12 Differences between Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM vs TEM)

There are two categories of microscopes based on the principle on which magnification is achieved, Light microscopes and Electron microscopes (EM). In Light or optical microscopes, magnification is obtained by a system of optical lenses using light waves. Electron microscope (EM) uses beams of electrons to produce images. In overall design, EM is similar to light microscopes with some differences (Refer: Electron Microscope  vs Light Microscope)
Electron microscope was designed by Knoll and Ruska of Germany in 1932. There are two types of electron microscopes: TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) 
 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) vs Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
SEM vs TEM

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Used to produce excellent images of the surfaces of cells and small organisms. Excellent for studying surface morphology of the organisms, cells or any suitable material under study
Used to study the ultra structure of the cell and its components. It can see objects as small as a protein molecule or even at nano level. Provides details about internal composition of cells or any suitable material under study
Electron beam scans over the surface of the sample
Electron beam pass through the sample
Based on scattered electrons or produces images by detecting secondary electrons which are emitted from the surface due to excitation by the primary electron beam
Based on transmitted electrons or produces images by detecting primary electrons transmitted from the sample
Comparatively low resolution than TEM; Resolution: 2nm(Average), 0.2nm (Special)
High Resolution; Resolution: 10 nm (Average), 0.5nm (Special)
Depth of field: High
Depth of field: Moderate
Magnifying power: 100,000X
Magnifying power: 5,000,000X
Specimen contrast:  by electron adsorption
By electron scattering
Produces three-dimensional black and white images
Produces two-dimensional black and white images
Preparation technique: easy
Skilled, very thin sample is required
Preparation thickness: variable
Very thin
Specimen mounting: Aluminium stubs
Thin films on copper grids
Field of view:  Large
Limited


Similarities between SEM and TEM
·         Type of object : Non living
·         Source of radiation: Electron
·         Medium: High vacuum
·         Nature of lenses: one electrostsastic and a few electromagnetic lenses
·         Magnification Adjustment: Current in the projector lens coil
·         Focusing: Current in the objective lens coil
Image credit:1) http://remf.dartmouth.edu/imagesindex.html  2) https://www.paldat.org/pub/Tilia_platyphyllos/109978
There are two categories of microscopes based on the principle on which magnification is achieved, Light microscopes and Electron microscopes (EM). In Light or optical microscopes, magnification is obtained by a system of optical lenses using light waves. Electron microscope (EM) uses beams of electrons to produce images. In overall design, EM is similar to light microscopes with some differences (Refer: Electron Microscope  vs Light Microscope)
Electron microscope was designed by Knoll and Ruska of Germany in 1932. There are two types of electron microscopes: TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) 
 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) vs Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
SEM vs TEM

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Used to produce excellent images of the surfaces of cells and small organisms. Excellent for studying surface morphology of the organisms, cells or any suitable material under study
Used to study the ultra structure of the cell and its components. It can see objects as small as a protein molecule or even at nano level. Provides details about internal composition of cells or any suitable material under study
Electron beam scans over the surface of the sample
Electron beam pass through the sample
Based on scattered electrons or produces images by detecting secondary electrons which are emitted from the surface due to excitation by the primary electron beam
Based on transmitted electrons or produces images by detecting primary electrons transmitted from the sample
Comparatively low resolution than TEM; Resolution: 2nm(Average), 0.2nm (Special)
High Resolution; Resolution: 10 nm (Average), 0.5nm (Special)
Depth of field: High
Depth of field: Moderate
Magnifying power: 100,000X
Magnifying power: 5,000,000X
Specimen contrast:  by electron adsorption
By electron scattering
Produces three-dimensional black and white images
Produces two-dimensional black and white images
Preparation technique: easy
Skilled, very thin sample is required
Preparation thickness: variable
Very thin
Specimen mounting: Aluminium stubs
Thin films on copper grids
Field of view:  Large
Limited


Similarities between SEM and TEM
·         Type of object : Non living
·         Source of radiation: Electron
·         Medium: High vacuum
·         Nature of lenses: one electrostsastic and a few electromagnetic lenses
·         Magnification Adjustment: Current in the projector lens coil
·         Focusing: Current in the objective lens coil
Image credit:1) http://remf.dartmouth.edu/imagesindex.html  2) https://www.paldat.org/pub/Tilia_platyphyllos/109978
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6 Differences between Predation and Parasitism

In an ecosystem, organisms of the same species interact among themselves (intraspecific interaction) as well as with individual of other species population (interspecific interaction). At an individual level, these interactions or relationships may be beneficial or harmful. At a population level, these interactions may stabilize, reduce or enhance the population growth rate.

Predation and parasitism are interspecific interactions where in both victims are deeply harmed.
Predation vs Parasitism


Parasitism
Predation
Parasite host relationship is very specific or host specificity is more stringent. Each parasite is often associated with a definite host species
No specific prey predator relationship or predator may feed on many prey species without much specificity
Parasitism is an intimate association involving metabolic dependency of the parasite on the host
No such metabolic dependency in prey predator relationship
Parasite is generally smaller than the host
Predator is generally larger than the prey
Predator is very active and often intense physical effort is needed to catch the prey
Parasites are generally passive and its progression inside the host is slow and steady
Usually parasite do not kill the host
In Predation, prey is immediately killed and eaten by the predator
Often parasite completes its life cycle inside the host or hosts
No such event in predation or predator does not require prey for completion of its life cycle
Examples: mosquito is a parasite, feeding on a human while transferring the disease Malaria, lice on humans, cows (ectoparasite), tapeworms in intestines of cows, humans (endoparasite). Cuscuta (stem parasite in plants).
Examples: 
Lion and Zebra
Bear and Fish
Fox and Rabbit
In an ecosystem, organisms of the same species interact among themselves (intraspecific interaction) as well as with individual of other species population (interspecific interaction). At an individual level, these interactions or relationships may be beneficial or harmful. At a population level, these interactions may stabilize, reduce or enhance the population growth rate.

Predation and parasitism are interspecific interactions where in both victims are deeply harmed.
Predation vs Parasitism


Parasitism
Predation
Parasite host relationship is very specific or host specificity is more stringent. Each parasite is often associated with a definite host species
No specific prey predator relationship or predator may feed on many prey species without much specificity
Parasitism is an intimate association involving metabolic dependency of the parasite on the host
No such metabolic dependency in prey predator relationship
Parasite is generally smaller than the host
Predator is generally larger than the prey
Predator is very active and often intense physical effort is needed to catch the prey
Parasites are generally passive and its progression inside the host is slow and steady
Usually parasite do not kill the host
In Predation, prey is immediately killed and eaten by the predator
Often parasite completes its life cycle inside the host or hosts
No such event in predation or predator does not require prey for completion of its life cycle
Examples: mosquito is a parasite, feeding on a human while transferring the disease Malaria, lice on humans, cows (ectoparasite), tapeworms in intestines of cows, humans (endoparasite). Cuscuta (stem parasite in plants).
Examples: 
Lion and Zebra
Bear and Fish
Fox and Rabbit
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6 Differences between Autecology and Synecology

The term ecology was coined by Ernest Haeckel. “Ecology”, the term was derived from two Greek words-‘oikos’ meaning house and ‘logos’ meaning study. E.P.Odum, the famous ecologist defined ecology as ‘the study of structure and function of nature’. In simple terms, ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the scientific study of the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The branch Ecology is further divided into Autecology,  Synecology and Habitat ecology.
Refer figure for better understanding
                                                              Autecology vs Synecology
 Autecology vs Synecology
Autecology
Synecology
It is the study of individual organism or individual species or a population in relation to their environment
It is the study of group of organisms or many species or communities in relation to their environment
It is also called as population ecology
It is also called as community ecology
The study is at the level of an individual, a population or an entire species
Synecology is concerned with study of the highest level of biological organization; many populations in an area (called as community) interacting with each other and also with the environment. It can even be the study of an ecosystem
Autecology is comparatively simple experimental and inductive.
Synecology is complex, philosophical and deductive. (Refer: Inductive vs Deductive)
Autecology studies can be accommodated in a laboratory setup and data is interpreted using conventional mathematical tools**
Synecology studies refers to the interaction of a whole system and that cannot be accommodated in a laboratory setup as the system is naturally formed after interactions of hundreds of years such as a forest ecosystem
Example: Study of Zebra population in relation to its environment (may be factors like rainfall, hunting, lion population etc in a grassland ecosystem) see the figure (in dotted black lines)
Example: Study of entire grassland ecosystem
(including all the species or communities) see the figure (in green thick border)

The term ecology was coined by Ernest Haeckel. “Ecology”, the term was derived from two Greek words-‘oikos’ meaning house and ‘logos’ meaning study. E.P.Odum, the famous ecologist defined ecology as ‘the study of structure and function of nature’. In simple terms, ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the scientific study of the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The branch Ecology is further divided into Autecology,  Synecology and Habitat ecology.
Refer figure for better understanding
                                                              Autecology vs Synecology
 Autecology vs Synecology
Autecology
Synecology
It is the study of individual organism or individual species or a population in relation to their environment
It is the study of group of organisms or many species or communities in relation to their environment
It is also called as population ecology
It is also called as community ecology
The study is at the level of an individual, a population or an entire species
Synecology is concerned with study of the highest level of biological organization; many populations in an area (called as community) interacting with each other and also with the environment. It can even be the study of an ecosystem
Autecology is comparatively simple experimental and inductive.
Synecology is complex, philosophical and deductive. (Refer: Inductive vs Deductive)
Autecology studies can be accommodated in a laboratory setup and data is interpreted using conventional mathematical tools**
Synecology studies refers to the interaction of a whole system and that cannot be accommodated in a laboratory setup as the system is naturally formed after interactions of hundreds of years such as a forest ecosystem
Example: Study of Zebra population in relation to its environment (may be factors like rainfall, hunting, lion population etc in a grassland ecosystem) see the figure (in dotted black lines)
Example: Study of entire grassland ecosystem
(including all the species or communities) see the figure (in green thick border)

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Difference between Cilia and Centriole

Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.
Cilia vs Centriole

Centriole: A structure in an animal cell, composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles, which are involved in cell division.
9+2 pattern vs 9+0 pattern
Cilia vs Centriole
Cilia
Centriole
Cilia are thread like appendages which project outside a cell from a basal blepharoplast granule, and are covered by plasma membrane. Their diameter is 0.5μ.
Centrioles are two small rod like bodies, lying at right angles to each other within the cytoplasm near the nucleus. Each is 0.15μin diameter and 0.5μlong. They have no bounding membrane except a cytoplasmic  matrix.
Each cilium shows 9 peripheral groups of doublet microtubules arranged in a circle, and two singlet microtubules in centre enclosed in a sheath. This is called 9+2 pattern.

Each cetriole has 9 peripheral groups of triplet microtubules, without any central microtubules. This is called 9+0 pattern.

They are not self duplicating units and do not have DNA or RNA, but contain tubulin proteins and dyenin.
They are self duplicating units and contain DNA or RNA.
Function: Cilia is as organ of locomotion of cells by their sweeping or pendular vibrations.
Function:  They give rise to basal granules of cilia and flagella, and to produce spindle apparatus at the time of cell division.
Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.
Cilia vs Centriole

Centriole: A structure in an animal cell, composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles, which are involved in cell division.
9+2 pattern vs 9+0 pattern
Cilia vs Centriole
Cilia
Centriole
Cilia are thread like appendages which project outside a cell from a basal blepharoplast granule, and are covered by plasma membrane. Their diameter is 0.5μ.
Centrioles are two small rod like bodies, lying at right angles to each other within the cytoplasm near the nucleus. Each is 0.15μin diameter and 0.5μlong. They have no bounding membrane except a cytoplasmic  matrix.
Each cilium shows 9 peripheral groups of doublet microtubules arranged in a circle, and two singlet microtubules in centre enclosed in a sheath. This is called 9+2 pattern.

Each cetriole has 9 peripheral groups of triplet microtubules, without any central microtubules. This is called 9+0 pattern.

They are not self duplicating units and do not have DNA or RNA, but contain tubulin proteins and dyenin.
They are self duplicating units and contain DNA or RNA.
Function: Cilia is as organ of locomotion of cells by their sweeping or pendular vibrations.
Function:  They give rise to basal granules of cilia and flagella, and to produce spindle apparatus at the time of cell division.
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Difference between Tendon and Ligament

Tendon and ligaments are dense connective tissues.The tendon cells are modified fibroblasts. Tendons occur at the ends of skeletal muscles, and serves to attach them strongly to bones.
Tendon vs Ligament



Ligaments are found in joints. Ligaments connect bones at joints and hold them together in position. The matrix is densely crowded with collagen fibres running in different directions and with some elastin fibres inbetween. Some flat elongated ligament cells are seen inbetween the fibres. 
Tendon vs Ligament
Tendon
Ligament
Tendon joins skeletal muscle to a bone.
Ligaments join a bone to another bone.
It is tough and inelastic.
It is strong but elastic.
It is a modification of white fibrous tissue
It is a modification of yellow elastic tissue with some collagen fibres.
Fibroblasts lie in a almost continuous rows.
Fibroblasts lie scattered.
Fibres are seen as dense parallel bundles.
Fibres are densely crowded but not arranged in parallel bundles.
Tendon and ligaments are dense connective tissues.The tendon cells are modified fibroblasts. Tendons occur at the ends of skeletal muscles, and serves to attach them strongly to bones.
Tendon vs Ligament



Ligaments are found in joints. Ligaments connect bones at joints and hold them together in position. The matrix is densely crowded with collagen fibres running in different directions and with some elastin fibres inbetween. Some flat elongated ligament cells are seen inbetween the fibres. 
Tendon vs Ligament
Tendon
Ligament
Tendon joins skeletal muscle to a bone.
Ligaments join a bone to another bone.
It is tough and inelastic.
It is strong but elastic.
It is a modification of white fibrous tissue
It is a modification of yellow elastic tissue with some collagen fibres.
Fibroblasts lie in a almost continuous rows.
Fibroblasts lie scattered.
Fibres are seen as dense parallel bundles.
Fibres are densely crowded but not arranged in parallel bundles.
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Difference between Syphilis and Gonorrhoea

The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral and protozoans etc.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Disease
Pathogen
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Viral
Herpes genitalis
HSV 2 virus
Condyloma acuminatum
Papova virus
Molluscum contagiosum
Pox virus
Bacterial
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vaginitis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi
Syphilis and Gonorrhoea
Syphilis vs Gonorrhoea
 Major sexually transmitted diseases are Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
Syphilis symptoms:
Characterized by the lesion in the mucous membrane of urinogenital tract, ulcers on genitalia and swelling of local lymph nodes, hair loss, swollen joints which can lead to brain damage, blindness and heart disease etc.
Gonorrhoea symptoms:
Discharge of pus or excessive vaginal secretion, burning on urination and pain around the genitals. Also to arthritis and eyes infection in children of gonorrhea afflicted mothers.
Syphilis
Gonorrhoea
Causative agent
Treponema pallidum (Spirochaete)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Bacteria)
Mode of infections and spread
Sexual contact with infected person. New born babies get it from infected mothers.
Sexual contact with infected person. Pregnant women can pass on the infection to their babies during birth.
Symptoms
Stages of Syphilis:
 In the first stage, tiny painless hard sores develop on the genital organs.
 In the second stage, coppery rashes appear over the body, and ulcers inside the mouth. The disease is infectious during the first and second stages. The disease is not infectious at the third stage.
In the third stage, lesions develop on the internal organs such as aorta, nervous system, liver spleen etc.


In males thick yellow discharge from urethra, pain on passing urine, pus in the urine and semen.

In females, vaginal discharge, pain on urination, and inflammation of the external genital organs. It may cause sterility in females.
Control
Antibiotics like penicillin, tetracycline
Penicillin and Ampicillin
The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral and protozoans etc.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Disease
Pathogen
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Viral
Herpes genitalis
HSV 2 virus
Condyloma acuminatum
Papova virus
Molluscum contagiosum
Pox virus
Bacterial
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vaginitis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi
Syphilis and Gonorrhoea
Syphilis vs Gonorrhoea
 Major sexually transmitted diseases are Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
Syphilis symptoms:
Characterized by the lesion in the mucous membrane of urinogenital tract, ulcers on genitalia and swelling of local lymph nodes, hair loss, swollen joints which can lead to brain damage, blindness and heart disease etc.
Gonorrhoea symptoms:
Discharge of pus or excessive vaginal secretion, burning on urination and pain around the genitals. Also to arthritis and eyes infection in children of gonorrhea afflicted mothers.
Syphilis
Gonorrhoea
Causative agent
Treponema pallidum (Spirochaete)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Bacteria)
Mode of infections and spread
Sexual contact with infected person. New born babies get it from infected mothers.
Sexual contact with infected person. Pregnant women can pass on the infection to their babies during birth.
Symptoms
Stages of Syphilis:
 In the first stage, tiny painless hard sores develop on the genital organs.
 In the second stage, coppery rashes appear over the body, and ulcers inside the mouth. The disease is infectious during the first and second stages. The disease is not infectious at the third stage.
In the third stage, lesions develop on the internal organs such as aorta, nervous system, liver spleen etc.


In males thick yellow discharge from urethra, pain on passing urine, pus in the urine and semen.

In females, vaginal discharge, pain on urination, and inflammation of the external genital organs. It may cause sterility in females.
Control
Antibiotics like penicillin, tetracycline
Penicillin and Ampicillin
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Difference between Cilia and Microvilli

Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.

Microvilli are short protoplasmic projections. They give a brush like appearance to their free border. Microvilli increase the free surface area of the cell and thereby increase the rate of absorption. They found on proximal tubules of kidneys and intestine.

Cilia vs Microvilli
Cilia
cilia

Microvilli
microvilli
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in intenstine; where absorption and secretions are the major activities
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are extremely thin and short structured
Function: Movement
Function: Microvilli increase the intestinal mucosa, and consequently help in enhancing absorption.
Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.

Microvilli are short protoplasmic projections. They give a brush like appearance to their free border. Microvilli increase the free surface area of the cell and thereby increase the rate of absorption. They found on proximal tubules of kidneys and intestine.

Cilia vs Microvilli
Cilia
cilia

Microvilli
microvilli
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in intenstine; where absorption and secretions are the major activities
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are extremely thin and short structured
Function: Movement
Function: Microvilli increase the intestinal mucosa, and consequently help in enhancing absorption.
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