Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory


Cell Theory 1839
Proposed by Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) and Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804–1881)
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory
The third tenet was proposed by Rudolf Virchow, a German Pathologist (1821–1902) in 1855
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells “Omnis cellula e cellula” (by cell division; mitosis or meiosis; not derived from spontaneous generation)
Background:
Schleiden in 1838, German botanist, found out cell as the basic unit of plant structure.
Theodor Schwann, a German physiologist in 1839 defined cell as the basic unit of animal structure also. In 1839, they together proposed the two statements of the present cell theory.

Modern Cell Theory
The knowledge of the advancement in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, etc. is considered to make the following additions to the above classical cell theory
 Modern Cell Theorystatements
4. Cells contain heredity information in their DNA. This information is passed to new cells by cell division.
5. All cells have the same basic chemical composition.
6. Energy flow (Metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
The other major contributors to the Cell Theory are Robert Hooke; who coined the tern “cell” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; who was the first one to observe living organisms under his own microscope.

Cell Theory 1839
Proposed by Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) and Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804–1881)
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory
The third tenet was proposed by Rudolf Virchow, a German Pathologist (1821–1902) in 1855
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells “Omnis cellula e cellula” (by cell division; mitosis or meiosis; not derived from spontaneous generation)
Background:
Schleiden in 1838, German botanist, found out cell as the basic unit of plant structure.
Theodor Schwann, a German physiologist in 1839 defined cell as the basic unit of animal structure also. In 1839, they together proposed the two statements of the present cell theory.

Modern Cell Theory
The knowledge of the advancement in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, etc. is considered to make the following additions to the above classical cell theory
 Modern Cell Theorystatements
4. Cells contain heredity information in their DNA. This information is passed to new cells by cell division.
5. All cells have the same basic chemical composition.
6. Energy flow (Metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
The other major contributors to the Cell Theory are Robert Hooke; who coined the tern “cell” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; who was the first one to observe living organisms under his own microscope.
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10 Differences between chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration vs chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis was proposed by Peter Mitchell 1961. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978. This process is occurring during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic Theory states that Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Peter Mitchell proposed this theory to explain ATP synthesis during cellular respiration
See simple step wise explanation on
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration
Chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration occurs in all living cells.
Chemiosmosis in photosynthesis occurs only in green plants and cyanobacteria
Chemiosmosis occurs during Electron transport chain of cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis occurs during Light dependent reaction of photosynthesis
The organelle involved is Mitochondrion
The organelle involved is Chloroplast
The exact site of chemiosmosis is Mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The exact site of chemiosmosis is thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Mitochondrial inner membrane
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Proton gradient formation occurs across the mitochondrial inner membrane
Proton gradient formation occurs across thylakoid membrane
Proton (H+) is pumped from matrix into the intermembrane space of mitochondria using energy derived from electron flow
Proton (H+) is pumped from stroma into the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space using energy derived from electron flow
ATP synthesis occurs towards the matrix side
as ATP synthase is oriented towards matrix side
ATP synthesis occurs towards the stromal side as ATP synthase is oriented towards stromal side
Transforms chemical energy or bond energy form food to ATP
Transforms light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP
ATP synthesized is used to drive all cellular activities
ATP synthesized is used to fix carbondioxide to carbohydrates during light independent reaction of photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration vs chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis was proposed by Peter Mitchell 1961. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978. This process is occurring during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic Theory states that Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Peter Mitchell proposed this theory to explain ATP synthesis during cellular respiration
See simple step wise explanation on
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration
Chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration occurs in all living cells.
Chemiosmosis in photosynthesis occurs only in green plants and cyanobacteria
Chemiosmosis occurs during Electron transport chain of cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis occurs during Light dependent reaction of photosynthesis
The organelle involved is Mitochondrion
The organelle involved is Chloroplast
The exact site of chemiosmosis is Mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The exact site of chemiosmosis is thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Mitochondrial inner membrane
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Proton gradient formation occurs across the mitochondrial inner membrane
Proton gradient formation occurs across thylakoid membrane
Proton (H+) is pumped from matrix into the intermembrane space of mitochondria using energy derived from electron flow
Proton (H+) is pumped from stroma into the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space using energy derived from electron flow
ATP synthesis occurs towards the matrix side
as ATP synthase is oriented towards matrix side
ATP synthesis occurs towards the stromal side as ATP synthase is oriented towards stromal side
Transforms chemical energy or bond energy form food to ATP
Transforms light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP
ATP synthesized is used to drive all cellular activities
ATP synthesized is used to fix carbondioxide to carbohydrates during light independent reaction of photosynthesis
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5 Differences between Proteinogenic Amino Acid and Non-proteinogenic amino acids

Proteinogenic vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteins are nitrogen containing bio molecules made up of amino acids joined by peptide bond.
An amino acids consists of a central α carbon atom joined by 4 groups namely Hydrogen (H), amino group (–NH2), carboxyl group (-COOH) and side group (R-group).
Proteinogenic amino acids are “protein forming amino acids where as non-proteinogenic amino acids not naturally incorporated into proteins
 Proteinogenic Amino Acid vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteinogenic amino acids
Non-proteinogenic aminoacids
Proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Natural amino acids incorporated into proteins during translation
Amino acids not incorporated into proteins during translation
Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are natural constituents of proteins
Not Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are not naturally incorporated into proteins
Coded amino acids or proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Examples: In Eukaryotes all 21 amino
acids including selenocysteine are  proteinogenic. (Glycine, alanine, valine etc)
Ornithine, citruline, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) etc
Forms all proteins that carry out different activities of the cell like enzymes, hormones like insulin.
They are often intermediates in biosynthesis with specific physiological functions.
For example GABA is a neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain.
Proteinogenic vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteins are nitrogen containing bio molecules made up of amino acids joined by peptide bond.
An amino acids consists of a central α carbon atom joined by 4 groups namely Hydrogen (H), amino group (–NH2), carboxyl group (-COOH) and side group (R-group).
Proteinogenic amino acids are “protein forming amino acids where as non-proteinogenic amino acids not naturally incorporated into proteins
 Proteinogenic Amino Acid vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteinogenic amino acids
Non-proteinogenic aminoacids
Proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Natural amino acids incorporated into proteins during translation
Amino acids not incorporated into proteins during translation
Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are natural constituents of proteins
Not Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are not naturally incorporated into proteins
Coded amino acids or proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Examples: In Eukaryotes all 21 amino
acids including selenocysteine are  proteinogenic. (Glycine, alanine, valine etc)
Ornithine, citruline, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) etc
Forms all proteins that carry out different activities of the cell like enzymes, hormones like insulin.
They are often intermediates in biosynthesis with specific physiological functions.
For example GABA is a neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain.
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10 Difference between Hexokinase and Glucokinase

Both Hexokinase and Glucokinase are enzymes catalyzing the phophorylation of Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate using ATP. During the reaction, one ATP molecule is cleaved to ADP and the phosphate thus released is added to glucose. Hexokinase and Glucokinae are isoenzymes with same catalytic activity but have different physical properties and site of action. Glucokinase is also called as human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D etc
10 Difference Hexokinase vs Glucokinase
Hexokinase
Glucokinase (Hexokinase D)
Present in all tissues except the liver and the Beta cells of pancreas
Present in liver and Beta cells of pancreas
Acts upon many hexoses such as fructose, galactose including glucose
The only substrate is D-glucose
Hexokinase is one of the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis
Glucokinase plays a central role as a glucose sensor in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Hexokinase has high Km value that is high affinity for the substrate glucose
Glucokinase has high Km value that means low affinity for the substrate
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of hexokinase is low that means it gets saturated quickly by increasing glucose concentration
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of glucokinase is quite high, thus can handle larger glucose load resulting in a rapid conversion of glucose into usable energy.
Hexokinase is active even at low glucose levels
Glucokinase is active only at high glucose levels in liver
Is not inducible (*constitutive enzyme)
Is induced by glucose and insulin
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme with **allosteric site for regulation of enzyme activity
Glucokinase is not an allosteric enzyme
Feedback inhibition of hexokinase by
glucose 6 phosphate (product)
No direct feedback inhibition; not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate
*Constitutive enzymes are always produced in constant amounts without regard to the physiological demand or the concentration of the substrate.
**Allosteric site: is the site other than the active site where effector molecule binds and regulated enzyme activity. This type of regulation is called allosteric regulation.
Both Hexokinase and Glucokinase are enzymes catalyzing the phophorylation of Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate using ATP. During the reaction, one ATP molecule is cleaved to ADP and the phosphate thus released is added to glucose. Hexokinase and Glucokinae are isoenzymes with same catalytic activity but have different physical properties and site of action. Glucokinase is also called as human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D etc
10 Difference Hexokinase vs Glucokinase
Hexokinase
Glucokinase (Hexokinase D)
Present in all tissues except the liver and the Beta cells of pancreas
Present in liver and Beta cells of pancreas
Acts upon many hexoses such as fructose, galactose including glucose
The only substrate is D-glucose
Hexokinase is one of the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis
Glucokinase plays a central role as a glucose sensor in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Hexokinase has high Km value that is high affinity for the substrate glucose
Glucokinase has high Km value that means low affinity for the substrate
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of hexokinase is low that means it gets saturated quickly by increasing glucose concentration
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of glucokinase is quite high, thus can handle larger glucose load resulting in a rapid conversion of glucose into usable energy.
Hexokinase is active even at low glucose levels
Glucokinase is active only at high glucose levels in liver
Is not inducible (*constitutive enzyme)
Is induced by glucose and insulin
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme with **allosteric site for regulation of enzyme activity
Glucokinase is not an allosteric enzyme
Feedback inhibition of hexokinase by
glucose 6 phosphate (product)
No direct feedback inhibition; not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate
*Constitutive enzymes are always produced in constant amounts without regard to the physiological demand or the concentration of the substrate.
**Allosteric site: is the site other than the active site where effector molecule binds and regulated enzyme activity. This type of regulation is called allosteric regulation.
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Difference between El Nino and La Nina (El Nino vs La-Nina)

El Nino

     1. El Nino is warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and the Data Line.
     2. It accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
3. El Nino occurs when tropical Pacific ocean trade winds die out and ocean temperatures become usually worm.



La-Nina
1. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean temperatures occur on the equator between South America and the Data Line.
2.   It accompanies low air surface pressure in the Eastern Pacific.
3.   La Nina, which occurs when the trade winds blow unusually hard and the sea temperature becomes colder than normal.
El Nino

     1. El Nino is warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and the Data Line.
     2. It accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
3. El Nino occurs when tropical Pacific ocean trade winds die out and ocean temperatures become usually worm.



La-Nina
1. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean temperatures occur on the equator between South America and the Data Line.
2.   It accompanies low air surface pressure in the Eastern Pacific.
3.   La Nina, which occurs when the trade winds blow unusually hard and the sea temperature becomes colder than normal.
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10 Differences between Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle (C3 Cycle vs Citric Acid Cycle)


Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle

Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle
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5 Differences between Genetics and Genomics (Genetics vs Genomics)

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
Definition: Genomics is an multidisciplinary branch of biology focusing on the study the entire set of genes (genome) in an organism. You can watch the video also on Genetics vs genomics for better understanding
difference between genetics and genomics
Genetics
Genomics
Genetics is the study of single genes and their heredity and variation in organisms
Genomics is the study of all genes (the genome) of a person or  an organisms, including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's/organisms environment.
Genetics is often a study of single gene or a few gene and their effects
Genomics is the study of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics is a classical branch of biology dates back to Mendel’s work on pea plants during early 1800, but rediscovered only during 1900.
Genomics is a much newer field flourished within last two decades due to technical advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology.
In 1906, William Bateson coined the term  “genetics” for the discipline of biology specifically dedicated to study heredity and variation.
The term genomics was coined in 1986 by Tom Roderick, a geneticist at the Jackson Laboratory in Maine, during a meeting about the mapping of the human genome.
Examples of genetic or inherited disorders include cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease etc caused by mutation in a single gene
Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, obesity, asthma, diabetes and cancer. (Multi gene diseases)
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of single gene inherited disorders
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics uses crossing, genomic mutation, recombination etc to study a trait associated with a gene
Genomics uses a combination of recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble and analyze the structure and function of genomes.

Reference:
https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Genetics-vs-Genomics
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/training/online/course/genomics-introduction-ebi-resources/what-genomics
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
Definition: Genomics is an multidisciplinary branch of biology focusing on the study the entire set of genes (genome) in an organism. You can watch the video also on Genetics vs genomics for better understanding
difference between genetics and genomics
Genetics
Genomics
Genetics is the study of single genes and their heredity and variation in organisms
Genomics is the study of all genes (the genome) of a person or  an organisms, including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's/organisms environment.
Genetics is often a study of single gene or a few gene and their effects
Genomics is the study of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics is a classical branch of biology dates back to Mendel’s work on pea plants during early 1800, but rediscovered only during 1900.
Genomics is a much newer field flourished within last two decades due to technical advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology.
In 1906, William Bateson coined the term  “genetics” for the discipline of biology specifically dedicated to study heredity and variation.
The term genomics was coined in 1986 by Tom Roderick, a geneticist at the Jackson Laboratory in Maine, during a meeting about the mapping of the human genome.
Examples of genetic or inherited disorders include cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease etc caused by mutation in a single gene
Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, obesity, asthma, diabetes and cancer. (Multi gene diseases)
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of single gene inherited disorders
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics uses crossing, genomic mutation, recombination etc to study a trait associated with a gene
Genomics uses a combination of recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble and analyze the structure and function of genomes.

Reference:
https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Genetics-vs-Genomics
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/training/online/course/genomics-introduction-ebi-resources/what-genomics
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Difference between Oomycetes and True fungi (Oomycetes vs True Fungi)


Fungi are a group of microscopic as well as macroscopic, spore bearing, chlorophyll lacking, filamentous and heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually. Fungi are classified into slime moulds, oomycetes and true fungi. The Oomycetes (water moulds) are primarily aquatic fungi live as saprophytes or parasites. Although oomycetes morphologically similar to true fungi and exhibit absorptive nutrition and thus long classified with them, following features show that there are profound biological differences between oomycetes and true fungi.

Oomycetes
True fungi
Diploid somatic thallus
Haploid somatic thallus
Cellulose cell wall
Chitin present, No cellulose cell wall
Mitochondria cristae, tubular
Mitochondria cristate, plate like
Hydroxyprotine wall protein present
Hydroxyprotine wall protein absent
Lysine biosynthesis  Like plants, use diamino pimelic acid pathway
Like animals, use aminoadipic acid pathway
Oomycetes vs True fungi 

1. Somatic phases of oomycetes are diploid, whereas it is haploid in true fungi.

2. Meiosis occurs in developing sex organs or gametangia

3. Many produce egg cells during sexual reproduction. They are also known as egg fungi.

4. Most members produce swimming biflagellate zoospores with an anterior tinsel flagellum and a posterior whiplash flagellum.

5.The cell wall is mainly cellulosic in composition rather than chitionous as is the case in true fungi.

7. The vegetative thallus resembles the algal thallus in general construction.

8.The hyphal walls off oomycetes contain aminoacid hydroxyprotine which is not found other fungi, but is characteristic of the cell walls of green algae.

9. A number of biochemical synthetic pathways in the oomycetes are very different than those present on all other true fungi. Oomycetes like the plants synthesise lysine using diaminopimelic acid pathway rather than through the aminoadipic acid pathway.

10. Oomycetes have tubular mitochondrial cristae. All other fungi have plate like mitochondrial cristae.

11.Sexual reproduction in oomycetes in oogaamous. It takes place by gametagial contact resulting in a characteristic thick walled resting spore, called an oospore.

Fungi are a group of microscopic as well as macroscopic, spore bearing, chlorophyll lacking, filamentous and heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually. Fungi are classified into slime moulds, oomycetes and true fungi. The Oomycetes (water moulds) are primarily aquatic fungi live as saprophytes or parasites. Although oomycetes morphologically similar to true fungi and exhibit absorptive nutrition and thus long classified with them, following features show that there are profound biological differences between oomycetes and true fungi.

Oomycetes
True fungi
Diploid somatic thallus
Haploid somatic thallus
Cellulose cell wall
Chitin present, No cellulose cell wall
Mitochondria cristae, tubular
Mitochondria cristate, plate like
Hydroxyprotine wall protein present
Hydroxyprotine wall protein absent
Lysine biosynthesis  Like plants, use diamino pimelic acid pathway
Like animals, use aminoadipic acid pathway
Oomycetes vs True fungi 

1. Somatic phases of oomycetes are diploid, whereas it is haploid in true fungi.

2. Meiosis occurs in developing sex organs or gametangia

3. Many produce egg cells during sexual reproduction. They are also known as egg fungi.

4. Most members produce swimming biflagellate zoospores with an anterior tinsel flagellum and a posterior whiplash flagellum.

5.The cell wall is mainly cellulosic in composition rather than chitionous as is the case in true fungi.

7. The vegetative thallus resembles the algal thallus in general construction.

8.The hyphal walls off oomycetes contain aminoacid hydroxyprotine which is not found other fungi, but is characteristic of the cell walls of green algae.

9. A number of biochemical synthetic pathways in the oomycetes are very different than those present on all other true fungi. Oomycetes like the plants synthesise lysine using diaminopimelic acid pathway rather than through the aminoadipic acid pathway.

10. Oomycetes have tubular mitochondrial cristae. All other fungi have plate like mitochondrial cristae.

11.Sexual reproduction in oomycetes in oogaamous. It takes place by gametagial contact resulting in a characteristic thick walled resting spore, called an oospore.
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