Difference between Tendon and Ligament

Tendon and ligaments are dense connective tissues.The tendon cells are modified fibroblasts. Tendons occur at the ends of skeletal muscles, and serves to attach them strongly to bones.
Tendon vs Ligament



Ligaments are found in joints. Ligaments connect bones at joints and hold them together in position. The matrix is densely crowded with collagen fibres running in different directions and with some elastin fibres inbetween. Some flat elongated ligament cells are seen inbetween the fibres. 
Tendon vs Ligament
Tendon
Ligament
Tendon joins skeletal muscle to a bone.
Ligaments join a bone to another bone.
It is tough and inelastic.
It is strong but elastic.
It is a modification of white fibrous tissue
It is a modification of yellow elastic tissue with some collagen fibres.
Fibroblasts lie in a almost continuous rows.
Fibroblasts lie scattered.
Fibres are seen as dense parallel bundles.
Fibres are densely crowded but not arranged in parallel bundles.
Tendon and ligaments are dense connective tissues.The tendon cells are modified fibroblasts. Tendons occur at the ends of skeletal muscles, and serves to attach them strongly to bones.
Tendon vs Ligament



Ligaments are found in joints. Ligaments connect bones at joints and hold them together in position. The matrix is densely crowded with collagen fibres running in different directions and with some elastin fibres inbetween. Some flat elongated ligament cells are seen inbetween the fibres. 
Tendon vs Ligament
Tendon
Ligament
Tendon joins skeletal muscle to a bone.
Ligaments join a bone to another bone.
It is tough and inelastic.
It is strong but elastic.
It is a modification of white fibrous tissue
It is a modification of yellow elastic tissue with some collagen fibres.
Fibroblasts lie in a almost continuous rows.
Fibroblasts lie scattered.
Fibres are seen as dense parallel bundles.
Fibres are densely crowded but not arranged in parallel bundles.
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Difference between Syphilis and Gonorrhoea

The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral and protozoans etc.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Disease
Pathogen
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Viral
Herpes genitalis
HSV 2 virus
Condyloma acuminatum
Papova virus
Molluscum contagiosum
Pox virus
Bacterial
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vaginitis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi
Syphilis and Gonorrhoea
Syphilis vs Gonorrhoea
 Major sexually transmitted diseases are Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
Syphilis symptoms:
Characterized by the lesion in the mucous membrane of urinogenital tract, ulcers on genitalia and swelling of local lymph nodes, hair loss, swollen joints which can lead to brain damage, blindness and heart disease etc.
Gonorrhoea symptoms:
Discharge of pus or excessive vaginal secretion, burning on urination and pain around the genitals. Also to arthritis and eyes infection in children of gonorrhea afflicted mothers.
Syphilis
Gonorrhoea
Causative agent
Treponema pallidum (Spirochaete)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Bacteria)
Mode of infections and spread
Sexual contact with infected person. New born babies get it from infected mothers.
Sexual contact with infected person. Pregnant women can pass on the infection to their babies during birth.
Symptoms
Stages of Syphilis:
 In the first stage, tiny painless hard sores develop on the genital organs.
 In the second stage, coppery rashes appear over the body, and ulcers inside the mouth. The disease is infectious during the first and second stages. The disease is not infectious at the third stage.
In the third stage, lesions develop on the internal organs such as aorta, nervous system, liver spleen etc.


In males thick yellow discharge from urethra, pain on passing urine, pus in the urine and semen.

In females, vaginal discharge, pain on urination, and inflammation of the external genital organs. It may cause sterility in females.
Control
Antibiotics like penicillin, tetracycline
Penicillin and Ampicillin
The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral and protozoans etc.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Disease
Pathogen
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Viral
Herpes genitalis
HSV 2 virus
Condyloma acuminatum
Papova virus
Molluscum contagiosum
Pox virus
Bacterial
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Gonorrhoea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Vaginitis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi
Syphilis and Gonorrhoea
Syphilis vs Gonorrhoea
 Major sexually transmitted diseases are Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
Syphilis symptoms:
Characterized by the lesion in the mucous membrane of urinogenital tract, ulcers on genitalia and swelling of local lymph nodes, hair loss, swollen joints which can lead to brain damage, blindness and heart disease etc.
Gonorrhoea symptoms:
Discharge of pus or excessive vaginal secretion, burning on urination and pain around the genitals. Also to arthritis and eyes infection in children of gonorrhea afflicted mothers.
Syphilis
Gonorrhoea
Causative agent
Treponema pallidum (Spirochaete)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Bacteria)
Mode of infections and spread
Sexual contact with infected person. New born babies get it from infected mothers.
Sexual contact with infected person. Pregnant women can pass on the infection to their babies during birth.
Symptoms
Stages of Syphilis:
 In the first stage, tiny painless hard sores develop on the genital organs.
 In the second stage, coppery rashes appear over the body, and ulcers inside the mouth. The disease is infectious during the first and second stages. The disease is not infectious at the third stage.
In the third stage, lesions develop on the internal organs such as aorta, nervous system, liver spleen etc.


In males thick yellow discharge from urethra, pain on passing urine, pus in the urine and semen.

In females, vaginal discharge, pain on urination, and inflammation of the external genital organs. It may cause sterility in females.
Control
Antibiotics like penicillin, tetracycline
Penicillin and Ampicillin
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Difference between Cilia and Microvilli

Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.

Microvilli are short protoplasmic projections. They give a brush like appearance to their free border. Microvilli increase the free surface area of the cell and thereby increase the rate of absorption. They found on proximal tubules of kidneys and intestine.

Cilia vs Microvilli
Cilia
cilia

Microvilli
microvilli
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in intenstine; where absorption and secretions are the major activities
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are extremely thin and short structured
Function: Movement
Function: Microvilli increase the intestinal mucosa, and consequently help in enhancing absorption.
Cilia are the cytoplasmic extensions arising from basal granules lying below the cell membrane. The function of cilia is to move particles, free cells or mucous in a specific direction over the epithelial surface. The surfaces of some hollow organs such as fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are lined with ciliated epithelia.

Microvilli are short protoplasmic projections. They give a brush like appearance to their free border. Microvilli increase the free surface area of the cell and thereby increase the rate of absorption. They found on proximal tubules of kidneys and intestine.

Cilia vs Microvilli
Cilia
cilia

Microvilli
microvilli
Occur in cells of respiratory and reproductive tracts.
Found in intenstine; where absorption and secretions are the major activities
Arise from the basal  granules
Basal granules are absent
Motile
Non motile
Cilia has 9+2 ultra structure
9+2 ultra structure absent
They taper distally
They are extremely thin and short structured
Function: Movement
Function: Microvilli increase the intestinal mucosa, and consequently help in enhancing absorption.
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Difference between Anaerobic respiration and Fermentation

Degradation of organic food for the purpose of releasing energy can occur with or without the participation of oxygen. Hence, respiration can be classified into two types: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration take place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This is often used as a synonym of respiration.

Anaerobic respiration: It is an energy releasing stepwise incomplete catabolic breakdown of food materials without employing oxygen as an oxidant. Some other compounds are also formed in addition to carbon dioxide. This type of respiration is of rare occurrence but common among microorganisms like yeasts.
C6H12O6-> 2C2H5OH+2CO2+56K. cal
Glucose-> Ethylalcohol

Fermentation: It is an anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate and other organic substances with the help of microorganisms or their enzymes. It is a special type of respiration in which organic compounds serve as both the electron donors and the terminal acceptors. Pasteur defined fermentation as life without air. Pyruvic acid is the raw material for fermentation. It is obtained from glycolysis. The end products are alcohol, lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid. Fermentation is employed by human beings to obtain alcohol and other chemicals. 
Alcoholic fermentation

CH3CO.COOH + NADH+H+-> CH3CHOH.COOH+NAD+
 Pyruvic acid -> Lactic acid( in the presence of lactic dehydrogenase)
Anaerobic respiration vs Fermentation

Anaerobic respiration

Fermentation
It is an intracellular process
It is mostly an extra cellular process.
It occurs in the absence of oxygen
A small quantity of oxygen rather stimulates activity.
The substrate and end products belong to the anaerobically respiring cell.
The substrate is obtained from extra cellular medium and the products are also passed to the outside.
Enzyme extracted from the cells cannot perform this type of respiration.
The substrate is obtained from extra cellular medium and the products are also passed to the outside.
Degradation of organic food for the purpose of releasing energy can occur with or without the participation of oxygen. Hence, respiration can be classified into two types: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration take place in the presence of oxygen and the respiratory substrate gets completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water as end products. This is often used as a synonym of respiration.

Anaerobic respiration: It is an energy releasing stepwise incomplete catabolic breakdown of food materials without employing oxygen as an oxidant. Some other compounds are also formed in addition to carbon dioxide. This type of respiration is of rare occurrence but common among microorganisms like yeasts.
C6H12O6-> 2C2H5OH+2CO2+56K. cal
Glucose-> Ethylalcohol

Fermentation: It is an anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate and other organic substances with the help of microorganisms or their enzymes. It is a special type of respiration in which organic compounds serve as both the electron donors and the terminal acceptors. Pasteur defined fermentation as life without air. Pyruvic acid is the raw material for fermentation. It is obtained from glycolysis. The end products are alcohol, lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid. Fermentation is employed by human beings to obtain alcohol and other chemicals. 
Alcoholic fermentation

CH3CO.COOH + NADH+H+-> CH3CHOH.COOH+NAD+
 Pyruvic acid -> Lactic acid( in the presence of lactic dehydrogenase)
Anaerobic respiration vs Fermentation

Anaerobic respiration

Fermentation
It is an intracellular process
It is mostly an extra cellular process.
It occurs in the absence of oxygen
A small quantity of oxygen rather stimulates activity.
The substrate and end products belong to the anaerobically respiring cell.
The substrate is obtained from extra cellular medium and the products are also passed to the outside.
Enzyme extracted from the cells cannot perform this type of respiration.
The substrate is obtained from extra cellular medium and the products are also passed to the outside.
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Difference between Pairwise and Multiple Sequence Alignment

Sequence alignment is used to find out degrees of similarity between two (pairwise alignment)or more nucleic acid sequences of DNA or RNA and amino acid sequences of proteins.
Pair wise alignment vs Multiple sequence alignment

Pairwise Alignment vs Multiple Sequence Alignment
Pairwise Alignment
Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA)
An alignment procedure comparing two biological sequences of either protein, DNA or RNA           
An alignment procedure comparing three or more biological sequences of either protein, DNA or RNA
Pairwise alignments can be generally categorized as global or local alignment methods.
MSA is generally a global multiple sequence alignment
Comparatively simple algorithm is used
Complex sophisticated algorithm is used
A general global alignment technique is the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm.
A general local alignment method is Smith–Waterman algorithm.
A technique called progressive alignment method is employed. In this approach, a pairwise alignment algorithm is used iteratively, first to align the most closely related pair of sequences, then the next most similar one to that pair, and so on.
Applications:

a) Primarily to find out conserved regions between the two sequences.

b)Similarity searches in a database

Applications:
a) To detect regions of variability or conservation in a family of proteins
b) Phylogenetic analysis (inferring a tree, estimating rates of substitution, etc.)
c) Detection of homology between a newly sequenced gene and an existing gene family prediction of protein structure
d) Demonstration of homology in multigene families
Examples of pairwise alignment  tools:
  • LALIGN
  • BLAST
  • EMBOSS Needle
  • EMBOSS Water
Examples of Multiple Sequence Alignment tools:
  • MUSCLE
  • T-Coffee
  • MAFFT
  • CLUSTALW 
Sequence alignment is used to find out degrees of similarity between two (pairwise alignment)or more nucleic acid sequences of DNA or RNA and amino acid sequences of proteins.
Pair wise alignment vs Multiple sequence alignment

Pairwise Alignment vs Multiple Sequence Alignment
Pairwise Alignment
Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA)
An alignment procedure comparing two biological sequences of either protein, DNA or RNA           
An alignment procedure comparing three or more biological sequences of either protein, DNA or RNA
Pairwise alignments can be generally categorized as global or local alignment methods.
MSA is generally a global multiple sequence alignment
Comparatively simple algorithm is used
Complex sophisticated algorithm is used
A general global alignment technique is the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm.
A general local alignment method is Smith–Waterman algorithm.
A technique called progressive alignment method is employed. In this approach, a pairwise alignment algorithm is used iteratively, first to align the most closely related pair of sequences, then the next most similar one to that pair, and so on.
Applications:

a) Primarily to find out conserved regions between the two sequences.

b)Similarity searches in a database

Applications:
a) To detect regions of variability or conservation in a family of proteins
b) Phylogenetic analysis (inferring a tree, estimating rates of substitution, etc.)
c) Detection of homology between a newly sequenced gene and an existing gene family prediction of protein structure
d) Demonstration of homology in multigene families
Examples of pairwise alignment  tools:
  • LALIGN
  • BLAST
  • EMBOSS Needle
  • EMBOSS Water
Examples of Multiple Sequence Alignment tools:
  • MUSCLE
  • T-Coffee
  • MAFFT
  • CLUSTALW 
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Difference between Global and Local Sequence Alignment

Sequence alignment is the procedure of comparing two (pairwise alignment) or more multiple sequences by searching for a series of individual characters or patterns that are in the same order in the sequences.
Global Sequence Alignment vs Local Sequence Alignment

Difference between Global and Local Sequence Alignment
Global Sequence Alignment
Local Sequence Alignment
In global alignment, an attempt is made to align the entire sequence (end to end alignment)            
Finds local regions with the highest level of similarity between the two sequences.
A global alignment contains all letters from both the query and target sequences
A local alignment aligns a substring of the query sequence to a substring of the target sequence.
If two sequences have approximately the same length and are quite similar, they are suitable for global alignment.
Any two sequences can be locally aligned as local alignment finds stretches of sequences with high level of matches without considering the alignment of rest of the sequence regions.
Suitable for aligning two closely related sequences.
Suitable for aligning more divergent sequences or distantly related sequences.
Global alignments are usually done for comparing homologous genes like comparing two genes with same function (in human vs. mouse) or comparing two proteins with similar function.

Used for finding out conserved patterns in DNA sequences or conserved domains or motifs in two proteins.

A general global alignment technique is the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm.
A general local alignment method is Smith–Waterman algorithm.
Examples of Global alignment tools:
  •  EMBOSS Needle
  • Needleman-Wunsch Global Align Nucleotide Sequences (Specialized BLAST)
Examples of Local alignment tools:
  •       BLAST
  •       EMBOSS Water
  •       LALIGN
References: 
Sequence alignment is the procedure of comparing two (pairwise alignment) or more multiple sequences by searching for a series of individual characters or patterns that are in the same order in the sequences.
Global Sequence Alignment vs Local Sequence Alignment

Difference between Global and Local Sequence Alignment
Global Sequence Alignment
Local Sequence Alignment
In global alignment, an attempt is made to align the entire sequence (end to end alignment)            
Finds local regions with the highest level of similarity between the two sequences.
A global alignment contains all letters from both the query and target sequences
A local alignment aligns a substring of the query sequence to a substring of the target sequence.
If two sequences have approximately the same length and are quite similar, they are suitable for global alignment.
Any two sequences can be locally aligned as local alignment finds stretches of sequences with high level of matches without considering the alignment of rest of the sequence regions.
Suitable for aligning two closely related sequences.
Suitable for aligning more divergent sequences or distantly related sequences.
Global alignments are usually done for comparing homologous genes like comparing two genes with same function (in human vs. mouse) or comparing two proteins with similar function.

Used for finding out conserved patterns in DNA sequences or conserved domains or motifs in two proteins.

A general global alignment technique is the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm.
A general local alignment method is Smith–Waterman algorithm.
Examples of Global alignment tools:
  •  EMBOSS Needle
  • Needleman-Wunsch Global Align Nucleotide Sequences (Specialized BLAST)
Examples of Local alignment tools:
  •       BLAST
  •       EMBOSS Water
  •       LALIGN
References: 
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Difference between Gametophyte and Sporophyte

Gametophyte: It is a multi cellular structure or generation in life cycle of a plant which is capable of forming gametes directly from its cells. The cells of gametophyte are always haploid or have single genomes or one set of chromosomes.

Sporophyte: It is a multicellular structure or generation in the life cycle of a plant which possess diploid cells or cells which two genomes or two sets of chromosomes. It produces haploid spores or meiospores through the process of meiosis in its diploid cells.
Summary of alternation of diploid with haploid phases in Kingdom Plantae and Fungi
  • In Algae, the dominant phase is gametophyte (1n). Sporophytic and gametophytic stages are independent.
  • In Bryophytes, the dominant phase is free living thalloid gametophyte (1n). The gametophyte is thalloid in primitive forms (Riccia) and differentiated into stem, leaves and rhizoids in higher bryophytes (Mosses).
  • In Pteridophytes, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n). The gametophyte is called prothallus. The gametophyte is small and is usually independent. Meiospores are formed inside sporangia.
  • In Gymnosperm, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n).The gametophyte generation is reduced and dependent upon sporophyte generation.
  • A typical angiosperm plant is sporophytic (2n) and has both vegetative (root, stem, leaves) and reproductive parts.The male gametophyte develops inside the pollen grain. The female gametophyte is called as embryo sac which develops inside the ovule.
Gametophyte vs Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
It is the haploid (n) phase in the life cycle
It is the diploid (2n) phase in the life cycle.
It forms gametes.
It forms spores.
The gametes are formed either directly or through mitosis.
The spores are formed after meiosis.
Gametes take part in fertilization or fusion forming diploid (2n) zygote.
The diploid spore mother cell undergo meiosis to form haploid (n) Meiospores.
Growth of zygote produces the sporophyte.
Growth of meiospore produces the gametophyte.
The cells possess a single genome or one set of chromosomes.
The cells possess two genomes or two sets of chromosomes.
Gametophyte: It is a multi cellular structure or generation in life cycle of a plant which is capable of forming gametes directly from its cells. The cells of gametophyte are always haploid or have single genomes or one set of chromosomes.

Sporophyte: It is a multicellular structure or generation in the life cycle of a plant which possess diploid cells or cells which two genomes or two sets of chromosomes. It produces haploid spores or meiospores through the process of meiosis in its diploid cells.
Summary of alternation of diploid with haploid phases in Kingdom Plantae and Fungi
  • In Algae, the dominant phase is gametophyte (1n). Sporophytic and gametophytic stages are independent.
  • In Bryophytes, the dominant phase is free living thalloid gametophyte (1n). The gametophyte is thalloid in primitive forms (Riccia) and differentiated into stem, leaves and rhizoids in higher bryophytes (Mosses).
  • In Pteridophytes, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n). The gametophyte is called prothallus. The gametophyte is small and is usually independent. Meiospores are formed inside sporangia.
  • In Gymnosperm, the dominant phase is sporophyte (2n).The gametophyte generation is reduced and dependent upon sporophyte generation.
  • A typical angiosperm plant is sporophytic (2n) and has both vegetative (root, stem, leaves) and reproductive parts.The male gametophyte develops inside the pollen grain. The female gametophyte is called as embryo sac which develops inside the ovule.
Gametophyte vs Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Sporophyte
It is the haploid (n) phase in the life cycle
It is the diploid (2n) phase in the life cycle.
It forms gametes.
It forms spores.
The gametes are formed either directly or through mitosis.
The spores are formed after meiosis.
Gametes take part in fertilization or fusion forming diploid (2n) zygote.
The diploid spore mother cell undergo meiosis to form haploid (n) Meiospores.
Growth of zygote produces the sporophyte.
Growth of meiospore produces the gametophyte.
The cells possess a single genome or one set of chromosomes.
The cells possess two genomes or two sets of chromosomes.
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Difference between Corm and Bulb

Bulb and corm are the underground stem modifications in which stems are seen below the surface of the soil and are modified to store the food.
Bulb vs Corm
Bulb


Corm

The stem is a condensed, discoid structure.
The stem is a cylindrical, vertically growing structure.
Adventitious roots develop from the ventral side of the stem.
Adventitious roots develop all over the stem.
Contractile roots are absent.
Contractile roots are present.
Terminal bud is small.
Terminal bud is large.
Food is stored in the leaf bases.
Food is stored in the stem.
Example of Bulb: Onion(Allium cepa)
Example of Corm: Gladious, Colocasia Amorphophallus
Bulb and corm are the underground stem modifications in which stems are seen below the surface of the soil and are modified to store the food.
Bulb vs Corm
Bulb


Corm

The stem is a condensed, discoid structure.
The stem is a cylindrical, vertically growing structure.
Adventitious roots develop from the ventral side of the stem.
Adventitious roots develop all over the stem.
Contractile roots are absent.
Contractile roots are present.
Terminal bud is small.
Terminal bud is large.
Food is stored in the leaf bases.
Food is stored in the stem.
Example of Bulb: Onion(Allium cepa)
Example of Corm: Gladious, Colocasia Amorphophallus
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