Difference between Monocot and Dicot Embryo

The zygote developed inside the embryo sac divides mitotically to form the embryo. In monocot embryo only one cotyledon and a primary axis are present. The cotyledon is present at the tip of the axis and the plumule is on its lateral side. Embryo is curved. In dicot embryo has an axis and the two cotyledons are on either side in opposite direction. At the tip of the axis, the apical bud is present and at the base of the axis the root tip is present. The plumule develops into shoot system and radical into root system.
monocotyledon vs dicotyledon plants
Monocot Embryo vs Dicot Embryo
Monocot Embryo
1. Only one cotyledon attached to the embryonal axis.
2. Plumule is latral.
3. A single cotyledon occupies terminal position.
4. The envelope of plumule is called coleoptile.
5. Coleorrhiza is a protective sheath of radicle.
6. Suspensor comparatively larger.
7. A single cotyledon called scutellum is present.
Dicot Embryo
1. There are two cotyledons attached to an embryonal axis.
2. Plumule occur distally.
3. Cotyledons occur laterally.
4. Coleoptile absent.
5. Coleorrhiza absent.
6. Suspensor large.
7. Scutellum absent.
The zygote developed inside the embryo sac divides mitotically to form the embryo. In monocot embryo only one cotyledon and a primary axis are present. The cotyledon is present at the tip of the axis and the plumule is on its lateral side. Embryo is curved. In dicot embryo has an axis and the two cotyledons are on either side in opposite direction. At the tip of the axis, the apical bud is present and at the base of the axis the root tip is present. The plumule develops into shoot system and radical into root system.
monocotyledon vs dicotyledon plants
Monocot Embryo vs Dicot Embryo
Monocot Embryo
1. Only one cotyledon attached to the embryonal axis.
2. Plumule is latral.
3. A single cotyledon occupies terminal position.
4. The envelope of plumule is called coleoptile.
5. Coleorrhiza is a protective sheath of radicle.
6. Suspensor comparatively larger.
7. A single cotyledon called scutellum is present.
Dicot Embryo
1. There are two cotyledons attached to an embryonal axis.
2. Plumule occur distally.
3. Cotyledons occur laterally.
4. Coleoptile absent.
5. Coleorrhiza absent.
6. Suspensor large.
7. Scutellum absent.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

The primary sex organs: the testis in the males and the ovaries in the female produce gametes, i.e., sperms and ovum, respectively, by the process called gametogenesis. Gametogenesis  for the formation of sperms is termed  spermatogenesis, while that of ova is called oogenesis. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are accomplished in three phases: multiplication phase, growth phase and maturation phase.
  • Multiplication phase: Here multiplication of the germ cells occurs through mitosis so as to increase their number.
  • Growth phase: The germ cells increase in size
  • Maturation phase: Germ cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes.
Spermatogenesis: It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa (sperms) from diploid spermatogonia inside the testes of the male. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Oogenesis: It is the process of formation of functional haploid ova from the diploid germinal cells in the ovary.
Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis
oogenesis and spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis 
1. It occurs inside testis
2. All stages are completed inside testis.
3. It is a continuous process.
4. Spermatogonia develop from germinal epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules.
5. Some cells of the germinal epithelium function as support , also called sertoli cells.
6. All the spermatogonia divide to form spermatocytes.
7. Growth phase is short.
8. Primary spermatocyte divides by meiosis I to form two secondary spermatocytes.
9. Secondary spermatocyte divides by meiosis II to produce two spermatids.
10. A spermatocyte forms four spermatozoa.
11. Sperms are smaller than spermatocytes.
12. Nucleus undergoes condensation in the sperm.
13. Reserve food is little in the sperms.
14.It produces motile male gametes.
Oogenesis
1. It occurs inside ovary.
2. Major part of oogenesis occurs inside ovary but last stages occur inside oviduct.
3. It is discontinuous process with early stages taking place in foetus and the rest later in life.
4. Oogonia develop from germinal epithelium overlying the ovary.
5. There is no such differentiation.
6. Only some oogoinia give rise to oocytes.
7. Growth phase is prolonged.
8. Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I to form one secondary oocyte and one polar body
9. Secondary oocyte divides by meiosis II to form one ovum and one polar body.
10. A oocyte forms only one egg or ovum.
11. Eggs are larger than oocytes.
12. Nucleus remains uncondensed in the ovum.
13. Ovum collects a lot of reserve food and other biochemicals.
14. It forms non motile female gametes.
The primary sex organs: the testis in the males and the ovaries in the female produce gametes, i.e., sperms and ovum, respectively, by the process called gametogenesis. Gametogenesis  for the formation of sperms is termed  spermatogenesis, while that of ova is called oogenesis. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are accomplished in three phases: multiplication phase, growth phase and maturation phase.
  • Multiplication phase: Here multiplication of the germ cells occurs through mitosis so as to increase their number.
  • Growth phase: The germ cells increase in size
  • Maturation phase: Germ cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes.
Spermatogenesis: It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa (sperms) from diploid spermatogonia inside the testes of the male. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Oogenesis: It is the process of formation of functional haploid ova from the diploid germinal cells in the ovary.
Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis
oogenesis and spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis 
1. It occurs inside testis
2. All stages are completed inside testis.
3. It is a continuous process.
4. Spermatogonia develop from germinal epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules.
5. Some cells of the germinal epithelium function as support , also called sertoli cells.
6. All the spermatogonia divide to form spermatocytes.
7. Growth phase is short.
8. Primary spermatocyte divides by meiosis I to form two secondary spermatocytes.
9. Secondary spermatocyte divides by meiosis II to produce two spermatids.
10. A spermatocyte forms four spermatozoa.
11. Sperms are smaller than spermatocytes.
12. Nucleus undergoes condensation in the sperm.
13. Reserve food is little in the sperms.
14.It produces motile male gametes.
Oogenesis
1. It occurs inside ovary.
2. Major part of oogenesis occurs inside ovary but last stages occur inside oviduct.
3. It is discontinuous process with early stages taking place in foetus and the rest later in life.
4. Oogonia develop from germinal epithelium overlying the ovary.
5. There is no such differentiation.
6. Only some oogoinia give rise to oocytes.
7. Growth phase is prolonged.
8. Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I to form one secondary oocyte and one polar body
9. Secondary oocyte divides by meiosis II to form one ovum and one polar body.
10. A oocyte forms only one egg or ovum.
11. Eggs are larger than oocytes.
12. Nucleus remains uncondensed in the ovum.
13. Ovum collects a lot of reserve food and other biochemicals.
14. It forms non motile female gametes.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella

Flagella and Cilia are fine vibratile hair like membrane covered protoplasmic outgrowths that occur on the free surface of the cells and take part in producing a current in fluid medium for passage of materials and locomotion. Flagella are longer but fewer(generally 1-4). Flagella occur  in group flagellate or protozoan protistans, euglenoids, dinoflagellates, choanocytes of sponges, gastrodermal cells of coelenterates, sperms of animal bryophytes and several pteridophytes, zoospores and gametes of several algae and primitive fungi.
Eukaryotic flagella
Prokaryotic Flagella vs Eukaryotic Flagella
Prokaryotic Flagella
Eukaryotic Flagella
They are single stranded They are 11 stranded
A covering membraneous sheath is absent. Flagella are covered by sheath derived from plasmalemma.
The size is smaller. The size is larger.
They are narrower. They are thicker.
Each flagellum has three parts: basal body, hook and filament. There are two parts: basal body and shaft.
Basal body bears rings. Basal body bears rootlets
They are formed of protein flagellin. The strands are formed of protein tubulin.
They perform rotatory movements.  They perform lashing or undulatory movements.
Flagella and Cilia are fine vibratile hair like membrane covered protoplasmic outgrowths that occur on the free surface of the cells and take part in producing a current in fluid medium for passage of materials and locomotion. Flagella are longer but fewer(generally 1-4). Flagella occur  in group flagellate or protozoan protistans, euglenoids, dinoflagellates, choanocytes of sponges, gastrodermal cells of coelenterates, sperms of animal bryophytes and several pteridophytes, zoospores and gametes of several algae and primitive fungi.
Eukaryotic flagella
Prokaryotic Flagella vs Eukaryotic Flagella
Prokaryotic Flagella
Eukaryotic Flagella
They are single stranded They are 11 stranded
A covering membraneous sheath is absent. Flagella are covered by sheath derived from plasmalemma.
The size is smaller. The size is larger.
They are narrower. They are thicker.
Each flagellum has three parts: basal body, hook and filament. There are two parts: basal body and shaft.
Basal body bears rings. Basal body bears rootlets
They are formed of protein flagellin. The strands are formed of protein tubulin.
They perform rotatory movements.  They perform lashing or undulatory movements.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Erythrocytes and Leucocytes RBC vs WBC

Blood is the main circulatory medium in the human body. The blood consists of two principal components: the fluid plasma and blood cells or corpuscles which are found suspended. Nearly 45% volume of blood consists of corpuscles or blood cells.  These are of different types: the erythrocytes or red cells containing hemoglobin; the leucocytes or white cells having no hemoglobin, and the thrombocytes in mammals only. These are essential for proper functioning of the body.
composition of blood
Erythrocytes vs Leucocytes
lymphocytes and erythrocytes
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles or RBCs)
1. They are red coloured blood corpules.
2. Number: 4.5-5.5 million/mm3
3. shape and size: Circular and bioconcave, 7-8 mm
4. They are nonmotile
5. Erythrocytes seldom leave blood vessels.
6. Most of the cell organelles are absent. Nucleus is absent.
7. They contain hemoglobin.
8. They may form stacks called rouleaux.
9.Erythrocyte are of one type.
10. Life span:120 days
11. They are specialized to transport oxygen and small amount of carbon dioxide.
12. They have no role in defence and immunity of the body.
13. Number increases during exercise and at high altitudes.
Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs)
1. They are colorless corpules.
2. Number: 7000-10000/mm3
3. shape and size: rounded and amoeboid shape. The size is 10-18 mm with the exception of small lymphocytes.
4. They are generally motile
5. They can come out of blood capillaries.
6. Most of the cell organelles are present. Nucleus is present.
7. They do not contain hemoglobin.
8. Rouleaux formation is absent.
9.Erythrocyte are of five types.
10. Life span: 12- 13 days.
11. They do not have any respiratory function.
12. They have important  role in defence and immunity of the body.
13. Number increase during infection
Blood is the main circulatory medium in the human body. The blood consists of two principal components: the fluid plasma and blood cells or corpuscles which are found suspended. Nearly 45% volume of blood consists of corpuscles or blood cells.  These are of different types: the erythrocytes or red cells containing hemoglobin; the leucocytes or white cells having no hemoglobin, and the thrombocytes in mammals only. These are essential for proper functioning of the body.
composition of blood
Erythrocytes vs Leucocytes
lymphocytes and erythrocytes
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles or RBCs)
1. They are red coloured blood corpules.
2. Number: 4.5-5.5 million/mm3
3. shape and size: Circular and bioconcave, 7-8 mm
4. They are nonmotile
5. Erythrocytes seldom leave blood vessels.
6. Most of the cell organelles are absent. Nucleus is absent.
7. They contain hemoglobin.
8. They may form stacks called rouleaux.
9.Erythrocyte are of one type.
10. Life span:120 days
11. They are specialized to transport oxygen and small amount of carbon dioxide.
12. They have no role in defence and immunity of the body.
13. Number increases during exercise and at high altitudes.
Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs)
1. They are colorless corpules.
2. Number: 7000-10000/mm3
3. shape and size: rounded and amoeboid shape. The size is 10-18 mm with the exception of small lymphocytes.
4. They are generally motile
5. They can come out of blood capillaries.
6. Most of the cell organelles are present. Nucleus is present.
7. They do not contain hemoglobin.
8. Rouleaux formation is absent.
9.Erythrocyte are of five types.
10. Life span: 12- 13 days.
11. They do not have any respiratory function.
12. They have important  role in defence and immunity of the body.
13. Number increase during infection
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids

Adrenal cortex secretes over 20 different steroid hormones called cortical steroids or corticosteroids. They are of three types: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex corticoids.
Glucocorticoids vs Mineralocoticoids
Glucocorticoids and Mineralocoticoids
Glucocorticoids: Hormones include cortisol, cortisone and cortisterone.
1. Secreted by Zona fasciculata of Adrenal cortex.
2. Secretion of glucocorticoids is under control of ACTH of andenohypophysis.
3. The hormone control carbohydrate, fat an protein metabolism.
4.They stimulate gluconeogenesis.
5. They are anti inflammtory and antiallergic
6. They are helpful in repairing injury and managing stress.
7. They dull pain.
Mineralocoticoids: Two common mineralocorticoids are aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone.
1. Secreted by Zona glomerulosa of Adrenal cortex.
2. Secretion of mineralocorticoids is under control of renin angiotensin system.
3. They control electrolyte and water balance of the body.
4. They stimulate
5. They have no such role.
6. The hormones are not helpful in repairing injury or managing stress.
7. Mineralocorticoids do not manage pain.
Adrenal cortex secretes over 20 different steroid hormones called cortical steroids or corticosteroids. They are of three types: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex corticoids.
Glucocorticoids vs Mineralocoticoids
Glucocorticoids and Mineralocoticoids
Glucocorticoids: Hormones include cortisol, cortisone and cortisterone.
1. Secreted by Zona fasciculata of Adrenal cortex.
2. Secretion of glucocorticoids is under control of ACTH of andenohypophysis.
3. The hormone control carbohydrate, fat an protein metabolism.
4.They stimulate gluconeogenesis.
5. They are anti inflammtory and antiallergic
6. They are helpful in repairing injury and managing stress.
7. They dull pain.
Mineralocoticoids: Two common mineralocorticoids are aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone.
1. Secreted by Zona glomerulosa of Adrenal cortex.
2. Secretion of mineralocorticoids is under control of renin angiotensin system.
3. They control electrolyte and water balance of the body.
4. They stimulate
5. They have no such role.
6. The hormones are not helpful in repairing injury or managing stress.
7. Mineralocorticoids do not manage pain.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between FSH and LH

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) or Gametokinetic factor: In males , stimulates spermatogenesis. In females, stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen. 
LH (Luteinsing Hormone) or Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone: In females, together with FSH, it triggers ovulation, stimulates conversion of ovarian follicles into corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone in females.It helps in maintaining pregnancy by controlling estrogen and progesterone.
FSH and LH
FSH  vs LH
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
1. It controls the development of primary sex organs.
2. It stimulate gamete formation in primary sex organs.
3. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen by growing graafian follicle.
4. It controls thee first half of ovarian or menstrual cycle.
5. The hormone does not have any major role in ovulation.
6. It does not help in the synthesis of androgens.
7. It does not act on corpus luteum.
LH (Luteinsing Hormone)
1. It has no role in development of primary sex organs.
2. It has no effect on formation of gametes.
3. It does not to do so.
4. It controls the second half of menstrual cycle.
5. The hormone is required for ovulation.
6. LH acts on Leydig cells and help produce androgens.
7. It sustains development of corpus luteum and its secretory activity.
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) or Gametokinetic factor: In males , stimulates spermatogenesis. In females, stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen. 
LH (Luteinsing Hormone) or Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone: In females, together with FSH, it triggers ovulation, stimulates conversion of ovarian follicles into corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone in females.It helps in maintaining pregnancy by controlling estrogen and progesterone.
FSH and LH
FSH  vs LH
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
1. It controls the development of primary sex organs.
2. It stimulate gamete formation in primary sex organs.
3. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen by growing graafian follicle.
4. It controls thee first half of ovarian or menstrual cycle.
5. The hormone does not have any major role in ovulation.
6. It does not help in the synthesis of androgens.
7. It does not act on corpus luteum.
LH (Luteinsing Hormone)
1. It has no role in development of primary sex organs.
2. It has no effect on formation of gametes.
3. It does not to do so.
4. It controls the second half of menstrual cycle.
5. The hormone is required for ovulation.
6. LH acts on Leydig cells and help produce androgens.
7. It sustains development of corpus luteum and its secretory activity.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Vasopressin and Oxytocin

Vasopressin and  Oxytocin are neurohormones produced by the neuro secretory cells of hypothalamus reach the pituitary through the axon terminals of the secretory neurons as secretory granules bound to neurophysin proteins.
ADH and Oxytocin
Vasopressin or Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) :
This hormone has two main functions. it stimulates the reabsorption of water in the distal convoluted tubules, collecting tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys and decreases the loss of water by reducing urine secretion. It stimulates the contraction of smooth muscles of the blood vessels and thus increases the blood pressure, hence its name vasopressin.
Deficiency of ADH reduces reabsorption of water and increase urine output, causing excessive thirst. This disorder is called diabetes insipidus. No glucose is lost in the urine of such a patient.

Oxytocin (Pitocin): It is released in the blood when the hypothalamic neurons are stimulated by widening of uterus at the time of uterus at the time of delivery or sucking of the breast by the child. It stimulates contraction of uterine muscles during the birth of the young one and contraction of myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands to initiate ejection or release of milk during sucking by the child. Because of its role, oxytocin is called birth hormone and milk ejecting hormone.
Vasopressin vs Oxytocin
Vasopressin
1. It is a vasoconstrictor.
2. It tends to increase blood pressure.
3. It helpful in concentration of urine.
4. It functions in both sexes.
5. Its secretion is stimulated by reduced quantity of body fluids.
6. Target cells: Cells of kidney

Oxytocin
1. It is a vasodilator
2. It tends to decrease blood pressure
3. It has no such activity.
4. Its function is known only in females.
5. Its secretion is stimulated by distension of uterus and suckling of breast.
6. Target cells: Cells of mammary glands
Vasopressin and  Oxytocin are neurohormones produced by the neuro secretory cells of hypothalamus reach the pituitary through the axon terminals of the secretory neurons as secretory granules bound to neurophysin proteins.
ADH and Oxytocin
Vasopressin or Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) :
This hormone has two main functions. it stimulates the reabsorption of water in the distal convoluted tubules, collecting tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys and decreases the loss of water by reducing urine secretion. It stimulates the contraction of smooth muscles of the blood vessels and thus increases the blood pressure, hence its name vasopressin.
Deficiency of ADH reduces reabsorption of water and increase urine output, causing excessive thirst. This disorder is called diabetes insipidus. No glucose is lost in the urine of such a patient.

Oxytocin (Pitocin): It is released in the blood when the hypothalamic neurons are stimulated by widening of uterus at the time of uterus at the time of delivery or sucking of the breast by the child. It stimulates contraction of uterine muscles during the birth of the young one and contraction of myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands to initiate ejection or release of milk during sucking by the child. Because of its role, oxytocin is called birth hormone and milk ejecting hormone.
Vasopressin vs Oxytocin
Vasopressin
1. It is a vasoconstrictor.
2. It tends to increase blood pressure.
3. It helpful in concentration of urine.
4. It functions in both sexes.
5. Its secretion is stimulated by reduced quantity of body fluids.
6. Target cells: Cells of kidney

Oxytocin
1. It is a vasodilator
2. It tends to decrease blood pressure
3. It has no such activity.
4. Its function is known only in females.
5. Its secretion is stimulated by distension of uterus and suckling of breast.
6. Target cells: Cells of mammary glands
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Somatostatin and Somatotrophin

Somatostatin
Somatostatin
1. It is secreted by hypothalamus
2. It is a growth inhibiting hormone, as it inhibits the secretion of somatotrophin or growth hormone.
3. It acts over the secretion of the endocrine gland. Thus it is  not a systemic hormone.
4. It is also produced by some pancreatic cells and digestive cells.
Somatotrophin
1. It is secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland
2. It is a growth stimulating hormone
3. It acts over all body tissues promoting growth. Thus it is a systemic hormone.
4. It is only secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
Somatostatin
Somatostatin
1. It is secreted by hypothalamus
2. It is a growth inhibiting hormone, as it inhibits the secretion of somatotrophin or growth hormone.
3. It acts over the secretion of the endocrine gland. Thus it is  not a systemic hormone.
4. It is also produced by some pancreatic cells and digestive cells.
Somatotrophin
1. It is secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland
2. It is a growth stimulating hormone
3. It acts over all body tissues promoting growth. Thus it is a systemic hormone.
4. It is only secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA

DNA is a genetic material which carries all the hereditary information needed for the development and existence of an organism.  In prokaryotes, DNA lies in cytoplasm. It is supercoiled with the helps of RNAs and nonhistone basic proteins like polyamines. In eukaryotes it is found mainly in the chromosomes  in the form of nucleoproteins. It is also found in the cytoplasmic organelles like mitochondria, chloroplast etc.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA
Prokaryotic DNA vs Eukaryotic DNA
Prokaryotic DNA
1. DNA content is small, less 0.1 pg
2. DNA occurs freely inside the cytoplasm.
3. Organelle DNA is absent.
4. It is naked.
5. DNA is generally circular
6. Introns are absent.
7. Nonfunctional regions are fewer
8.Transposons do not occur.
Eukaryotic DNA
1. DNA content is comparatively high, more than 1 pg
2. DNA does not lie freely in the cytoplasm and the most of it is present inside the nucleus.
3. Mitochondrial and plastid (Organelle) DNA present
4. Nuclear DNA is associated with histones while organelle DNA is naked.
5. Nuclear DNA is linear. Organelle DNA may be circular or linear.
6. A cistron contains non coding regions or introns.
7. Nonfunctional DNA is quite abundant.
8. Transposons or jumping genes occur ar places.
DNA is a genetic material which carries all the hereditary information needed for the development and existence of an organism.  In prokaryotes, DNA lies in cytoplasm. It is supercoiled with the helps of RNAs and nonhistone basic proteins like polyamines. In eukaryotes it is found mainly in the chromosomes  in the form of nucleoproteins. It is also found in the cytoplasmic organelles like mitochondria, chloroplast etc.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA
Prokaryotic DNA vs Eukaryotic DNA
Prokaryotic DNA
1. DNA content is small, less 0.1 pg
2. DNA occurs freely inside the cytoplasm.
3. Organelle DNA is absent.
4. It is naked.
5. DNA is generally circular
6. Introns are absent.
7. Nonfunctional regions are fewer
8.Transposons do not occur.
Eukaryotic DNA
1. DNA content is comparatively high, more than 1 pg
2. DNA does not lie freely in the cytoplasm and the most of it is present inside the nucleus.
3. Mitochondrial and plastid (Organelle) DNA present
4. Nuclear DNA is associated with histones while organelle DNA is naked.
5. Nuclear DNA is linear. Organelle DNA may be circular or linear.
6. A cistron contains non coding regions or introns.
7. Nonfunctional DNA is quite abundant.
8. Transposons or jumping genes occur ar places.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Liverworts and Mosses

Bryophyta, represent a group of plants that includes liverworts, hornworts and mosses growing predominantly in amphibious environment. Liverworts, generally  they have green dichotomously branched or lobed thalli. They are attached to the substratum by thin rhizoids. Moss plant consists of an erect stem like structure with green leaf like out growth arranged spirally. They are attached to the substratum by their root like rhizoids.
Liverworts vs Moss
Liverworts
Marchantia polymorpha
1. The gametophytic plant body may be thallose or foliose
2. On the ventral surface of the thallus unicellular rhizoids and simple multicellular scales are present.
3. Sex organs are present on dorsal surface of the thallus and develop from superficial cells.
4. Elaters are generally present, but absent in Riccia.
5. Stomata and chlorophyll are absent in the wall of the capsule of sporophyte.
6. Dehiscence of capsule is irregular
Example: Riccia, Marchantia

Moss
Funaria
1. The gametophytic plant body is differentiate into prostrate, branched filamentous, thalloid protonema and leafy erect gametophore.
2. Rhizoids are multicellular, branched with oblique septa.
3. Sex organs develop from superficial cells at the apex of leafy gametophyte.
4. Elaters are absent.
5. Stomata and chlorophyll are present in sporophyte for gaseous exchange.
6. Dehiscence of capsule is regular
Example: Funaria
Bryophyta, represent a group of plants that includes liverworts, hornworts and mosses growing predominantly in amphibious environment. Liverworts, generally  they have green dichotomously branched or lobed thalli. They are attached to the substratum by thin rhizoids. Moss plant consists of an erect stem like structure with green leaf like out growth arranged spirally. They are attached to the substratum by their root like rhizoids.
Liverworts vs Moss
Liverworts
Marchantia polymorpha
1. The gametophytic plant body may be thallose or foliose
2. On the ventral surface of the thallus unicellular rhizoids and simple multicellular scales are present.
3. Sex organs are present on dorsal surface of the thallus and develop from superficial cells.
4. Elaters are generally present, but absent in Riccia.
5. Stomata and chlorophyll are absent in the wall of the capsule of sporophyte.
6. Dehiscence of capsule is irregular
Example: Riccia, Marchantia

Moss
Funaria
1. The gametophytic plant body is differentiate into prostrate, branched filamentous, thalloid protonema and leafy erect gametophore.
2. Rhizoids are multicellular, branched with oblique septa.
3. Sex organs develop from superficial cells at the apex of leafy gametophyte.
4. Elaters are absent.
5. Stomata and chlorophyll are present in sporophyte for gaseous exchange.
6. Dehiscence of capsule is regular
Example: Funaria
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Monocot and Dicot Leaf

monocot vs dicot leaves

Monocot Leaf vs Dicot Leaf 
Monocot Leaf
  • Symmetry: Isobilateral
  • Stomata distribution: Amphistomatic i.e., stomata equally distributed on both the surfaces.
  • Bulliform cells: Present on upper epidermis.
  • Mesophyll: Only spongy parenchyma is present which has very small intercellular spaces.
  • Bundle sheath: Made of parenchyma but just above and below the vascular bundles are found sclerenchymatous cells (upto epidermis)
Dicot Leaf
  • Symmetry: Dorsiventral
  • Stomata distribution: Hypostomatic i.e., stomata present on lower surface of leaf.
  • Bulliform cells: Usually absent.
  • Mesophyll: Made up of two types of tissues: Palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma with large intercellular spaces.
  • Bundle sheath: Made up of parenchyma. Just above and below the vascular bundle some parenchymatous cells or collenchymatous cells are present up to epidermis.
monocot vs dicot leaves

Monocot Leaf vs Dicot Leaf 
Monocot Leaf
  • Symmetry: Isobilateral
  • Stomata distribution: Amphistomatic i.e., stomata equally distributed on both the surfaces.
  • Bulliform cells: Present on upper epidermis.
  • Mesophyll: Only spongy parenchyma is present which has very small intercellular spaces.
  • Bundle sheath: Made of parenchyma but just above and below the vascular bundles are found sclerenchymatous cells (upto epidermis)
Dicot Leaf
  • Symmetry: Dorsiventral
  • Stomata distribution: Hypostomatic i.e., stomata present on lower surface of leaf.
  • Bulliform cells: Usually absent.
  • Mesophyll: Made up of two types of tissues: Palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma with large intercellular spaces.
  • Bundle sheath: Made up of parenchyma. Just above and below the vascular bundle some parenchymatous cells or collenchymatous cells are present up to epidermis.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Hepatitis A, B and C

Viral hepatitis is commonly called jaundice. There are five varieties of hepatitis are known: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E. The symptoms in early phase include: fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, pains in muscles and joints. In early stage the liver is enlarged and congested. In later stage the liver becomes smaller, yellowish or greenish.


Hepatitis A
  • Name of virus: HAV
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: RNA
  • Mode of spread: Faecal, oral
  • Incubation period in Days: 15-45
  • Chronic hepatitis: none
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): No
  • Year of Identification: 1973
Hepatitis B
  • Name of virus: HBV
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: DNA
  • Mode of spread: Parenteral; close personal contact become chronic
  • Incubation period in Days: 30-180
  • Chronic hepatitis: Yes about 40-60%
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): Yes
  • Year of Identification: 1966

Hepatitis C
  • Name of virus: HCV (also called non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis virus
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: RNA
  • Mode of spread: Parenteral; close personal contact
  • Incubation period in Days: 20-90
  • Chronic hepatitis: Yes about 40-60%
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): yes
  • Year of Identification: 1989
*Parenteral: Taken into the body in a manner other than through digestive tract.
Viral hepatitis is commonly called jaundice. There are five varieties of hepatitis are known: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E. The symptoms in early phase include: fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, pains in muscles and joints. In early stage the liver is enlarged and congested. In later stage the liver becomes smaller, yellowish or greenish.


Hepatitis A
  • Name of virus: HAV
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: RNA
  • Mode of spread: Faecal, oral
  • Incubation period in Days: 15-45
  • Chronic hepatitis: none
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): No
  • Year of Identification: 1973
Hepatitis B
  • Name of virus: HBV
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: DNA
  • Mode of spread: Parenteral; close personal contact become chronic
  • Incubation period in Days: 30-180
  • Chronic hepatitis: Yes about 40-60%
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): Yes
  • Year of Identification: 1966

Hepatitis C
  • Name of virus: HCV (also called non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis virus
  • Nucleic acid present in virus: RNA
  • Mode of spread: Parenteral; close personal contact
  • Incubation period in Days: 20-90
  • Chronic hepatitis: Yes about 40-60%
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver cancer): yes
  • Year of Identification: 1989
*Parenteral: Taken into the body in a manner other than through digestive tract.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Lock and Key hypothesis and Induced fit hypothesis

There are two views regarding the mode of action of enzymes: Lock and Key hypothesis (theory)
Induced fit hypothesis (theory).
Lock and Key Theory: Emil Fisher proposed this hypothesis in 1894. According to this hypothesis the active site of the enzyme is like a ‘lock’ into which substrate fits like a ‘key’.i.e., the shape of the active site and the substrate molecules are complementary . So the enzyme molecule holds the substrate, molecule close together, forming the unusable intermediate compound, the enzyme substrate complex. It dissociates to form enzyme and products.
lock and key
Induced Fit Theory: Daniel E.Koshland formulated this hypothesis in 1959. According to this hypothesis the active site does not have a rigid ‘lock and key’ conformation. The binding of the substrate molecule to the enzyme molecule induces to modify the shape of the active site so that it becomes complementary to the substrate molecule. This is called the induced fit . Induced fit is possible because of the flexibility of the protein molecules.


Lock and Key Theory vs Induced fit Theory
Lock and Key Theory:
1. Active site is a single entity.
2. There is no separate catalytic group.
3. Active site is static.
4. Development of transition state is not considered.
5.It does not visualize the weakening of substrate bonds.
6. It does not explain the mechanism of non activity in case of competitive inhibitor.
Induced fit Theory:
1. Active  site is made of two components.
2. A separate catalytic group is visualized.
3. Active site is not static.
4. It considers the development of transition state before the reacants undergo change.
5. Catalytic group is believed to weaken the substrate bonds by nucleophilic and electrophilic attack.
6. It explains the a mechanism for nonaction over competitive inhibitor.
There are two views regarding the mode of action of enzymes: Lock and Key hypothesis (theory)
Induced fit hypothesis (theory).
Lock and Key Theory: Emil Fisher proposed this hypothesis in 1894. According to this hypothesis the active site of the enzyme is like a ‘lock’ into which substrate fits like a ‘key’.i.e., the shape of the active site and the substrate molecules are complementary . So the enzyme molecule holds the substrate, molecule close together, forming the unusable intermediate compound, the enzyme substrate complex. It dissociates to form enzyme and products.
lock and key
Induced Fit Theory: Daniel E.Koshland formulated this hypothesis in 1959. According to this hypothesis the active site does not have a rigid ‘lock and key’ conformation. The binding of the substrate molecule to the enzyme molecule induces to modify the shape of the active site so that it becomes complementary to the substrate molecule. This is called the induced fit . Induced fit is possible because of the flexibility of the protein molecules.


Lock and Key Theory vs Induced fit Theory
Lock and Key Theory:
1. Active site is a single entity.
2. There is no separate catalytic group.
3. Active site is static.
4. Development of transition state is not considered.
5.It does not visualize the weakening of substrate bonds.
6. It does not explain the mechanism of non activity in case of competitive inhibitor.
Induced fit Theory:
1. Active  site is made of two components.
2. A separate catalytic group is visualized.
3. Active site is not static.
4. It considers the development of transition state before the reacants undergo change.
5. Catalytic group is believed to weaken the substrate bonds by nucleophilic and electrophilic attack.
6. It explains the a mechanism for nonaction over competitive inhibitor.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Autosomal and Sex chromosomal disorders

Chromosomal disorders: These genetic disorders are caused due to absence or excess or abnormal arrangement of one or more chromosomes. These are noninheritable and pedigree analysis of a family does not help in tracing the pattern of inheritance of such chromosomal disorders. These are two types: abnormalities due to aneuploidy and aberrations either in autosomes or in sex chromosomes.
autosomes and sex chromosomes 
Autosomal vs Sex chromosomal disorders
Autosomal disorders:
1. These arise by gene mutations in autosomal chromosomes.
2. These disorders affect both the sexes, i.e., males and females.
3. The mutated gene may be dominant / recessive.
4. The suffer is homozygous or heterozygous, e.g., Down’s syndrome, Huntington's disease’s chorea, sickle cell anemia, alkaptonuria.

Sex chromosomal disorders:
1. These arise by gene mutation in sex chromosomes (mostly X chromosomes.
2. These disorders affect the males more than the females.
3. The mutated gene is recessive.
4. The sufferer is hemizygous, e.g.,Klinefelter’s syndrome,Turner’s syndrome, super female, haemophilia, muscular dystrophy.
Chromosomal disorders: These genetic disorders are caused due to absence or excess or abnormal arrangement of one or more chromosomes. These are noninheritable and pedigree analysis of a family does not help in tracing the pattern of inheritance of such chromosomal disorders. These are two types: abnormalities due to aneuploidy and aberrations either in autosomes or in sex chromosomes.
autosomes and sex chromosomes 
Autosomal vs Sex chromosomal disorders
Autosomal disorders:
1. These arise by gene mutations in autosomal chromosomes.
2. These disorders affect both the sexes, i.e., males and females.
3. The mutated gene may be dominant / recessive.
4. The suffer is homozygous or heterozygous, e.g., Down’s syndrome, Huntington's disease’s chorea, sickle cell anemia, alkaptonuria.

Sex chromosomal disorders:
1. These arise by gene mutation in sex chromosomes (mostly X chromosomes.
2. These disorders affect the males more than the females.
3. The mutated gene is recessive.
4. The sufferer is hemizygous, e.g.,Klinefelter’s syndrome,Turner’s syndrome, super female, haemophilia, muscular dystrophy.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between True and False Indusium

Indusium is a delicate membranous structure that protects the sporangium or sorus in pteridophytes
Based on the origin, Indusium may be true or false.
True indusium:
True indusium
In the figure, solid red circle – True indusium
1. A delicate membranous structure arises from the lower side and covers the sorus of sporangia (refer figure)
2. Originates from the lower side of the pinnae as an epidermal outgrowth
3. Specialized structure formed on the lower side of pinnae for protection of sorus
4. Seen in Dryopteris
False indusium:
false indusium In the figure, solid red circle –false indusium originating from the margins
1. It is formed by the curving of margins of the pinnae or leaflet that protects the marginal sorus.
2. Originates from the upper side of the pinnae.
3. Formed by the curving of margins of pinnae.
4.  Seen in Pteris, Adiantum
Indusium is a delicate membranous structure that protects the sporangium or sorus in pteridophytes
Based on the origin, Indusium may be true or false.
True indusium:
True indusium
In the figure, solid red circle – True indusium
1. A delicate membranous structure arises from the lower side and covers the sorus of sporangia (refer figure)
2. Originates from the lower side of the pinnae as an epidermal outgrowth
3. Specialized structure formed on the lower side of pinnae for protection of sorus
4. Seen in Dryopteris
False indusium:
false indusium In the figure, solid red circle –false indusium originating from the margins
1. It is formed by the curving of margins of the pinnae or leaflet that protects the marginal sorus.
2. Originates from the upper side of the pinnae.
3. Formed by the curving of margins of pinnae.
4.  Seen in Pteris, Adiantum
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between C3, C4 and CAM plants

A comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants
1. Found in all photosynthetic plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be hydrophytic, mesophytic and xerophytic.
3. Photoactive Stomata
4.  High rate of Photorespiration
5. Normal Leaf anatomy
6. For the synthesis of glucose molecule or 6CO2 fixation:12 NADPH and 18 ATPs are required.
7. Single CO2 fixation occurs
8. Primary CO2 atmospheric acceptor RUBP
9. First stable product 3PGA
10. First enzyme involved RUBISCO
11. Carbon dioxide compensation point: 30-70PPM
c3 and c4 plants
C4 Plants
1. Only in tropical plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  mesophytic
3. Photoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: less or negligible
5. Kranz anatomy
6. 12 NADPH and 30 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(In mesophyll cell) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(In bundle sheath cell)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 10PPM
C4 and CAM plants (C4 and CAM plants)
CAM Plants
1. Specially in succulents growing under semi arid condition.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  xerophytic
3. Scotoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: least or negligible
5. Xeromorphic
6. 12 NADPH and 39 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(During night) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(during day time)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 5PPM
A comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants
1. Found in all photosynthetic plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be hydrophytic, mesophytic and xerophytic.
3. Photoactive Stomata
4.  High rate of Photorespiration
5. Normal Leaf anatomy
6. For the synthesis of glucose molecule or 6CO2 fixation:12 NADPH and 18 ATPs are required.
7. Single CO2 fixation occurs
8. Primary CO2 atmospheric acceptor RUBP
9. First stable product 3PGA
10. First enzyme involved RUBISCO
11. Carbon dioxide compensation point: 30-70PPM
c3 and c4 plants
C4 Plants
1. Only in tropical plants.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  mesophytic
3. Photoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: less or negligible
5. Kranz anatomy
6. 12 NADPH and 30 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(In mesophyll cell) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(In bundle sheath cell)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 10PPM
C4 and CAM plants (C4 and CAM plants)
CAM Plants
1. Specially in succulents growing under semi arid condition.
2. Plants that use the cycle can be  xerophytic
3. Scotoactive Stomata
4. Photorespiration: least or negligible
5. Xeromorphic
6. 12 NADPH and 39 ATPs are required.
7. Double carbon dioxide fixation
8. Atmosphere Co2 acceptor- PEP(During night) and Metabloic Co2 acceptor-RUBP(during day time)
9. First stable product OAA (Oxalo acetic acid)
10.First enzyme involved PEP Carboxylase
11. CO2 compensation point: 5PPM
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Blind spot and Yellow spot

Blind spot vs Yellow spotThe spot at the back of the eye, from where optic nerve fibres leave is free from rods and cones. This spot is devoid of the ability for vision and is called blind spot. Yellow spot or area centralis or Macula lutea is in the exact centre of the retina.
Blind spot vs Yellow spot
Blind spot
1. It lies a little away from the yellow spot.
2. It contains no pigment.
3. Optic nerve starts from this spot.
4. It lacks a depression.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is insensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are absent at blind spot.
7. No image is formed at this place.
Yellow spot
1. It lies exactly opposite the centre of the cornea.
2. It has yellow pigment.
3. No nerve starts from this spot.
4. It has a shallow depression, the fovea centralis, at its middle.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is sensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are present at yellow spot.
7. Image is formed at this place.
Blind spot vs Yellow spotThe spot at the back of the eye, from where optic nerve fibres leave is free from rods and cones. This spot is devoid of the ability for vision and is called blind spot. Yellow spot or area centralis or Macula lutea is in the exact centre of the retina.
Blind spot vs Yellow spot
Blind spot
1. It lies a little away from the yellow spot.
2. It contains no pigment.
3. Optic nerve starts from this spot.
4. It lacks a depression.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is insensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are absent at blind spot.
7. No image is formed at this place.
Yellow spot
1. It lies exactly opposite the centre of the cornea.
2. It has yellow pigment.
3. No nerve starts from this spot.
4. It has a shallow depression, the fovea centralis, at its middle.
5. It lacks visual receptors and is sensitive to light.
6. The eye coats are present at yellow spot.
7. Image is formed at this place.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Cerebrum and Cerebellum

The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemisphere joined by a curved thick band of nerve fibres, called corpus callosum. The outer layer of the cerebrum , known as cerebral cortex , is formed of grey matter and white matter. The cerebellum is similar to cerebrum  in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, and is located at the back of the skull.
Brain's three parts
Cerebrum vs Cerebellum
Cerebrum
1. It is the largest part of the brain, forming four fifths of its weight.
2. It is a part of the centre for forebrain.
3. It consists of two cerebral hemisperes each comprising four lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal.
4. White matter does not form arbor vitae.
5. It initiates voluntary movements, and is a seat of will, intelligence, memory etc.

Cerebellum
1. It is the second largest part of the brain, forming one eighth of its mass.
2. It is a part of the hindbrain.
3. It consists of two cerebellar hemisperes and a median vermis.
4. White matter form arbor vitae.
5. It maintains posture and equilibrium.
The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemisphere joined by a curved thick band of nerve fibres, called corpus callosum. The outer layer of the cerebrum , known as cerebral cortex , is formed of grey matter and white matter. The cerebellum is similar to cerebrum  in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, and is located at the back of the skull.
Brain's three parts
Cerebrum vs Cerebellum
Cerebrum
1. It is the largest part of the brain, forming four fifths of its weight.
2. It is a part of the centre for forebrain.
3. It consists of two cerebral hemisperes each comprising four lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal.
4. White matter does not form arbor vitae.
5. It initiates voluntary movements, and is a seat of will, intelligence, memory etc.

Cerebellum
1. It is the second largest part of the brain, forming one eighth of its mass.
2. It is a part of the hindbrain.
3. It consists of two cerebellar hemisperes and a median vermis.
4. White matter form arbor vitae.
5. It maintains posture and equilibrium.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Photorespiration and Aerobic Respiration

Photorespiration: The excess respiration taking place in green cells in the presence of light is called photorespiration. It is also called C2 cycle because two carbon glycolic acid acts as the substrate. Three organelles, namely chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria are involved in photorespiration. Generally photorespiration is found in C3 plants and absent in C4 plants.
photorespiration pathway
Aerobic Respiration: It takes place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This type of respiration is of common occurrence and it is often used as a synonym of respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration vs Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration
1. It takes place only in green photosynthesising cells.
2. It takes place predominantly in C3 plants.
3. It takes place only during day time in the presence of light.
4. Steps of photorespiration occur in chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria.
5. Saturated point is attained at high oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used is glycolic acid.
7. It does not involve glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It does not produce any usuable energy in the form of ATP; phosphorylation does not take place.
9. End products are CO2 and PGA.
10. Temperature sensitive; 25-35 0C is ideal for photorespiration.
Aerobic Respiration
1. It takes place in both green and non green cells.
2. It takes place in all plants.
3. It takes place both in light and dark.
4. Steps of respiration occur in cytoplasm and mitochondria.
5. Saturation point is reached at a comparatively low oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used are usually sugars and fats.
7. It involves glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It produces usuable energy in the form of ATP; oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
9. End products are carbon dioxide and water.
10. It is not temperature sensitive.
Photorespiration: The excess respiration taking place in green cells in the presence of light is called photorespiration. It is also called C2 cycle because two carbon glycolic acid acts as the substrate. Three organelles, namely chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria are involved in photorespiration. Generally photorespiration is found in C3 plants and absent in C4 plants.
photorespiration pathway
Aerobic Respiration: It takes place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This type of respiration is of common occurrence and it is often used as a synonym of respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration vs Aerobic Respiration
Photorespiration
1. It takes place only in green photosynthesising cells.
2. It takes place predominantly in C3 plants.
3. It takes place only during day time in the presence of light.
4. Steps of photorespiration occur in chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondria.
5. Saturated point is attained at high oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used is glycolic acid.
7. It does not involve glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It does not produce any usuable energy in the form of ATP; phosphorylation does not take place.
9. End products are CO2 and PGA.
10. Temperature sensitive; 25-35 0C is ideal for photorespiration.
Aerobic Respiration
1. It takes place in both green and non green cells.
2. It takes place in all plants.
3. It takes place both in light and dark.
4. Steps of respiration occur in cytoplasm and mitochondria.
5. Saturation point is reached at a comparatively low oxygen concentration.
6. The substrate used are usually sugars and fats.
7. It involves glycolysis, Krebs cycle or Electron Transport System (ETS).
8. It produces usuable energy in the form of ATP; oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
9. End products are carbon dioxide and water.
10. It is not temperature sensitive.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between C3 and C4 Plants

C3 plants: The plants exhibiting C3 pathway are called C3 plants. About 95% of the plants on earth are C3 plants.
C4 plants: The plants exhibiting  C4 pathway are called C4 plants. C4 plants live in hot moist or arid and nonsaline habitats. It occurs in grasses, sugar cane, maize, sorghum, Amarathus and Atriplex. C4 cycle is the alternate pathway of Calvin cycle (C3 cycle) taking place during dark phase of photosynthesis. In the C4 cycle the first stable compound is a 4 carbon compound, namely oxaloacetic acid. Hence it is called C4 cycle.  The C4 plants show  a specific type of leaf anatomy (Krans anatomy). C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis than the C3 plants.
C3 plants vs C4 plants
C3 plants
1. The leaves do not possess Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts do not have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of one type (monomorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually do not contain Chloroplasts.
5. In higher plants, operating C3 cycle, the chloroplasts are all granal and have both the photosystem I and II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform complete photosynthesis.
7. Perform photosynthesis only when stomata are open.
8. C3 plants are less efficient in photosynthesis.
Kranz anatomy
C4 plants
1. The leaves have Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts  have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of types dimorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually possess prominent Chloroplasts.
5. There are two types of chloroplasts, granal in mesophyll cells and agranal in bundle sheath cells. They lack photosystem II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform only initial fixation.
7. Perform photosynthesis even when stomata are closed.
8. C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis.
Learn more: Comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
C3 plants: The plants exhibiting C3 pathway are called C3 plants. About 95% of the plants on earth are C3 plants.
C4 plants: The plants exhibiting  C4 pathway are called C4 plants. C4 plants live in hot moist or arid and nonsaline habitats. It occurs in grasses, sugar cane, maize, sorghum, Amarathus and Atriplex. C4 cycle is the alternate pathway of Calvin cycle (C3 cycle) taking place during dark phase of photosynthesis. In the C4 cycle the first stable compound is a 4 carbon compound, namely oxaloacetic acid. Hence it is called C4 cycle.  The C4 plants show  a specific type of leaf anatomy (Krans anatomy). C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis than the C3 plants.
C3 plants vs C4 plants
C3 plants
1. The leaves do not possess Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts do not have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of one type (monomorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually do not contain Chloroplasts.
5. In higher plants, operating C3 cycle, the chloroplasts are all granal and have both the photosystem I and II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform complete photosynthesis.
7. Perform photosynthesis only when stomata are open.
8. C3 plants are less efficient in photosynthesis.
Kranz anatomy
C4 plants
1. The leaves have Krans Anatomy.
2. Chloroplasts  have peripheral reticulum.
3. Chloroplasts are of types dimorphic).
4. Bundle sheath cells usually possess prominent Chloroplasts.
5. There are two types of chloroplasts, granal in mesophyll cells and agranal in bundle sheath cells. They lack photosystem II.
6. Mesophyll cells perform only initial fixation.
7. Perform photosynthesis even when stomata are closed.
8. C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis.
Learn more: Comparison of C3, C4 and CAM plants
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference Between Male and Female Skeleton

Skeleton system consists of a framework of bones and a few cartilages. This system has a significant role in movement shown by the body. Bones and cartilages are specialised connective tissues.
Male Skeleton vs Female Skeleton
Male Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity narrower and less roomier.
2. Coccyx less movable.
3. Sacrum long, narrower with concavity.
4. Pelvis heavy and thick
5. Joint surface large.
6. Greater pelvis deep.
7. Pubic arch less than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned inward.
9. Obturator foramen rounded.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet smaller.
11. Sciatic notch narrow.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines closer.
male and female skeleton
Female Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity wider, deeper.
2. Coccyx more movable.
3. Sacrum short, wide nearly flat with forward curvature in lower part.
4. Pelvis light and thin.
5. Joint surface small.
6. Greater pelvis short.
7. Pubic arch more than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned outward.
9. Obturator foramen oval.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet larger.
11. Sciatic notch wide.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines wide apart.
Skeleton system consists of a framework of bones and a few cartilages. This system has a significant role in movement shown by the body. Bones and cartilages are specialised connective tissues.
Male Skeleton vs Female Skeleton
Male Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity narrower and less roomier.
2. Coccyx less movable.
3. Sacrum long, narrower with concavity.
4. Pelvis heavy and thick
5. Joint surface large.
6. Greater pelvis deep.
7. Pubic arch less than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned inward.
9. Obturator foramen rounded.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet smaller.
11. Sciatic notch narrow.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines closer.
male and female skeleton
Female Skeleton
1. Pelvic cavity wider, deeper.
2. Coccyx more movable.
3. Sacrum short, wide nearly flat with forward curvature in lower part.
4. Pelvis light and thin.
5. Joint surface small.
6. Greater pelvis short.
7. Pubic arch more than 900.
8. Ischial tuberosity turned outward.
9. Obturator foramen oval.
10. Pelvic inlet and outlet larger.
11. Sciatic notch wide.
12. Anterior superior iliac spines wide apart.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Follow by Email

 
2014 Major Differences | MajorDifferences.com. Our Partners Biology Exams 4 U, Biology Quizzes, MCQ Biology