10 Differences between Positive sense RNA Viruses and Negative sense ss RNA Viruses

Based on the sense or polarity of the genome, single stranded RNA viruses are of two types.
Differences between Positive sense RNA Viruses and Negative sense ss RNA Viruses
1. Positive Sense RNA viruses (+ssRNA virus) or PSV
2. Negative Sense ss RNA viruses (-ssRNA virus) or NSV
Positive sense RNA viruses (PSV)
Negative sense ss RNA viruses (NSV)
Genetic Material is positive sense ssRNA
Genetic Material is Negative sense ssRNA
Virus with +ssRNA genome can be translated directly to make viral proteins  by host ribosome
Virus with -ssRNA genome cannot be translated directly to make viral proteins.
‘translation ready genome’
Not ‘translational ready genome’
Viral genome acts like cellular mRNA. ssRNA has 5’cap and poly A tail for recognition by eukaryotic host ribosme.
Negative ssRNA is  complementary to mRNA

Genetic material is infectious inside the host
Genetic material is not infectious inside the host. It It should be converted to +ss RNA by viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) for viral protein synthesis inside host.
+ve ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification.
-ve  sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group V in the Baltimore classification.
The genome  usually contains relatively few genes, including an RdRP.
Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and mode of replication
Most common type of plant viruses and more abundant
Less abundant compared to +ve ssRNA viruses and more infectious
Examples: SARS CoV-2, Rhino viruses, Dengue virus, MERS corona virus.
Examples: Influenza virus, Ebola virus, Hanta virus, Rabies virus, Mumps virus
Based on the sense or polarity of the genome, single stranded RNA viruses are of two types.
Differences between Positive sense RNA Viruses and Negative sense ss RNA Viruses
1. Positive Sense RNA viruses (+ssRNA virus) or PSV
2. Negative Sense ss RNA viruses (-ssRNA virus) or NSV
Positive sense RNA viruses (PSV)
Negative sense ss RNA viruses (NSV)
Genetic Material is positive sense ssRNA
Genetic Material is Negative sense ssRNA
Virus with +ssRNA genome can be translated directly to make viral proteins  by host ribosome
Virus with -ssRNA genome cannot be translated directly to make viral proteins.
‘translation ready genome’
Not ‘translational ready genome’
Viral genome acts like cellular mRNA. ssRNA has 5’cap and poly A tail for recognition by eukaryotic host ribosme.
Negative ssRNA is  complementary to mRNA

Genetic material is infectious inside the host
Genetic material is not infectious inside the host. It It should be converted to +ss RNA by viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) for viral protein synthesis inside host.
+ve ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification.
-ve  sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group V in the Baltimore classification.
The genome  usually contains relatively few genes, including an RdRP.
Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and mode of replication
Most common type of plant viruses and more abundant
Less abundant compared to +ve ssRNA viruses and more infectious
Examples: SARS CoV-2, Rhino viruses, Dengue virus, MERS corona virus.
Examples: Influenza virus, Ebola virus, Hanta virus, Rabies virus, Mumps virus
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Coronavirus and COVID-19

Corona Virus vs COVID-19
Corona Virus
Corona virus is a family of virus that causes diseases in mammals and birds.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), in humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Difference between Coronavirus and COVID-19
Some examples include
a) Coronaviruses causing mild symptoms of common cold
  • Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), Human coronavirus HKU1, Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus), Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)

b) Coronaviruses causing severe respiratory infections including Pneumonia
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
  • COVID-19
Structure: Enveloped positive sense RNA viruses with nucleocapsid of helical symmetry
Why the name “corona”?
The most prominent feature of coronaviruses is the club-shape spike projections emanating from the surface of the virion. These spikes are a defining feature of the virion and give them the appearance of a solar corona under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), prompting the name, coronaviruses. (Latin corona meaning “crown or halo”)
COVID-19
  • COVID 19 Is the infectious disease caused by newly discovered corona virus, first identified at Wuhan, China in December 2019
  • February 11, 2020 WHO announced an official name  COVID-19, ‘CO’ stands for ‘CORONA,’ ‘VI’ for ‘VIrus,’ and ‘D’ for Disease
  • Formerly, this disease was called as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV”
Symptoms of Covid-19 include
  • fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually.
Transmission of disease: 
  • People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus, through respiratory droplets or through infected surfaces
Preventive measures:
  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.
  • Maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth as infected surfaces can spread the disease
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.
  • Avoid direct contact with animals and surfaces in contact with animals
  • Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty in breathing, seek medical attention immediately.
For more updates and answers on COVID-19 visit: 
Reference:
Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Niu, P. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine.
Fehr, A. R., & Perlman, S. (2015). Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. In Coronaviruses (pp. 1-23). Humana Press, New York, NY.
Corona Virus vs COVID-19
Corona Virus
Corona virus is a family of virus that causes diseases in mammals and birds.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), in humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Difference between Coronavirus and COVID-19
Some examples include
a) Coronaviruses causing mild symptoms of common cold
  • Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), Human coronavirus HKU1, Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus), Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)

b) Coronaviruses causing severe respiratory infections including Pneumonia
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
  • COVID-19
Structure: Enveloped positive sense RNA viruses with nucleocapsid of helical symmetry
Why the name “corona”?
The most prominent feature of coronaviruses is the club-shape spike projections emanating from the surface of the virion. These spikes are a defining feature of the virion and give them the appearance of a solar corona under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), prompting the name, coronaviruses. (Latin corona meaning “crown or halo”)
COVID-19
  • COVID 19 Is the infectious disease caused by newly discovered corona virus, first identified at Wuhan, China in December 2019
  • February 11, 2020 WHO announced an official name  COVID-19, ‘CO’ stands for ‘CORONA,’ ‘VI’ for ‘VIrus,’ and ‘D’ for Disease
  • Formerly, this disease was called as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV”
Symptoms of Covid-19 include
  • fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually.
Transmission of disease: 
  • People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus, through respiratory droplets or through infected surfaces
Preventive measures:
  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.
  • Maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth as infected surfaces can spread the disease
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.
  • Avoid direct contact with animals and surfaces in contact with animals
  • Stay home if you feel unwell. If you have a fever, cough and difficulty in breathing, seek medical attention immediately.
For more updates and answers on COVID-19 visit: 
Reference:
Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Niu, P. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine.
Fehr, A. R., & Perlman, S. (2015). Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. In Coronaviruses (pp. 1-23). Humana Press, New York, NY.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory

Cell Theory 1839
Proposed by Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) and Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804–1881)
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory
The third tenet was proposed by Rudolf Virchow, a German Pathologist (1821–1902) in 1855
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells “Omnis cellula e cellula” (by cell division; mitosis or meiosis; not derived from spontaneous generation)
Background:
Schleiden in 1838, German botanist, found out cell as the basic unit of plant structure.
Theodor Schwann, a German physiologist in 1839 defined cell as the basic unit of animal structure also. In 1839, they together proposed the two statements of the present cell theory.

Modern Cell Theory
The knowledge of the advancement in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, etc. is considered to make the following additions to the above classical cell theory
 Modern Cell Theorystatements
4. Cells contain heredity information in their DNA. This information is passed to new cells by cell division.
5. All cells have the same basic chemical composition.
6. Energy flow (Metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
The other major contributors to the Cell Theory are Robert Hooke; who coined the tern “cell” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; who was the first one to observe living organisms under his own microscope.
Cell Theory 1839
Proposed by Theodor Schwann (1810–1882) and Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804–1881)
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
Difference between Cell Theory and Modern Cell Theory
The third tenet was proposed by Rudolf Virchow, a German Pathologist (1821–1902) in 1855
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells “Omnis cellula e cellula” (by cell division; mitosis or meiosis; not derived from spontaneous generation)
Background:
Schleiden in 1838, German botanist, found out cell as the basic unit of plant structure.
Theodor Schwann, a German physiologist in 1839 defined cell as the basic unit of animal structure also. In 1839, they together proposed the two statements of the present cell theory.

Modern Cell Theory
The knowledge of the advancement in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, etc. is considered to make the following additions to the above classical cell theory
 Modern Cell Theorystatements
4. Cells contain heredity information in their DNA. This information is passed to new cells by cell division.
5. All cells have the same basic chemical composition.
6. Energy flow (Metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
The other major contributors to the Cell Theory are Robert Hooke; who coined the tern “cell” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek; who was the first one to observe living organisms under his own microscope.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

10 Differences between chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration vs chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis was proposed by Peter Mitchell 1961. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978. This process is occurring during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic Theory states that Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Peter Mitchell proposed this theory to explain ATP synthesis during cellular respiration
See simple step wise explanation on
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration
Chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration occurs in all living cells.
Chemiosmosis in photosynthesis occurs only in green plants and cyanobacteria
Chemiosmosis occurs during Electron transport chain of cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis occurs during Light dependent reaction of photosynthesis
The organelle involved is Mitochondrion
The organelle involved is Chloroplast
The exact site of chemiosmosis is Mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The exact site of chemiosmosis is thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Mitochondrial inner membrane
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Proton gradient formation occurs across the mitochondrial inner membrane
Proton gradient formation occurs across thylakoid membrane
Proton (H+) is pumped from matrix into the intermembrane space of mitochondria using energy derived from electron flow
Proton (H+) is pumped from stroma into the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space using energy derived from electron flow
ATP synthesis occurs towards the matrix side
as ATP synthase is oriented towards matrix side
ATP synthesis occurs towards the stromal side as ATP synthase is oriented towards stromal side
Transforms chemical energy or bond energy form food to ATP
Transforms light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP
ATP synthesized is used to drive all cellular activities
ATP synthesized is used to fix carbondioxide to carbohydrates during light independent reaction of photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration vs chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis was proposed by Peter Mitchell 1961. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978. This process is occurring during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic Theory states that Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Peter Mitchell proposed this theory to explain ATP synthesis during cellular respiration
See simple step wise explanation on
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration
Chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis in Cellular Respiration occurs in all living cells.
Chemiosmosis in photosynthesis occurs only in green plants and cyanobacteria
Chemiosmosis occurs during Electron transport chain of cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis occurs during Light dependent reaction of photosynthesis
The organelle involved is Mitochondrion
The organelle involved is Chloroplast
The exact site of chemiosmosis is Mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The exact site of chemiosmosis is thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Mitochondrial inner membrane
Electron flows through electron carriers located in the Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Proton gradient formation occurs across the mitochondrial inner membrane
Proton gradient formation occurs across thylakoid membrane
Proton (H+) is pumped from matrix into the intermembrane space of mitochondria using energy derived from electron flow
Proton (H+) is pumped from stroma into the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space using energy derived from electron flow
ATP synthesis occurs towards the matrix side
as ATP synthase is oriented towards matrix side
ATP synthesis occurs towards the stromal side as ATP synthase is oriented towards stromal side
Transforms chemical energy or bond energy form food to ATP
Transforms light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP
ATP synthesized is used to drive all cellular activities
ATP synthesized is used to fix carbondioxide to carbohydrates during light independent reaction of photosynthesis
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

5 Differences between Proteinogenic Amino Acid and Non-proteinogenic amino acids

Proteinogenic vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteins are nitrogen containing bio molecules made up of amino acids joined by peptide bond.
An amino acids consists of a central α carbon atom joined by 4 groups namely Hydrogen (H), amino group (–NH2), carboxyl group (-COOH) and side group (R-group).
Proteinogenic amino acids are “protein forming amino acids where as non-proteinogenic amino acids not naturally incorporated into proteins
 Proteinogenic Amino Acid vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteinogenic amino acids
Non-proteinogenic aminoacids
Proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Natural amino acids incorporated into proteins during translation
Amino acids not incorporated into proteins during translation
Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are natural constituents of proteins
Not Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are not naturally incorporated into proteins
Coded amino acids or proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Examples: In Eukaryotes all 21 amino
acids including selenocysteine are  proteinogenic. (Glycine, alanine, valine etc)
Ornithine, citruline, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) etc
Forms all proteins that carry out different activities of the cell like enzymes, hormones like insulin.
They are often intermediates in biosynthesis with specific physiological functions.
For example GABA is a neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain.
Proteinogenic vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteins are nitrogen containing bio molecules made up of amino acids joined by peptide bond.
An amino acids consists of a central α carbon atom joined by 4 groups namely Hydrogen (H), amino group (–NH2), carboxyl group (-COOH) and side group (R-group).
Proteinogenic amino acids are “protein forming amino acids where as non-proteinogenic amino acids not naturally incorporated into proteins
 Proteinogenic Amino Acid vs Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Proteinogenic amino acids
Non-proteinogenic aminoacids
Proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Natural amino acids incorporated into proteins during translation
Amino acids not incorporated into proteins during translation
Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are natural constituents of proteins
Not Protein forming amino acids or amino acids that are not naturally incorporated into proteins
Coded amino acids or proteinogenic amino acids are those which are naturally encoded in the genetic code of any organism
Non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Examples: In Eukaryotes all 21 amino
acids including selenocysteine are  proteinogenic. (Glycine, alanine, valine etc)
Ornithine, citruline, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) etc
Forms all proteins that carry out different activities of the cell like enzymes, hormones like insulin.
They are often intermediates in biosynthesis with specific physiological functions.
For example GABA is a neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

10 Difference between Hexokinase and Glucokinase

Both Hexokinase and Glucokinase are enzymes catalyzing the phophorylation of Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate using ATP. During the reaction, one ATP molecule is cleaved to ADP and the phosphate thus released is added to glucose. Hexokinase and Glucokinae are isoenzymes with same catalytic activity but have different physical properties and site of action. Glucokinase is also called as human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D etc
10 Difference Hexokinase vs Glucokinase
Hexokinase
Glucokinase (Hexokinase D)
Present in all tissues except the liver and the Beta cells of pancreas
Present in liver and Beta cells of pancreas
Acts upon many hexoses such as fructose, galactose including glucose
The only substrate is D-glucose
Hexokinase is one of the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis
Glucokinase plays a central role as a glucose sensor in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Hexokinase has high Km value that is high affinity for the substrate glucose
Glucokinase has high Km value that means low affinity for the substrate
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of hexokinase is low that means it gets saturated quickly by increasing glucose concentration
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of glucokinase is quite high, thus can handle larger glucose load resulting in a rapid conversion of glucose into usable energy.
Hexokinase is active even at low glucose levels
Glucokinase is active only at high glucose levels in liver
Is not inducible (*constitutive enzyme)
Is induced by glucose and insulin
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme with **allosteric site for regulation of enzyme activity
Glucokinase is not an allosteric enzyme
Feedback inhibition of hexokinase by
glucose 6 phosphate (product)
No direct feedback inhibition; not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate
*Constitutive enzymes are always produced in constant amounts without regard to the physiological demand or the concentration of the substrate.
**Allosteric site: is the site other than the active site where effector molecule binds and regulated enzyme activity. This type of regulation is called allosteric regulation.
Both Hexokinase and Glucokinase are enzymes catalyzing the phophorylation of Glucose to Glucose-6-phosphate using ATP. During the reaction, one ATP molecule is cleaved to ADP and the phosphate thus released is added to glucose. Hexokinase and Glucokinae are isoenzymes with same catalytic activity but have different physical properties and site of action. Glucokinase is also called as human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D etc
10 Difference Hexokinase vs Glucokinase
Hexokinase
Glucokinase (Hexokinase D)
Present in all tissues except the liver and the Beta cells of pancreas
Present in liver and Beta cells of pancreas
Acts upon many hexoses such as fructose, galactose including glucose
The only substrate is D-glucose
Hexokinase is one of the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis
Glucokinase plays a central role as a glucose sensor in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Hexokinase has high Km value that is high affinity for the substrate glucose
Glucokinase has high Km value that means low affinity for the substrate
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of hexokinase is low that means it gets saturated quickly by increasing glucose concentration
The maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of glucokinase is quite high, thus can handle larger glucose load resulting in a rapid conversion of glucose into usable energy.
Hexokinase is active even at low glucose levels
Glucokinase is active only at high glucose levels in liver
Is not inducible (*constitutive enzyme)
Is induced by glucose and insulin
Hexokinase is an allosteric enzyme with **allosteric site for regulation of enzyme activity
Glucokinase is not an allosteric enzyme
Feedback inhibition of hexokinase by
glucose 6 phosphate (product)
No direct feedback inhibition; not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate
*Constitutive enzymes are always produced in constant amounts without regard to the physiological demand or the concentration of the substrate.
**Allosteric site: is the site other than the active site where effector molecule binds and regulated enzyme activity. This type of regulation is called allosteric regulation.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Difference between El Nino and La Nina (El Nino vs La-Nina)

El Nino

     1. El Nino is warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and the Data Line.
     2. It accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
3. El Nino occurs when tropical Pacific ocean trade winds die out and ocean temperatures become usually worm.



La-Nina
1. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean temperatures occur on the equator between South America and the Data Line.
2.   It accompanies low air surface pressure in the Eastern Pacific.
3.   La Nina, which occurs when the trade winds blow unusually hard and the sea temperature becomes colder than normal.
El Nino

     1. El Nino is warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and the Data Line.
     2. It accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
3. El Nino occurs when tropical Pacific ocean trade winds die out and ocean temperatures become usually worm.



La-Nina
1. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean temperatures occur on the equator between South America and the Data Line.
2.   It accompanies low air surface pressure in the Eastern Pacific.
3.   La Nina, which occurs when the trade winds blow unusually hard and the sea temperature becomes colder than normal.
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

10 Differences between Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle (C3 Cycle vs Citric Acid Cycle)

Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle
Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...

Follow by Email

 
2013-2019 Major Differences | MajorDifferences.com. Our Partners Plant Science 4 U, Biology Exams 4 U, Biology Quizzes, MCQ Biology