pyruvate. Krebs cycle is the second step in respiration.
It degrades a molecule of glucose into two molecules of an organic substance, pyruvate. It degrades pyruvate completely into inorganic substances (CO2 + H2O).
Glycolysis consumes 2 ATP molecules for the initial phosphorylation of substance molecule. It does not consume ATP.
In glycolysis, one glucose molecule liberates 4 ATP molecules through substrate level phosphorylation. In Krebs cycle, two acetyl residues liberates two ATP or GTP molecules through substrate level phosphorylation.
Net gain is two molecules of NADH and two molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose broken down. Krebs cycle produces six molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of FADH2 for every two molecules of acetyl CoA  oxidized by it.
The net gain of energy is equal to 8 ATP. The net gain of energy is equal to 24 molecules of ATP.
No carbon dioxide is evolved in glycolysis. Carbon dioxide is evolved in Krebs cycle.
It is not connected with oxidative phosphorylation. It is connected with oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxygen is not requires for glycolysis. Krebs cycle uses oxygen as terminal oxidant.
Respiration is a process of biological oxidation where oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide is released for the purpose of releasing energy.
Mechanism of Respiration Involves:
  • Glycolysis
  • Anaerobic break down of Pyruvic acid
  • Krebs cycle: Aerobic break down of Pyruvic acid
  • Electron transport system
  • Terminal oxidation and Oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
Glycolysis or Embden - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway: The sequence of chemical reactions by which one molecule of glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid is termed as glycolysis. It take place in the cytoplasm and it does not require oxygen. Hence glycolysis is an anaerobic process. It is also known as Embden - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway.
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle): The entire Krebs cycle occurs in side the mitochondria. The oxidation of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water is called Krebs cycle. It was discovered by Krebs in 1936. This cycle is also called citric acid cycle, because the cycle begins with the formation of citric acid. The citric acid is a carboxylic acid containing three COOH groups. Hence this cycle is also called tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). It is an aerobic process.
citric acid cycle
Glycolysis vs Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
It occurs inside the cytopasm. Krebs cycle operates inside mitochondria.
The process is common to both aerobic and anaerobic mode of respiration. It occurs only in aerobic respiration.
It is first step of respiration in which glucose is broken down to the level of pyruvate. Krebs cycle is the second step in respiration.
It degrades a molecule of glucose into two molecules of an organic substance, pyruvate. It degrades pyruvate completely into inorganic substances (CO2 + H2O).
Glycolysis consumes 2 ATP molecules for the initial phosphorylation of substance molecule. It does not consume ATP.
In glycolysis, one glucose molecule liberates 4 ATP molecules through substrate level phosphorylation. In Krebs cycle, two acetyl residues liberates two ATP or GTP molecules through substrate level phosphorylation.
Net gain is two molecules of NADH and two molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose broken down. Krebs cycle produces six molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of FADH2 for every two molecules of acetyl CoA  oxidized by it.
The net gain of energy is equal to 8 ATP. The net gain of energy is equal to 24 molecules of ATP.
No carbon dioxide is evolved in glycolysis. Carbon dioxide is evolved in Krebs cycle.
It is not connected with oxidative phosphorylation. It is connected with oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxygen is not requires for glycolysis. Krebs cycle uses oxygen as terminal oxidant.
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Difference between Generalized and Specialized Databases

Generalized  Databases
  1. Database that has a wide range of related information.
  2. Databases of DNA, proteins, mRNAs, structural databases etc
  3. It Includes 1.Sequence database and 2. Structure database
  • Sequence database: Databases with records of either nucleotide sequences or amino acid sequences
               Example: GenBank, DDBJ
  • Structure database: contains records of resolved structures of macromolecules Example: PDB
PDB

Specialized Databases
  1.  Database created to meet some specific needs or containing specific data
  2.  It include model organism databases, biochemical pathways, diseases of human beings etc
Example:
OMIM
Model organism databases (MOD):Ecogene, Flybase, Mouse genome database (MGD), Saccharomyces genome data base (SGD)
• Biochemical pathways: KEGG
• Diseases of human beings-Online Mendalian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)
Generalized  Databases
  1. Database that has a wide range of related information.
  2. Databases of DNA, proteins, mRNAs, structural databases etc
  3. It Includes 1.Sequence database and 2. Structure database
  • Sequence database: Databases with records of either nucleotide sequences or amino acid sequences
               Example: GenBank, DDBJ
  • Structure database: contains records of resolved structures of macromolecules Example: PDB
PDB

Specialized Databases
  1.  Database created to meet some specific needs or containing specific data
  2.  It include model organism databases, biochemical pathways, diseases of human beings etc
Example:
OMIM
Model organism databases (MOD):Ecogene, Flybase, Mouse genome database (MGD), Saccharomyces genome data base (SGD)
• Biochemical pathways: KEGG
• Diseases of human beings-Online Mendalian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)
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Difference between Primary and Secondary Database

A collection of related data arranged in a way suitable for adding, locating, removing and modifying the data
I. Primary database
  1. It is also known as archival database
  2. Databases consisting of data derived experimentally such as nucleotide sequences and three dimensional structures are known as primary databases.
  3. Experimental results are directly submitted into database by researchers across the globe
  4. Example: Gen bank, DDBJ, SWISS-PROT
GenBank
II. Secondary database
  1. It is also known as curated database
  2. Databases consisting of data derived from the analysis of primary data such as sequences, secondary structures etc
  3. It contains results of analysis of primary databases and significant data in the form of conserved sequences, signature sequences, active site residues of proteins etc.
OMIM
  4. Example: PROSITE, BLOCKS, PRINTS, OMIM
A collection of related data arranged in a way suitable for adding, locating, removing and modifying the data
I. Primary database
  1. It is also known as archival database
  2. Databases consisting of data derived experimentally such as nucleotide sequences and three dimensional structures are known as primary databases.
  3. Experimental results are directly submitted into database by researchers across the globe
  4. Example: Gen bank, DDBJ, SWISS-PROT
GenBank
II. Secondary database
  1. It is also known as curated database
  2. Databases consisting of data derived from the analysis of primary data such as sequences, secondary structures etc
  3. It contains results of analysis of primary databases and significant data in the form of conserved sequences, signature sequences, active site residues of proteins etc.
OMIM
  4. Example: PROSITE, BLOCKS, PRINTS, OMIM
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Difference between SA node and AV node

The automatic rhythmicity of the heart is its ability to contract spontaneously and at a regular rate. The impulse of contraction of the heart originates in the sino atrial node (SA node) situated in the right atruim close to the point of entry of the vena cava. SA node consists of a small number of diffusely oriented cardiac fibres, possessing few myofibrils, and  a few nerve endings from the autonomic nervous system.It is also known as the pace maker of the heart.
SA node and AV node of heart
Atrioventricular Node or AV node: It is compact half oval mass of myogenic fibres which lies in the posterior septal  wall of right atrium near the opening of coronary sinus. It receives impulse from SA node and transmits it to ventricles. Direct transmission of impulse from SA node to ventricles is not possible  due to the absence of continuity of muscles between atria and ventricles and the presence of fibrous connective tissue of atrioventricular septum. Transmission from SA node stimulates AV node to generate fresh impulse for ventricles. Therefore, AV node is also called pacesetter.
SA node vs AV node
 SA node (Sinoatrial node) AV node (Atrioventricular node)
Sinoatrial node is located in superior lateral wall opening of superior vena cava. AV node is present in the posterior septal wall of right of right atrium near the atrium near the opening of coronary sinus.
It is longer. It is shorter.
SA node is ellipsoid flattened. It is half oval in outline
It generates the cardiac impulse. It relays and intensifies the cardiac impulse.
SA node transmits impulse directly to the two atria. Atrioventricular node carries the impulse to the two ventricles through AV bundle, its branches and terminal strands.
It is influenced by autonomic nervous system. It is influenced by SA node.
SA node acts as pacemaker. AV node functions as pacesetter.
Function: Autorhythmic fibres initiate cardiac action potentials, which set basic pace for heart rate and conduct throughout both atria. Receives action potentials from SA node and passes them to atrioventricular(AV) bundle

The automatic rhythmicity of the heart is its ability to contract spontaneously and at a regular rate. The impulse of contraction of the heart originates in the sino atrial node (SA node) situated in the right atruim close to the point of entry of the vena cava. SA node consists of a small number of diffusely oriented cardiac fibres, possessing few myofibrils, and  a few nerve endings from the autonomic nervous system.It is also known as the pace maker of the heart.
SA node and AV node of heart
Atrioventricular Node or AV node: It is compact half oval mass of myogenic fibres which lies in the posterior septal  wall of right atrium near the opening of coronary sinus. It receives impulse from SA node and transmits it to ventricles. Direct transmission of impulse from SA node to ventricles is not possible  due to the absence of continuity of muscles between atria and ventricles and the presence of fibrous connective tissue of atrioventricular septum. Transmission from SA node stimulates AV node to generate fresh impulse for ventricles. Therefore, AV node is also called pacesetter.
SA node vs AV node
 SA node (Sinoatrial node) AV node (Atrioventricular node)
Sinoatrial node is located in superior lateral wall opening of superior vena cava. AV node is present in the posterior septal wall of right of right atrium near the atrium near the opening of coronary sinus.
It is longer. It is shorter.
SA node is ellipsoid flattened. It is half oval in outline
It generates the cardiac impulse. It relays and intensifies the cardiac impulse.
SA node transmits impulse directly to the two atria. Atrioventricular node carries the impulse to the two ventricles through AV bundle, its branches and terminal strands.
It is influenced by autonomic nervous system. It is influenced by SA node.
SA node acts as pacemaker. AV node functions as pacesetter.
Function: Autorhythmic fibres initiate cardiac action potentials, which set basic pace for heart rate and conduct throughout both atria. Receives action potentials from SA node and passes them to atrioventricular(AV) bundle

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Difference between Cloning Vector and Expression Vector

Cloning vectors are the DNA molecules that can carry a foreign DNA segment into the the host cell.The vectors used in recombinant DNA technology can be plasmids, cosmids, bacteriophages etc.
  • Plasmids: Self replicating, circular,  extra chromosomal DNA present in bacteria. Plasmids have only one or two copies per cell.
  • Bacteriophages: Virus infecting bacteria. Bacteriophages have high number per cell, so their copy number  is also high in genome.
  • Cosmids: Hybrid vectors derived from plasmids which contain cos site of lambda phage.
Feature required to facilitate cloning into vector: Origin of replication, Selectable marker, unique restriction sites.
The purpose of cloning vector is often to make numerous copies of the inserted gene.
Expression Vectors: The cloning vector containing suitable expression signals to have maximum gene expression, is called expression vector.
The following expression signals are introduced into gene cloned vectors to get maximum expression:
  • Insertion of a strong promoter.
  • Insertion of a strong termination codon.
  • Adjustment of distance between promoter and cloned gene.
  • Insertion of transcription termination sequence.
  • Insertion of a strong translation initiation sequence. pCI mammalian expression vector 
Example: An expression vector pSOMI containing promoter operator (PO) for production of a chain of somatostatin (somI).
Expression vector are designed for the expression of protein product coded by that inserted gene.
Cloning vectors are the DNA molecules that can carry a foreign DNA segment into the the host cell.The vectors used in recombinant DNA technology can be plasmids, cosmids, bacteriophages etc.
  • Plasmids: Self replicating, circular,  extra chromosomal DNA present in bacteria. Plasmids have only one or two copies per cell.
  • Bacteriophages: Virus infecting bacteria. Bacteriophages have high number per cell, so their copy number  is also high in genome.
  • Cosmids: Hybrid vectors derived from plasmids which contain cos site of lambda phage.
Feature required to facilitate cloning into vector: Origin of replication, Selectable marker, unique restriction sites.
The purpose of cloning vector is often to make numerous copies of the inserted gene.
Expression Vectors: The cloning vector containing suitable expression signals to have maximum gene expression, is called expression vector.
The following expression signals are introduced into gene cloned vectors to get maximum expression:
  • Insertion of a strong promoter.
  • Insertion of a strong termination codon.
  • Adjustment of distance between promoter and cloned gene.
  • Insertion of transcription termination sequence.
  • Insertion of a strong translation initiation sequence. pCI mammalian expression vector 
Example: An expression vector pSOMI containing promoter operator (PO) for production of a chain of somatostatin (somI).
Expression vector are designed for the expression of protein product coded by that inserted gene.
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Difference between Small Intestine and Large Intestine

Small intestine : It is the longest part of alimentary canal which measures between 4.5 to 7 m in length. The term small intestine is used because this part of the alimentary canal has narrowest diameter. Small intestine lies coiled in the abdomen. Internally, it possess two types of ingrowths circular folds and villi. Circular folds are also called plicae circulares. They slow down the movement of food through the intestine. Consequently, the food remains for longer time in the small intestine for digestion and absorption.
small intestine and Large intestine
Large Intestine: It is the hindermost part of alimentary canal which opens to the outside through the anus. The larger intestine is called large because it has a wider diameter(4-6 cm) as compared to small intestine(3.5-4.5 cm). The length of large intestine is about 1.5 m. It has 4 regions: caecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
It is quite long, 4.5 - 7.0 m. It is comparatively shorter, 1.5 m
It is narrow, 3.5-4.5 cm in width. It is comparatively broader, 4-6 cm in diameter.
Small intestine. has three parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. It has four parts: caecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
Internal surfaces has circular folds or plicae circulares. Circular folds  are absent.
Villi are present. Villi are absent.
Peyer’s patches are present in a part of small intestine. Peyer’s patches are absent.
The surface does not contain longitudinal bands called taeniae coli. Taeniae coli are present
Haustra are absent. Haustra are present.
It does not contain epiploic appendages. Epiploic appendages are present.
Digestion is complicated in small intestine. It has no role in digestion.
It secrets a number of hormones. Hormone secretion is absent.
It absorbs the digested nutrients. It takes part in absorption of water from the indigestible residue.
It shows small movements in the abdominal activity. It is largely fixed. Mobility is little.
Small intestine : It is the longest part of alimentary canal which measures between 4.5 to 7 m in length. The term small intestine is used because this part of the alimentary canal has narrowest diameter. Small intestine lies coiled in the abdomen. Internally, it possess two types of ingrowths circular folds and villi. Circular folds are also called plicae circulares. They slow down the movement of food through the intestine. Consequently, the food remains for longer time in the small intestine for digestion and absorption.
small intestine and Large intestine
Large Intestine: It is the hindermost part of alimentary canal which opens to the outside through the anus. The larger intestine is called large because it has a wider diameter(4-6 cm) as compared to small intestine(3.5-4.5 cm). The length of large intestine is about 1.5 m. It has 4 regions: caecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
It is quite long, 4.5 - 7.0 m. It is comparatively shorter, 1.5 m
It is narrow, 3.5-4.5 cm in width. It is comparatively broader, 4-6 cm in diameter.
Small intestine. has three parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. It has four parts: caecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
Internal surfaces has circular folds or plicae circulares. Circular folds  are absent.
Villi are present. Villi are absent.
Peyer’s patches are present in a part of small intestine. Peyer’s patches are absent.
The surface does not contain longitudinal bands called taeniae coli. Taeniae coli are present
Haustra are absent. Haustra are present.
It does not contain epiploic appendages. Epiploic appendages are present.
Digestion is complicated in small intestine. It has no role in digestion.
It secrets a number of hormones. Hormone secretion is absent.
It absorbs the digested nutrients. It takes part in absorption of water from the indigestible residue.
It shows small movements in the abdominal activity. It is largely fixed. Mobility is little.
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Difference between Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are complex long chain carbohydrates which are formed by dehydrate synthesis or polymerisation of more than ten but generally very large number of units called monosaccharides.
starch Oligosaccharides: They are small sized polymers of monosaccharides having 2-6 simple sugars occasionally up to 9-10.
Oligosaccharides vs Polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides
  1. They are small sized compound carbohydrates.
  2. An oligosaccharides consists of 2-6, rarely 10 monosaccharide residues.
  3. They are soluble in water.
  4. Oligosaccharides are sweet to taste.
  5. They are physiologically active.
  6. Oligosaccharides are structural components of cell membranes.
  7. Transport occurs in oligosaccharide stage.
Polysaccharides
  1. They are large sized compound carbohydrates.
  2. A polysaccharide is made up of numerous (several hundred) monosaccharide residues.
  3. Polysaccharides are insoluble in water.
  4. Sweetness is absent.
  5. They are physiologically inactive.
  6. Polysaccharides are structural components of cell walls.
  7. Storage mostly occurs in the polysaccharide.
Polysaccharides are complex long chain carbohydrates which are formed by dehydrate synthesis or polymerisation of more than ten but generally very large number of units called monosaccharides.
starch Oligosaccharides: They are small sized polymers of monosaccharides having 2-6 simple sugars occasionally up to 9-10.
Oligosaccharides vs Polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides
  1. They are small sized compound carbohydrates.
  2. An oligosaccharides consists of 2-6, rarely 10 monosaccharide residues.
  3. They are soluble in water.
  4. Oligosaccharides are sweet to taste.
  5. They are physiologically active.
  6. Oligosaccharides are structural components of cell membranes.
  7. Transport occurs in oligosaccharide stage.
Polysaccharides
  1. They are large sized compound carbohydrates.
  2. A polysaccharide is made up of numerous (several hundred) monosaccharide residues.
  3. Polysaccharides are insoluble in water.
  4. Sweetness is absent.
  5. They are physiologically inactive.
  6. Polysaccharides are structural components of cell walls.
  7. Storage mostly occurs in the polysaccharide.
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Difference between Leydig’s cells and Sertoli cells

Leydig’s cells (Interstitial cells) vs Sertoli cells (Sustentacular cells)
Leydig’s cells (Interstitial cells):
Leydig cells
  1. They are present in between the seminiferous tubules.
  2. Leydig’s cells are found in small groups and are round in shape.
  3. They secrete androgens (e.g., testosteone)
Sertoli cells (Sustentacular cells): 
Sertoli cells
  1. They are present in between the germinal epithelial cells of the seminiferous tubules.
  2. Sertoli cells are found singly and are elongated.
  3. They provide nourishment to the developing spermatozoa sperms. They also secrete ABP (Androgen Binding Protein) that concentrates testosterone in the seminiferous tubules. It also secretes another protein inhibin which suppresses FSH synthesis.


Leydig’s cells (Interstitial cells) vs Sertoli cells (Sustentacular cells)
Leydig’s cells (Interstitial cells):
Leydig cells
  1. They are present in between the seminiferous tubules.
  2. Leydig’s cells are found in small groups and are round in shape.
  3. They secrete androgens (e.g., testosteone)
Sertoli cells (Sustentacular cells): 
Sertoli cells
  1. They are present in between the germinal epithelial cells of the seminiferous tubules.
  2. Sertoli cells are found singly and are elongated.
  3. They provide nourishment to the developing spermatozoa sperms. They also secrete ABP (Androgen Binding Protein) that concentrates testosterone in the seminiferous tubules. It also secretes another protein inhibin which suppresses FSH synthesis.


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Difference between Gametic Meiosis, Zygotic Meiosis and Sporic Meiosis

Depending upon the stage when meiosis occurs, the meiosis is of three types: Gametic, Zygotic and Sporic.
I. Gametic Meiosis:
Gametic meiosis
  1. Meiosis occurs during gamete formation.
  2. Results in formation of haploid gametes.
  3. Gametes fuse during fertilization and form diploid zygote i.e, having diplontic life cycle.
  4. Example: In sexually reproducing organisms.
II. Zygotic Meiosis:
Zygotic meiosis in algae
  1. Meiotic division occurs in zygote.
  2. Results in formation of haploid individuals.
  3. Division of zygote results in haploid organisms i.e., having haplontic life cycle.
  4. Example: In lower plants.
III. Sporic MeiosisSporic meiosis

  1. Meiotic division occurs during sporogenesis.
  2. Results in formation of haploid spores.
  3. Spore divide to form gametophytes which will form gametes. Gametic fusion results in diploid sporophyte. i,e., having Diplohaplontic life cycle.
  4. Example:In Plants
Depending upon the stage when meiosis occurs, the meiosis is of three types: Gametic, Zygotic and Sporic.
I. Gametic Meiosis:
Gametic meiosis
  1. Meiosis occurs during gamete formation.
  2. Results in formation of haploid gametes.
  3. Gametes fuse during fertilization and form diploid zygote i.e, having diplontic life cycle.
  4. Example: In sexually reproducing organisms.
II. Zygotic Meiosis:
Zygotic meiosis in algae
  1. Meiotic division occurs in zygote.
  2. Results in formation of haploid individuals.
  3. Division of zygote results in haploid organisms i.e., having haplontic life cycle.
  4. Example: In lower plants.
III. Sporic MeiosisSporic meiosis

  1. Meiotic division occurs during sporogenesis.
  2. Results in formation of haploid spores.
  3. Spore divide to form gametophytes which will form gametes. Gametic fusion results in diploid sporophyte. i,e., having Diplohaplontic life cycle.
  4. Example:In Plants
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