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Difference between Renewable resources and Nonrenewable resources (Renewable vs Nonrenewable resources)

Exhaustible resources are of two types: Renewable and nonrenewable.
Renewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which get replenished, recycled or reproduced and can last forever provided they are not used beyond their renewability. it include biotic and abiotic resources. 
Nonrenewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which can not be gained or reconstructed once they have been used up due to lack of recycling or regeneration. 
Renewable vs Nonrenewable resources
Renewable resources:
  1. They are  exhaustible resources which get regenerated or recycled
  2. Renewable resources can last forever if used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased by enhancing their renewability without causing depletion.
  4. They include edaphic resource (soil or land), water resources and biological resources or bioresouces (living organisms and their products-agriculture, aquaculture, poultry, livestock etc),soil  fertility, forests, underground water etc

Nonrenewable resources:
  1. Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible resources  which do not get regenerated or recycled
  2. They are going to get exhausted sooner or later whether or not used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased only by increasing their extraction but it will cause early depletion.
  4. Fossil fuels (coal, lignite, petroleum), Mineral deposits, metals, natural gas are examples.

Difference between Inexhaustible and Exhaustible Resources

Resources are the sources of supply or support, generally held in reserve”.It include useful information, valuable services and essential materials. Resources are of two main groups:
 1)Human resources: wisdom, knowledge, experience, expertise, labour
 2)Natural resources: natural occurring resources of the biosphere, which can support and sustain life.
The natural resources are classified in different ways.
i) Based on origin, natural resources are classified into abiotic and biotic resources.

    a) Abiotic resources: Not obtained from or produced by living organisms.
         example of abiotic resources: Land, water, air
    b) Biotic (organic) resources
         example of biotic resources: Living organisms and their products
Difference between Inexhaustible and Exhaustible Resources
ii) Based on the abundance, availability, recycling and regeneration, natural resources are classified into Inexhaustible and exhaustible resources
 a) Inexhaustible (Non depletable)
  1. The resources have no change of getting depleted or exhausted
  2. The resources are present in unlimited or infinite quantities
  3. Excessive and improper use may result in their pollution .
  4. Example of Inexhaustible resources: Solar energy, (cosmic resources) wind power, hydro power, rain fall (climatic resources)
b) Exhaustible (Depletable):
  1. The resources have every chance of getting depleted or exhausted. 
  2. The resources have finite supply
  3. Excessive and improper use may result in wastage and depletion of the resources.
  4. Example of Exhaustible resources: Forests, grassland, fossil fuels, minerals,

It may be of two types: 
b (i)Renewable resources (Edaphic resources, water resources, bioresouces)
 b (ii) Non renewable resources(Fossil fuels, Mineral deposits, Biological resources)
Read more: Difference between Renewable and Non renewable Resources 

5 Differences between Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling

Ecosystem is the structural and functional unit of nature. It is a stable life supporting system that involves extensive interactions between biotic and abiotic components. The two most fundamental processes in any ecosystem are the flow of energy and the cycling of nutrients.
Definition of Energy flow: The transfer of energy from one trophic level to another in a non-cyclic and linear manner through food chain and food web is called energy flow. Each step in the food chain is called trophic level.

Nutrient cycling is the cyclic back and forth movement of chemical elements between organisms and their physical environment of an ecosystem. It generally starts from nutrient pool (air, soil) to producers, producers to consumers, consumers to decomposers and then back to nutrient pool.
Differences between Energy Flow vs Nutrient Cycling
Energy Flow
Nutrient Cycling
The transfer of energy from one trophic level to another in a non-cyclic and linear manner through food chain and food web is called energy flow
It is the cyclic  movement of nutrients between living organisms and their physical environment in an ecosystem
The flow of energy is non-cyclic, linear and unidirectional as the energy lost is not available to the previous trophic level
Nutrients moves in a cyclic manner between living organisms  and their physical environment
In energy flow, the ultimate energy source is the sunlight
Nutrient source always belongs to earth often atmosphere or lithosphere (reservoir pool)
During energy flow, energy is lost at each trophic level primarily as heat and used by organisms for respiration
Nutrients are recycled in an ecosystem without any loss
Energy from sun enters as light and exits an ecosystem mainly as heat
Nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur etc present on earth are used, recycled and reused in an ecosystem
In energy flow, the energy is not  recycled during decomposition by decomposers, but is released mostly as heat
Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi etc (Decomposers) plays a prominent role in cycling of nutrients without any loss

10 Differences between Conventional and Nonconventional sources of energy

Energy is defined as the capacity of a substance or a body to do work. Conventional sources of energy refer to the energy sources that have been traditionally used for many years. These energy sources are non-renewable and likely to be depleted due to its extensive use. Non-conventional energy sources are alternate energy resources to the conventional energy resources but in limited use due to lack of feasible technology.
10 Differences between Conventional and Nonconventional sources of energy
Conventional vs Non conventional Sources of Energy 
Conventional Energy Resources
Non-conventional  Energy Resources
It refers to the traditional sources of power or energy like firewood, coal, petroleum etc
It refers to recently developed sources of energy from sun, wind, tides etc
Energy sources are non-renewable
Energy sources are renewable
Comparatively expensive to maintain, store and transport
Initial expenditure for energy generation is high but cheaper in the long run
Following established technologies for energy production
Require new feasible technologies; still under research and development
Energy sources which are fixed in nature
Generally energy sources are not be fixed in nature
Available in limited quantity; exhaustible
Available in plenty; inexhaustible
Causes large scale pollution; not eco-friendly
Generally Eco-friendly source of energy
Causes green house effect and major culprit in climate change and has serious health consequences
No such issues as energy source is ecologically safe
At present, widely used energy source
Presently limited use; feasible technologies are yet to be developed
Examples: coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc
Examples: solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power etc

Difference between Blood serum and Blood plasma (Blood serum vs Blood plasma)

Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It is an extremely complex substance carrying a wide variety of cells and substances to all areas of he body. Blood is often described as seat of the soul since it performs several vital functions of the body . A normal  healthy man has about 5.5 litres of blood.

Blood is formed of plasma and formed elements such as RBC, WBC and blood platelets

Functions of blood:
  •      Regulate body temperature. 
  •      Maintains a constant pH and water balance 
  •      Defence against pH and water balance 
  •      Transport digested food materials, respiratory gases and waste materials
Difference between Blood serum and Blood plasma (Blood serum vs Blood plasma)

Plasma is the matrix or the extracellular fluid of the blood tissue. It is straw coloured, non living, and slightly alkaline aqueous fluid with pH of 7.4. About 30-35% of blood is plasma.
Plasma contains: Water (About 91%), Plasma proteins (about 7%), Organic substances and inorganic substances (2%)
Functions of Plasma:
  • Transport: Plasma transport the digested food products like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.
  • Body immunity: one type of globulins called immunoglobulins act as antibodies. They inactive invading microorganisms and their toxins.
  • Prevention of blood loss:  Fibrinogen helps in blood clotting and thus prevents blood loss. During blood clotting the soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin.
  • Retention of fluid in blood
  • Maintenance of blood pH: Plasma proteins act as acid base buffers and thus maintain the blood pH by neutralizing strong acids and bases.
  • Regulation of body temperature: Plasma helps in the uniform distribution of heat all over the body, and in conducting heat to skin for dissipation.
Difference between Blood serum and Blood plasma 
( Blood serum vs Blood plasma)
Blood plasma
1. Fluid portion of the blood in the form of matrix i.e., fluid-blood corpuscles.
2. Flas fibrinogen and other clotting materials
3. Take part in blood clotting
4. It is straw colored clear liquid
Blood serum
1. Fluid collected after colt retraction
2. Does not have all these
3. Does not take part in blood clotting
4. It is pale yellow colour

10 Differences between Cell wall of Gram positive and Gram negative Bacteria

 Gram staining  is a special technique which is used to stain bacteria. This technique was developed by Christian Gram in 1884. The stain  stain used in Gram staining is called Gram stain. Chemically Gram stain is a weakly alkaline solution of crystal violet or gentian violet.

On the basis of cell wall structure and its staining ability with Gram stain, bacteria are grouped into two categories. They are Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria
Cell wall of Gram positive bacteria
Cell wall of Gram negative bacteria
Cell wall is single layered and primarily made up of peptidoglycan
Cell wall is double layered and with an outer membrane outside to Peptidoglycan layer
Gram positive cell wall retain the primary stain of Gram staining (crystal violet) and appear purple after alcohol treatment
Gram positive cell wall lose the primary stain of Gram staining (crystal violet) after alcohol treatment; and appear pink with counter stain (safranin)
Thick peptidoglycan layer of about 20 to 80 nm
Peptidoglycan layer thin and single layered (about 5 to 10 nm thick)
Periplasmic space is absent
Periplasmic space* is absent
Outer membrane is absent
Outer membrane is present outside to Peptidoglycan layer (about 7.5 to 10 nm thick)
Teichoic acid is present
Generally Teichoic acid is absent
Generally **Porins are absent
Porins are present

Very low lipid content (2-5%)
Very high lipid content (15-20%)
Generally Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is absent**
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is present
Lysozyme degrade peptidoglycan wall cause lysis of cell (sensitive to lysozyme)
Lysozyme cannot degrade Gram negative bacteria as Peptidoglycan is protected by outer membrane
(resistant to lysozyme)
Example of Gram Negative Bacteria

* The region between cytoplasmic and outer membrane of the Gram-negative bacteria is called the periplasmic space
*Porins produce large, open, water-filled channels that allow the influx of normal, hydrophilic nutrient molecules and the efflux of waste products but exclude many antibiotics and inhibitors
 **only one Gram-positive organism, Listeria monocytogenes, has been found to contain LPS

Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats (Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats)

Fatty acids are organic acids having hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxylic groups (COOH). Hydrocarbon chains may be straight or having ring structure. Some fatty acids also possess hydroxyl groups. Length 4-24 carbons. Fatty acids are of two main groups: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids do not posses double bonds in their carbon chains. They have a general formula CnH2nO2.
Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats  (Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats)
Saturated Fats vs Unsaturated Fats
Saturated fats
Unsaturated fats
They do not possess any double bonds in their fatty acids.
They contain one or more double bonds in their fatty acids.
All certain atoms are fully saturated
Carbon atoms are unsaturated in the region of double bonds.
They have straight chains.
The chain bends at the double bond.
They have higher melting point
They have lower melting point
Hydrogenation has no effect on saturated fats
Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fats into saturated ones.
Saturated fats are solids at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
Animal fats are mostly saturated fats
Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats.
They increase blood cholesterol
Unsaturated fats lower blood cholesterol.
Essential fatty acids are absent.
Essential fatty acids are present.
They are not much affected by exposure to air
On exposure to air, they tend to solidify

    Example of Saturated fats:
  • C16H3202 (Palmitic acid)
  • C18H36O2(Stearic acid).

       Example of unsaturated fats:
  • Oleic acid (with one double bond, monoene)
  • Linoleic acid  (with one double bond, diene)
  • Linolenic acid  (with one double bond, triene)
  • Arachidonic acid (with one double bond, tetraene)

Difference between Aqueous Humour and Vitreous Humour (Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour )

The organs of sight are a pair of eyes in human. The eyes are situated in deep protective   bony cavities, called the orbits or eye sockets of the skull. The study of structure, function and diseases of the eye is called ophthalmology.
The lens and suspensory ligament divide the cavity of the eyeball into two chambers: the anterior small aqueous chamber and the posterior large vitreous chamber. The aqueous chamber itself consists of two cavities: large anterior in front of the iris and behind cornea and small posterior between the iris and the lens. Both the parts of aqueous chamber filled with a clear, watery fluid, the aqueous humour. The vitreous chamber (the largest chamber) is full of thick, transparent, jelly like substance, the vitreous humour or vitreous body. The latter consists of water , protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres. It is apparently secreted by the retina during development of the eye.
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour 
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour

Aqueous humour
Vitreous humour
It occurs in aqueous chamber
It occurs in vitreous chamber
It is a watery fluid
It is a jelly like substance
It is secreted by ciliary processes
It is apparently  secreted by retina during development of eye.
It is continuously absorbed into blood and replaced.
It is absorbed or replaced.
It contains most of the diffusible substances of the plasma
It consists of water (90%), protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres.
Obstruction in its flow may damage retina by increasing intraocular pressure
It does not flow.
Maintains the shape of the cornea and supply nutrition to both lens and cornea.
Maintains the shape of the eye ball and contribute to intraocular pressure and also to the focussing of light on the retina.