Difference between Cellulose and Cellulase

Cellulose is the most abundant natural organic compound on earth. On average, cellulose accounts as 50% of the dry weight of plant biomass. It is the major structural homopolysaccharide in higher plants. It is made up of long linear chains of beta glucose units.

Cellulase is an enzyme that breaks down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides such as beta-glucose. It is primarily produced by fungi, bacteria and protozoans.
The three types of reaction catalyzed by cellulases:

1. Breakage of the noncovalent interactions present in the amorphous structure of cellulose (endocellulase) 

2. Hydrolysis of chain ends to break the polymer into smaller sugars (exocellulase) 

3. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and tetrasaccharides into glucose (beta-glucosidase).

Cellulose vs Cellulase
Cellulose(C6H10O5)n
Cellulase
Cellulose is a carbohydrate (Polysaccharide)
Cellulase is an enzyme (Protein)
Made up of beta glucose units
Made up of amino acids
Beta glucose units (monomers) are joined by glycosidic bonds.
Peptide bonds between monomers
Fibrous in nature
Globular in nature
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are absent
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are present.
Alternate beta glucose rotated through 1800
No rotation of amino acids.
Cellulose is the most abundant natural organic compound on earth. On average, cellulose accounts as 50% of the dry weight of plant biomass. It is the major structural homopolysaccharide in higher plants. It is made up of long linear chains of beta glucose units.

Cellulase is an enzyme that breaks down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides such as beta-glucose. It is primarily produced by fungi, bacteria and protozoans.
The three types of reaction catalyzed by cellulases:

1. Breakage of the noncovalent interactions present in the amorphous structure of cellulose (endocellulase) 

2. Hydrolysis of chain ends to break the polymer into smaller sugars (exocellulase) 

3. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and tetrasaccharides into glucose (beta-glucosidase).

Cellulose vs Cellulase
Cellulose(C6H10O5)n
Cellulase
Cellulose is a carbohydrate (Polysaccharide)
Cellulase is an enzyme (Protein)
Made up of beta glucose units
Made up of amino acids
Beta glucose units (monomers) are joined by glycosidic bonds.
Peptide bonds between monomers
Fibrous in nature
Globular in nature
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are absent
Ionic bonds, Disulphide bonds and Hydrophobic interactions are present.
Alternate beta glucose rotated through 1800
No rotation of amino acids.
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8 Differences between Mitochondria and Peroxisome

Mitochondrion are self duplicating, semi autonomous, double membrane bound, cytoplasmic organelles found in all eukaryotic cells. 
Peroxisomes are microbodies or self duplicating; single membrane bound organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They contain oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and urate oxidase, at such high concentrations.
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes 
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Double membrane bound organelle
Single membrane bound organelle
Semi-autonomous organelle, contains DNA called mt DNA or mitochondrial genome
No DNA
New mitochondrion arise by growth and fission
New peroxisome also  arise by growth and fission
Mitochondrial proteins are coded by both mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA
Peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA
Mitochondrial proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomes inside mitochondrion
Peroxisomal proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Unfolded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins complexes called TIM, TOM and OXA complex
Folded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins coded by PEX genes named peroxins
Import signal sequence is called "mitochondria-targeting sequence" (MTS), which is located at the amino termini or N termini of the preproteins or unfolded protein
Import signal is a  specific sequence of three amino acids located at the C terminus of many peroxisomal proteins
Signal sequences at N terminus are removed after import by a protease called signal peptidase in the mitochondrial matrix.
Generally, Signal sequences are not removed after import
Function: Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis which is used to drive various cellular activities.
Matrix is the site of β oxidation


Functions: Involved many metabolic processes or oxidative reactions, such as β‐oxidation of very long‐chain fatty acids releasing energy,
 and synthesis of plasmalogen, an important membrane component in brain and heart and bile acids as well as generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide during detoxification.
TIM: Translocase Inner Membrane; TOM: Translocase Outer Membrane
Reference:
  • Platta, H. W., & Erdmann, R. (2007). The peroxisomal protein import machinery. FEBS letters, 581(15), 2811-2819.
  • Rehling, P., Wiedemann, N., Pfanner, N., & Truscott, K. N. (2001). The mitochondrial import machinery for preproteins. Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 36(3), 291-336.
  • Fujiki, Yukio, Okumoto, Kanji, and Honsho, Masanori(Apr 2015) Protein Import into Peroxisomes: The Principles and Methods of Studying. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 
Mitochondrion are self duplicating, semi autonomous, double membrane bound, cytoplasmic organelles found in all eukaryotic cells. 
Peroxisomes are microbodies or self duplicating; single membrane bound organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They contain oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and urate oxidase, at such high concentrations.
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes
Mitochondrion vs  Peroxisomes 
Mitochondrion
Peroxisomes
Double membrane bound organelle
Single membrane bound organelle
Semi-autonomous organelle, contains DNA called mt DNA or mitochondrial genome
No DNA
New mitochondrion arise by growth and fission
New peroxisome also  arise by growth and fission
Mitochondrial proteins are coded by both mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA
Peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA
Mitochondrial proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and ribosomes inside mitochondrion
Peroxisomal proteins are made on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
Unfolded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins complexes called TIM, TOM and OXA complex
Folded Proteins are post‐translationally imported with the help of proteins coded by PEX genes named peroxins
Import signal sequence is called "mitochondria-targeting sequence" (MTS), which is located at the amino termini or N termini of the preproteins or unfolded protein
Import signal is a  specific sequence of three amino acids located at the C terminus of many peroxisomal proteins
Signal sequences at N terminus are removed after import by a protease called signal peptidase in the mitochondrial matrix.
Generally, Signal sequences are not removed after import
Function: Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis which is used to drive various cellular activities.
Matrix is the site of β oxidation


Functions: Involved many metabolic processes or oxidative reactions, such as β‐oxidation of very long‐chain fatty acids releasing energy,
 and synthesis of plasmalogen, an important membrane component in brain and heart and bile acids as well as generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide during detoxification.
TIM: Translocase Inner Membrane; TOM: Translocase Outer Membrane
Reference:
  • Platta, H. W., & Erdmann, R. (2007). The peroxisomal protein import machinery. FEBS letters, 581(15), 2811-2819.
  • Rehling, P., Wiedemann, N., Pfanner, N., & Truscott, K. N. (2001). The mitochondrial import machinery for preproteins. Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 36(3), 291-336.
  • Fujiki, Yukio, Okumoto, Kanji, and Honsho, Masanori(Apr 2015) Protein Import into Peroxisomes: The Principles and Methods of Studying. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 
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Difference between Hard wood and Soft wood

Hard wood and soft wood is a misnomer as the terms do not actually mean the softness or hardness of wood.

The wood produced by angiosperms is called hard wood. It is composed mainly of vessels and is also called porous wood. The wood produced by gymnosperm is called softwood. It is composed mainly of tracheids and is known as non-porous wood. 
Soft wood vs Hard wood
Hard wood
Porous wood
Angiosperm wood
Soft wood
Non-Porous wood
Gymnosperm wood
 Wood with vessels or pores is called porous wood.
Wood without vessels or pores is called non-porous wood.
  Porous wood is found in angiosperms.                                         
 Non Porous wood is found in gymnosperms.     
 The porous wood of angiosperms is technically called as hard wood.
 The non-porous wood of gymnosperms is technically called as softwood.                  
It possesses vessels, fibres and parenchyma. Tracheids are rare or absent. Tracheid percentage often less than 5%.
It is mainly formed of tracheids and ray cells. Tracheid percentage ranges about 90-95%.
Xylem fibres are plenty.
Fewer Xylem fibres.
Eg: Teak wood
eg: Pinus wood
Hard wood and soft wood is a misnomer as the terms do not actually mean the softness or hardness of wood.

The wood produced by angiosperms is called hard wood. It is composed mainly of vessels and is also called porous wood. The wood produced by gymnosperm is called softwood. It is composed mainly of tracheids and is known as non-porous wood. 
Soft wood vs Hard wood
Hard wood
Porous wood
Angiosperm wood
Soft wood
Non-Porous wood
Gymnosperm wood
 Wood with vessels or pores is called porous wood.
Wood without vessels or pores is called non-porous wood.
  Porous wood is found in angiosperms.                                         
 Non Porous wood is found in gymnosperms.     
 The porous wood of angiosperms is technically called as hard wood.
 The non-porous wood of gymnosperms is technically called as softwood.                  
It possesses vessels, fibres and parenchyma. Tracheids are rare or absent. Tracheid percentage often less than 5%.
It is mainly formed of tracheids and ray cells. Tracheid percentage ranges about 90-95%.
Xylem fibres are plenty.
Fewer Xylem fibres.
Eg: Teak wood
eg: Pinus wood
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Difference between Spring wood and Autumn wood

The activity of the cambium ring is influenced by the climatic charges. Reactivation of the cambium takes place during spring season.  The cambium becomes more active during this season and forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities known as spring wood. It is also known as early wood.  In winter, however, the cambial activity slows down and gives rise to narrower xylem elements. The wood thus formed in winter is called autumn wood. It is also known as late wood.
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood
Autumn Wood
It is formed during spring season
It is formed during winter season.
It constitutes the major part of the annual ring.
It constitutes as a narrow strip in the annual ring.
Spring wood is present in the beginning of an annual ring.
Autumn wood is present a the end of an annual ring.
Forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities.
The cavities of xylem vessels are narrower.
Xylem fibers are fewer in number.
Abundant xylem fibres are produced.
Wood is lighter in colour.
Wood is darker in colour.
It  has a lower density
It has a higher density
It is also called early wood.
It is also called late wood.
The activity of the cambium ring is influenced by the climatic charges. Reactivation of the cambium takes place during spring season.  The cambium becomes more active during this season and forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities known as spring wood. It is also known as early wood.  In winter, however, the cambial activity slows down and gives rise to narrower xylem elements. The wood thus formed in winter is called autumn wood. It is also known as late wood.
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood vs Autumn Wood
Spring Wood
Autumn Wood
It is formed during spring season
It is formed during winter season.
It constitutes the major part of the annual ring.
It constitutes as a narrow strip in the annual ring.
Spring wood is present in the beginning of an annual ring.
Autumn wood is present a the end of an annual ring.
Forms plenty of xylem vessels with wider cavities.
The cavities of xylem vessels are narrower.
Xylem fibers are fewer in number.
Abundant xylem fibres are produced.
Wood is lighter in colour.
Wood is darker in colour.
It  has a lower density
It has a higher density
It is also called early wood.
It is also called late wood.
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5 Differences between Chlorosis and Etiolation

Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
Chlorosis is a deficiency disease in plants that lead to pale or yellow coloration of leaves due to the deficiency of certain elements. Low chlorophyll synthesis due to this deficiency causes pale or yellow colouration.
Etiolation refers to the characteristic growth of green plants in the absence of light.  Chlorosis occurs in etiolation also therefore etiolation can also be defined as chlorosis along with typical growth pattern shown by green plants caused by lack of light.
Chlorosis vs Etiolation
Chlorosis
Etiolation
It is a physiological disease.
It is a physiological phenomenon.
It is caused due to deficiency of certain elements like Mg2+, iron, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, sulphur etc., when the plants are grown in light.
It is caused in green plants, when they are grown in dark. Mineral deficiency is not involved in such plants.
During chlorosis, the leaves become non green due to low chlorophyll synthesis. Accessory pigments like  xanthophylls, carotenoids may form but cannot carryout photosynthesis due to the lack of chlorophyll
During etiolation, the stem becomes long and weak, the leaves become smaller and colourless or yellow, young leaves remain unexpanded. Pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and xanthophylls involved in photosynthesis are not synthesized.
It may be complete or inter veinal chlorosis. In inter veinal chlorosis, petiole and veins may remain green
Absence of light is the only factor in etiolation and the entire leaf becomes yellow or colourless.
Affected plant cannot carryout photosynthesis and may die due to the lack of chlorophyll.  Chlorosis can be treated by supplying the deficient element through any method.
Etiolation can be avoided if the plant is kept in proper sunlight. The process is called de Etiolation.
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5 Differences between Absorption Spectrum and Action Spectrum

Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
Photosynthetic pigments absorb light only in the visible region of the spectrum (390nm-760nm).The action spectrum peak of chlorophyll is almost same as that of absorption spectrum indicating that chlorophyll is the primary pigment in photosynthesis.
Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum

                                       Absorption Spectrum vs Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum
Action Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum is the graphic representation of the different wavelengths of light absorbed by the different pigments in a leaf during photosynthesis
Action Spectrum is the graphic representation of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis

Plot showing intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength

Plot showing relative efficiency of photosynthesis produced by light of different wavelengths
Explains the relationship between quality of light and absorbing capacity of pigments
Explains the relationship between photosynthetic activity in relation to different wavelengths of light
Chlorophyll absorb blue and red light
Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light
The maximum photosynthesis occurs in blue and red light
Absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments can be measured using spectrophotometer.
In action spectrum, the rate of photosynthesis is measured as amount of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen production, NADP+ reduction etc.
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7 Differences between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
Luminescence can be defined as the radiation emitted by a molecule or an atom on return to ground state from excited state after initial absorption of energy. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are type of photoluminescence which involves absorption of energy and excitation of atom to higher energy level followed by emission of electromagnetic radiation (or return to low energy state). In both, the emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light. The major difference is the duration for each process to occur after the initial absorption of light of correct wave length.
Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by immediate emission of light or electromagnetic radiation
It is the absorption of energy by atoms or molecules followed by delayed emission of electromagnetic radiation
The emission of radiation or light suddenly stops on removal of source of excitation
The emission of radiation remains for some time even after the removal of source of excitation
In Fluorescence, the excited atom has comparatively short life time before its transition to low energy state
In Phosphorescence, the excited atom has comparatively long life time before its transition to low energy state
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is very short
The time period or interval between the absorption and emission of energy is comparatively long
Absorption process occurs over short time interval and involves the transition from ground state to singlet excited state and do not change the direction of the spin.

Phosphorescence involves the transition from the single ground energy state to excited triplet state and involving a change of spin state
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than the incident light
The emitted photon (light) has lower energy than the absorbed photon and emission occurs at a longer wavelength than fluorescence
In fluorescent materials, gives an ‘an immediate flash or afterglow’ on excitation
Phosphorescent materials appears to 'glow in the dark', because of slow emission of light over time. 
Examples of Fluorescence:
Gemstones fluoresce, including gypsum, talc.
Jelly fish, chlorophyll extract, vitamins etc
Examples of Phosphorescence:
Glow of clock dial or toys or in bulbs after switching off the light in the room. The glow remains for some minutes or even hours in a dark room
Phosphorescent materials in sign board illuminate during night.
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5 Differences between Control Group and Experimental Group

An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
An experiment is a method of scientific investigation or test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth or examine the validity of a hypothesis.
                                         Experimental group vs Control group
Experimental Group
Control Group
It is the group that you are  conducting experiment
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment
The researcher is changing the independent variable  that he thinks will influence the dependent variable
The researcher is not changing the independent variable or set it as a standard value
A good experimental group is identical to the control group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
A good control group is identical to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (except for the variable that is changing in the experiment)
The effect or influence of independent variable on dependent variable  is determined by comparing the experimental results with the control group
Helps to compare experimental result with non-experimental natural result (control group). It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Alternative hypothesis is accepted, if there is a significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Null hypothesis is accepted, if there is  no significant difference in the dependent variables (measured or observed) of experimental group and control group
Learn more:
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