6 Differences between Compounds and Mixtures with examples

Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.
Example of elements: Copper, silver, gold etc.
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together
Example of compounds: Water, salt, ammonia, methane, benzene.
c) Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Example of mixtures:  Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.
Compounds vs Mixtures
Differences between Compounds and Mixtures with examples
Compounds:
1. It is a single substance. The composition always the same.
2. The constituent elements cannot be separated by physical methods, chemical reactions are necessary.
3. The properties of a compound are peculiar to itself and are usually quite different from those of its constituents elements.
4. Compounds are fixed in their compositions by mass of element present.
5. Chemical combination is usually accompanied by one or more of these effects.
6.  The compounds have usually sharp and fixed melting and boiling point.
Mixtures:
1. It contains two or more substances. The composition may vary.
2. The constituents can be separated from one another by physical methods.
3.  The properties of a mixture are the sum of the properties of the constituents of the mixture.
4.   Mixture may vary widely in composition.
5.   Mixing is not usually accompanied by external effects such as explosions, evolution of heat, or volume change (for gases).
6.  The melting and boiling point are usually not sharp and fixed.
Learn more; Chemistry Lessons
Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.
Example of elements: Copper, silver, gold etc.
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together
Example of compounds: Water, salt, ammonia, methane, benzene.
c) Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Example of mixtures:  Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.
Compounds vs Mixtures
Differences between Compounds and Mixtures with examples
Compounds:
1. It is a single substance. The composition always the same.
2. The constituent elements cannot be separated by physical methods, chemical reactions are necessary.
3. The properties of a compound are peculiar to itself and are usually quite different from those of its constituents elements.
4. Compounds are fixed in their compositions by mass of element present.
5. Chemical combination is usually accompanied by one or more of these effects.
6.  The compounds have usually sharp and fixed melting and boiling point.
Mixtures:
1. It contains two or more substances. The composition may vary.
2. The constituents can be separated from one another by physical methods.
3.  The properties of a mixture are the sum of the properties of the constituents of the mixture.
4.   Mixture may vary widely in composition.
5.   Mixing is not usually accompanied by external effects such as explosions, evolution of heat, or volume change (for gases).
6.  The melting and boiling point are usually not sharp and fixed.
Learn more; Chemistry Lessons
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Difference between Mammalian Sperm and Mammalian Ovum (Sperm vs Ovum)

Gametogenesis involves the formation of male and female reproductive cells, i. e., sperms and ova under the influence of hormones. Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of sperms and that of ova is called oogenesis.
Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Mammalian sperm vs Mammalian Ovum
 The sperms are microscopic and motile cells. A mature spermatozoan is about 60 um long, flagellated, motile cell. It consists of head, neck, middle piece and a long narrow tail. The shape of spematozoan helps to surge  forward relentlessly in the vast female genital tract until it reaches its target,  the ovum, situated at the outer end of fallotubian tube.  Sperms remain alive and retain their ability to fertilize the ovum from 24 to 48 hours after being entered in the female reproductive tract.

The ovum in humans is alecithal, i.e.  it is almost devoid of yolk and has bulky cytoplasm  and a centrally located nucleus. It measures approximately 100 μm in diameter and remains surrounded by a secreted transparent , non cellular layer called zona pellucida. An in vestment of radially elongated follicle cells is present outside this layer which is known as corona radiate. Between the cell membrane or vitelline membrane and the zona pellucida, a distinct space , said to be perivitelline space, is present.
Mammalian Sperms
1. Sperm is flagellated and motile.
2. A sperm is formed of four parts: Head, neck, middle piece and tail.
3. Small amount of cytoplasm is present
4. Nucleus condensed with no nucleoplasm.
5. Centrioles is present.
6. Mitochondrion is compactly arranged and form a spiral called nebenkern.
7. Surrounded by only plasma membrane.

Mammalian ovum
1. Ovum is spherical and non motile.
2. Ovum is alecithal and has an excentric nucleus.
3. Large amount of cytoplasm is present.
4. Nucleus is bloated with nucleoplasm and is called germinal vesicle.
5. Centrioles is absent.
6. Mitochondria scattered in the cytoplasm.
7.Surrounded by a number of egg envelopes.
Gametogenesis involves the formation of male and female reproductive cells, i. e., sperms and ova under the influence of hormones. Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of sperms and that of ova is called oogenesis.
Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Mammalian sperm vs Mammalian Ovum
 The sperms are microscopic and motile cells. A mature spermatozoan is about 60 um long, flagellated, motile cell. It consists of head, neck, middle piece and a long narrow tail. The shape of spematozoan helps to surge  forward relentlessly in the vast female genital tract until it reaches its target,  the ovum, situated at the outer end of fallotubian tube.  Sperms remain alive and retain their ability to fertilize the ovum from 24 to 48 hours after being entered in the female reproductive tract.

The ovum in humans is alecithal, i.e.  it is almost devoid of yolk and has bulky cytoplasm  and a centrally located nucleus. It measures approximately 100 μm in diameter and remains surrounded by a secreted transparent , non cellular layer called zona pellucida. An in vestment of radially elongated follicle cells is present outside this layer which is known as corona radiate. Between the cell membrane or vitelline membrane and the zona pellucida, a distinct space , said to be perivitelline space, is present.
Mammalian Sperms
1. Sperm is flagellated and motile.
2. A sperm is formed of four parts: Head, neck, middle piece and tail.
3. Small amount of cytoplasm is present
4. Nucleus condensed with no nucleoplasm.
5. Centrioles is present.
6. Mitochondrion is compactly arranged and form a spiral called nebenkern.
7. Surrounded by only plasma membrane.

Mammalian ovum
1. Ovum is spherical and non motile.
2. Ovum is alecithal and has an excentric nucleus.
3. Large amount of cytoplasm is present.
4. Nucleus is bloated with nucleoplasm and is called germinal vesicle.
5. Centrioles is absent.
6. Mitochondria scattered in the cytoplasm.
7.Surrounded by a number of egg envelopes.
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5 Differences between Reservoir Pool and Exchange Pool with examples

Biogeochemical cycle is the cyclic movement of chemical elements (C, O, N) between biotic (living organisms) and abiotic components (atmosphere) of earth.
Biogeochemical cycle has two components; reservoir pool and exchange pool.
Differences between Reservoir Pool and Exchange Pool with examples

Reservoir Pool and Exchange Pool in Water Cycle
Reservoir pool (nutrient store)
Exchange pool (nutrient cycling)
It is the primary source of the element or the nutrient storehouse of the chemical
It is characterized by rapid exchange of elements
In reservoir pool, the chemical element is locked or retained for long periods of time
Exchange pool holds the element for a short period of time
Generally, reservoirs are large and are abiotic (non-living) factors such as atmosphere
Generally, exchange pool is small and is represented by the biotic factors (living organisms) with some minor part of the abiotic phase
Reservoir pool is less active and exchange of element is very slow
Exchange pool is very active and rapid exchange of element occurs between living organisms
Example:
a)Atmosphere is the major reservoir of Nitrogen in Nitrogen cycle
b) In water cycle; oceans, glaciers and lakes  are reservoirs
Example:a)Plants and animals as exchange pool in Ncycle: Movement of soil nitrates (NO3-) absorbed by plants to herbivores to carnivores in a food chain
b) In water cycle, atmosphere is the exchange pool
Biogeochemical cycle is the cyclic movement of chemical elements (C, O, N) between biotic (living organisms) and abiotic components (atmosphere) of earth.
Biogeochemical cycle has two components; reservoir pool and exchange pool.
Differences between Reservoir Pool and Exchange Pool with examples

Reservoir Pool and Exchange Pool in Water Cycle
Reservoir pool (nutrient store)
Exchange pool (nutrient cycling)
It is the primary source of the element or the nutrient storehouse of the chemical
It is characterized by rapid exchange of elements
In reservoir pool, the chemical element is locked or retained for long periods of time
Exchange pool holds the element for a short period of time
Generally, reservoirs are large and are abiotic (non-living) factors such as atmosphere
Generally, exchange pool is small and is represented by the biotic factors (living organisms) with some minor part of the abiotic phase
Reservoir pool is less active and exchange of element is very slow
Exchange pool is very active and rapid exchange of element occurs between living organisms
Example:
a)Atmosphere is the major reservoir of Nitrogen in Nitrogen cycle
b) In water cycle; oceans, glaciers and lakes  are reservoirs
Example:a)Plants and animals as exchange pool in Ncycle: Movement of soil nitrates (NO3-) absorbed by plants to herbivores to carnivores in a food chain
b) In water cycle, atmosphere is the exchange pool
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10 Differences between Bacteria and Fungi (Bacteria vs Fungi)

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Differences between Bacteria and Fungi
Bacteria vs Fungi
Bacteria
Fungi
Bacteria are prokaryotic (without true nucleus) organisms
Fungi are eukaryotic (with true nucleus) organisms
Bacteria can be both producers and decomposers of the ecosystem. Producers include chemosynthetic bacteria in deep sea vent ecosystem and photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of soil bacteria are decomposers.
Fungi generally are the decomposers of the ecosystem
Most bacteria grow best around neutral pH values (6.5 - 7.0)
Most fungi grow best around slightly acidic pH (4-6)
Bacteria are unicellular organisms that are visible only under microscope
Fungi are unicellular (Yeast) or multi-cellular filamentous organisms with hyphae and mycelium.
Bacterial cell is without true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Fungal cell is with true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan (except in archaebacteria)
Fungal cell wall is made up of chitin
Sterols are absent in cell membrane (except in Mycoplasma)
Sterols are present in cell membrane
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic, photoautotrophic, aerobic, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic (without chlorophyll) living either as saprophytes; feeding on dead or decayed matter or as parasites. Generally aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission
Fungus reproduce by variety of sexual and asexual spores
Bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics like Penicillin, Chloramphenicol etc but resistant to  Griseofulvin
Fungi are resistant to antibiotics like Penicillin, Chloramphenicol etc but sensitive to  Griseofulvin
Example of Bacteria: 
Curd bacteria (Lactobacillus lactis), Escherichia coli, faecal bacteria causing food poisoning
Learn more: Classification of Bacteria 
Example of Fungi: 
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Learn more:
Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Differences between Bacteria and Fungi
Bacteria vs Fungi
Bacteria
Fungi
Bacteria are prokaryotic (without true nucleus) organisms
Fungi are eukaryotic (with true nucleus) organisms
Bacteria can be both producers and decomposers of the ecosystem. Producers include chemosynthetic bacteria in deep sea vent ecosystem and photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of soil bacteria are decomposers.
Fungi generally are the decomposers of the ecosystem
Most bacteria grow best around neutral pH values (6.5 - 7.0)
Most fungi grow best around slightly acidic pH (4-6)
Bacteria are unicellular organisms that are visible only under microscope
Fungi are unicellular (Yeast) or multi-cellular filamentous organisms with hyphae and mycelium.
Bacterial cell is without true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Fungal cell is with true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan (except in archaebacteria)
Fungal cell wall is made up of chitin
Sterols are absent in cell membrane (except in Mycoplasma)
Sterols are present in cell membrane
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic, photoautotrophic, aerobic, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic (without chlorophyll) living either as saprophytes; feeding on dead or decayed matter or as parasites. Generally aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission
Fungus reproduce by variety of sexual and asexual spores
Bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics like Penicillin, Chloramphenicol etc but resistant to  Griseofulvin
Fungi are resistant to antibiotics like Penicillin, Chloramphenicol etc but sensitive to  Griseofulvin
Example of Bacteria: 
Curd bacteria (Lactobacillus lactis), Escherichia coli, faecal bacteria causing food poisoning
Learn more: Classification of Bacteria 
Example of Fungi: 
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Learn more:
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8 Differences between Plants and Fungi (Plants vs Fungi)

Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany.
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body.The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called mycology.
Plants vs Fungi
Differences between Plants and Fungi (Plants vs Fungi)
Plants
Fungi
Plants are eukaryotic autotrophs (with chlorophyll therefore carrying out photosynthesis, producers).
Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs (without chlorophyll) living either as saprophytes; feeding on dead or decayed matter or as parasites.
Plants are the producers in an ecosystem.
Fungi generally are the decomposers of the ecosystem.
Plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.
Fungal cell wall is made up of chitin.
Plants have definite cell wall.
Fungi may be septate or aseptate
Plant cells generally posses single nucleus.
Fungal cell may be uninucleate or multinucleate.
Plant body is differentiated into stem, root and leaf.
Fungal body is filamentous made up of mycelium and hyphae, non-parenchymatous without complex organs or differentiation.
In plants, stored food is starch.
In fungi, stored food is glycogen.
Plants reproduce by seeds.
Fungus reproduce by spores.
Examples: 
 Mango tree (Mangifera indica), Rose (Rosa indica)
Examples: 
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Plants are eukaryotic, autotrophic organism with differentiation into stem, root and leaf. The branch of science that deals with the study of plants is called botany.
Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism without differentiated plant body.The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called mycology.
Plants vs Fungi
Differences between Plants and Fungi (Plants vs Fungi)
Plants
Fungi
Plants are eukaryotic autotrophs (with chlorophyll therefore carrying out photosynthesis, producers).
Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs (without chlorophyll) living either as saprophytes; feeding on dead or decayed matter or as parasites.
Plants are the producers in an ecosystem.
Fungi generally are the decomposers of the ecosystem.
Plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.
Fungal cell wall is made up of chitin.
Plants have definite cell wall.
Fungi may be septate or aseptate
Plant cells generally posses single nucleus.
Fungal cell may be uninucleate or multinucleate.
Plant body is differentiated into stem, root and leaf.
Fungal body is filamentous made up of mycelium and hyphae, non-parenchymatous without complex organs or differentiation.
In plants, stored food is starch.
In fungi, stored food is glycogen.
Plants reproduce by seeds.
Fungus reproduce by spores.
Examples: 
 Mango tree (Mangifera indica), Rose (Rosa indica)
Examples: 
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
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15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus

How is Bacteria different from Virus?
Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in a variety of environments such as extreme cold and heat conditions or even within an organism.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which require a living host for its survival. The debate on the status of virus as living or non-living is still open. Undoubtedly, viruses can be considered as sub-cellular particles that exhibit some properties of life.
15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus
Bacteria
Virus
Unicellular prokaryotes (without a true nucleus)
Sub cellular or acellular particles or without cellular organization
Visible under compound light microscope (~200-5000 nm in diameter)
Only visible under electron microscope (~20 to 400 nm in diameter)
Can live inside or outside host. Living in a variety of environments.
Strict intracellular infectious agents, always requires a living host.
Bacteria are living unicellular organism exhibiting properties of life such as cellular organization, metabolism, reproduction, homeostasis etc.
Viruses are considered as a border line between living and non-living things. It exhibits some properties of life such as presence of genetic material, ability to replicate inside the host, response to heat, chemicals etc. See more: Are viruses living or non-living?
Bacteria are living and cannot be crystallized.
Virus can be crystallized preserving their living properties.
Basic bacterial shapes are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spiral (twisted).
Viral shape: helical, cubical, binal or complex symmetry
A typical prokaryotic cell with DNA, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, peptidoglycan cell wall and flagella
No cells. Only genetic material surrounded by a protein coat called capsid. In some viruses like HIV, an outer envelope is present outside capsid.
Genetic material is always DNA
Genetic material can be DNA or RNA, never both together
DNA is always double stranded
DNA or RNA can be single stranded or double stranded
Cellular machinery for DNA replication and protein synthesis.
No cellular machinery. Replication of genetic material and protein synthesis using machinery of the host
Reproduce by itself by binary fission, an asexual reproduction method
Inject genetic material into the host and replicates inside the host using hosts cellular machinery; either causing breakage of cell releasing intact infectious virions (lytic cycle) or attaching to the host genome as prophage and replicate along with host genome replication (lysogenic cycle)
The majority of bacteria ~90% are harmless, or beneficial, or even essential to life. Only less than 10% are harmful and disease causing.
Viruses are harmful infectious agents. But genetically engineered viruses are widely used in rDNA technology and gene therapy as vectors. Lentivirus in gene therapy and phage vectors like cosmid in rDNA technology
Bacteria often cause localized infection (in one part of the body or confined to an organ) and often associated with fever. Eg: Skin infection(eczema),wound infection
Virus often cause systemic infection (spreads throughout the body) and may or may not induce fever. Eg: AIDS
Bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics Eg: Penicillin, Amoxicillin etc
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Vaccines are widely used to prevent viral infection.
Eg: Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine
Common Bacterial diseases:
Food poisoning: Escherichia coli 
Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Common Viral diseases:
Common cold: Corona virus, Rhino virus etc
Chickenpox caused by Varicella zoster virus
How is Bacteria different from Virus?
Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in a variety of environments such as extreme cold and heat conditions or even within an organism.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which require a living host for its survival. The debate on the status of virus as living or non-living is still open. Undoubtedly, viruses can be considered as sub-cellular particles that exhibit some properties of life.
15 Differences between Bacteria and Virus
Bacteria
Virus
Unicellular prokaryotes (without a true nucleus)
Sub cellular or acellular particles or without cellular organization
Visible under compound light microscope (~200-5000 nm in diameter)
Only visible under electron microscope (~20 to 400 nm in diameter)
Can live inside or outside host. Living in a variety of environments.
Strict intracellular infectious agents, always requires a living host.
Bacteria are living unicellular organism exhibiting properties of life such as cellular organization, metabolism, reproduction, homeostasis etc.
Viruses are considered as a border line between living and non-living things. It exhibits some properties of life such as presence of genetic material, ability to replicate inside the host, response to heat, chemicals etc. See more: Are viruses living or non-living?
Bacteria are living and cannot be crystallized.
Virus can be crystallized preserving their living properties.
Basic bacterial shapes are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spiral (twisted).
Viral shape: helical, cubical, binal or complex symmetry
A typical prokaryotic cell with DNA, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, peptidoglycan cell wall and flagella
No cells. Only genetic material surrounded by a protein coat called capsid. In some viruses like HIV, an outer envelope is present outside capsid.
Genetic material is always DNA
Genetic material can be DNA or RNA, never both together
DNA is always double stranded
DNA or RNA can be single stranded or double stranded
Cellular machinery for DNA replication and protein synthesis.
No cellular machinery. Replication of genetic material and protein synthesis using machinery of the host
Reproduce by itself by binary fission, an asexual reproduction method
Inject genetic material into the host and replicates inside the host using hosts cellular machinery; either causing breakage of cell releasing intact infectious virions (lytic cycle) or attaching to the host genome as prophage and replicate along with host genome replication (lysogenic cycle)
The majority of bacteria ~90% are harmless, or beneficial, or even essential to life. Only less than 10% are harmful and disease causing.
Viruses are harmful infectious agents. But genetically engineered viruses are widely used in rDNA technology and gene therapy as vectors. Lentivirus in gene therapy and phage vectors like cosmid in rDNA technology
Bacteria often cause localized infection (in one part of the body or confined to an organ) and often associated with fever. Eg: Skin infection(eczema),wound infection
Virus often cause systemic infection (spreads throughout the body) and may or may not induce fever. Eg: AIDS
Bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics Eg: Penicillin, Amoxicillin etc
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Vaccines are widely used to prevent viral infection.
Eg: Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine
Common Bacterial diseases:
Food poisoning: Escherichia coli 
Tuberculosis-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Common Viral diseases:
Common cold: Corona virus, Rhino virus etc
Chickenpox caused by Varicella zoster virus
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7 Differences between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Cell membrane or plasma membrane is thin, outermost boundary in animal cell as animal cell lacks cell wall. In plant cell it is seen inner to cell wall. Each cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is made up of lipids, proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. There are two types of proteins on the plasma membrane based on its location.
1) Intrinsic or Integral or internal proteins
2) Extrinsic, peripheral or external proteins
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Proteins
 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Extrinsic Proteins or Peripheral protein
Intrinsic Proteins or Integral proteins
They occur on the surface of the plasma membrane.
They are embedded in the plasma membrane either partially or completely sometimes span the membrane many times.
External proteins are hardly 30% of the total membrane proteins.
They constitute 70% of the total membrane proteins.
They are more hydrophilic and less hydrophobic
They are more hydrophobic and less hydrophilic towards the
They are loosely bounded to the lipid bilayer by weak non-covalent molecular attractions (ionic, hydrogen, and/or Van der Waals bonds) without much contact with the hydrophobic core.
They are embedded in the lipid bilayer firmly having direct contact with the hydrophobic core. These proteins contain non-polar sequences that are hydrophobically bonded to the lipid bilayer.
Easily removed with mild treatment such as shaking with a dilute salt solution.
Difficult to separate from the cell membranes and removal of such proteins using detergents from the membrane often destroys the membrane structure.
They function as receptors, antigens, recognition centres etc.
They function as carrier proteins, enzymes, transport channels (translocases), permeases.
Example: Erythrocyte spectrin, mitochondrial cytochrome c in Electron transport chain
Example: Glycophorin, Rhodopsin, NADH dehydrogenase in ETC
Cell membrane or plasma membrane is thin, outermost boundary in animal cell as animal cell lacks cell wall. In plant cell it is seen inner to cell wall. Each cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is made up of lipids, proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. There are two types of proteins on the plasma membrane based on its location.
1) Intrinsic or Integral or internal proteins
2) Extrinsic, peripheral or external proteins
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Proteins
 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Membrane Proteins

Extrinsic Proteins or Peripheral protein
Intrinsic Proteins or Integral proteins
They occur on the surface of the plasma membrane.
They are embedded in the plasma membrane either partially or completely sometimes span the membrane many times.
External proteins are hardly 30% of the total membrane proteins.
They constitute 70% of the total membrane proteins.
They are more hydrophilic and less hydrophobic
They are more hydrophobic and less hydrophilic towards the
They are loosely bounded to the lipid bilayer by weak non-covalent molecular attractions (ionic, hydrogen, and/or Van der Waals bonds) without much contact with the hydrophobic core.
They are embedded in the lipid bilayer firmly having direct contact with the hydrophobic core. These proteins contain non-polar sequences that are hydrophobically bonded to the lipid bilayer.
Easily removed with mild treatment such as shaking with a dilute salt solution.
Difficult to separate from the cell membranes and removal of such proteins using detergents from the membrane often destroys the membrane structure.
They function as receptors, antigens, recognition centres etc.
They function as carrier proteins, enzymes, transport channels (translocases), permeases.
Example: Erythrocyte spectrin, mitochondrial cytochrome c in Electron transport chain
Example: Glycophorin, Rhodopsin, NADH dehydrogenase in ETC
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