10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)

Fungus vs Animals
Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually
 Animals are eukaryotic living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)
Fungus
Animals
Fungal cell has a rigid cell wall made up of chitin
Animal cells lack cell wall
 In Fungus, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
      Secrete digestive enzymes
      Feed by absorption in soluble form
      Saprotrophic, parasitic or symbiotic

      In animals, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and holozoic
      Feed by ingesting solid food materials which is then internally digested and absorbed into their bodies

Fungus don’t move around
All animals can move at least during some stage of their life cycle
Fungal thallus is generally multi cellular, with filaments called hyphae and network of these filaments makes mycelium (Exception: Yeast is a unicellular fungus)
The body is multi-cellular, well differentiated into tissues, organs and organ system
Fungi like plants are comparatively slow in response and can sense environmental signals and react accordingly, changing their development, direction of growth, and metabolism
Animals are capable of responding quickly to external stimuli as a result of nerve cells, muscle or contractile tissue, or both.
Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Asexual spores include zoospores, conidia etc
Generally reproduce sexually, involves two individuals contributing genetic material to produce offspring
Comparatively complex life cycle. In the life cycle of a sexually reproducing fungus, a haploid phase alternates with a diploid phase.
Comparatively simple life cycle. Diploid adults undergo meiosis to produce sperm or eggs. Fertilization occurs when a sperm and an egg fuse. The zygote that forms develops into an embryo. The embryo eventually develops into an adult.
Dikaryotic phase is very common (presence of two nuclei of opposite mating strains without fusion) and even dominant phase in many fungal groups like Basidiomycetes
Dikaryotic phase is absent
Most fungus has haploid dominant life cycle with an long dikaryotic phase
Animals has diploid dominant life cycle with haploid phase only in gametes
Example: Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Humans (Homo sapiens), Rat, parrot, fish

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Fungus vs Animals
Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually
 Animals are eukaryotic living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)
Fungus
Animals
Fungal cell has a rigid cell wall made up of chitin
Animal cells lack cell wall
 In Fungus, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
      Secrete digestive enzymes
      Feed by absorption in soluble form
      Saprotrophic, parasitic or symbiotic

      In animals, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and holozoic
      Feed by ingesting solid food materials which is then internally digested and absorbed into their bodies

Fungus don’t move around
All animals can move at least during some stage of their life cycle
Fungal thallus is generally multi cellular, with filaments called hyphae and network of these filaments makes mycelium (Exception: Yeast is a unicellular fungus)
The body is multi-cellular, well differentiated into tissues, organs and organ system
Fungi like plants are comparatively slow in response and can sense environmental signals and react accordingly, changing their development, direction of growth, and metabolism
Animals are capable of responding quickly to external stimuli as a result of nerve cells, muscle or contractile tissue, or both.
Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Asexual spores include zoospores, conidia etc
Generally reproduce sexually, involves two individuals contributing genetic material to produce offspring
Comparatively complex life cycle. In the life cycle of a sexually reproducing fungus, a haploid phase alternates with a diploid phase.
Comparatively simple life cycle. Diploid adults undergo meiosis to produce sperm or eggs. Fertilization occurs when a sperm and an egg fuse. The zygote that forms develops into an embryo. The embryo eventually develops into an adult.
Dikaryotic phase is very common (presence of two nuclei of opposite mating strains without fusion) and even dominant phase in many fungal groups like Basidiomycetes
Dikaryotic phase is absent
Most fungus has haploid dominant life cycle with an long dikaryotic phase
Animals has diploid dominant life cycle with haploid phase only in gametes
Example: Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Humans (Homo sapiens), Rat, parrot, fish

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Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example


Control Group
A good control group is similar to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (that is the independent variable that the researcher changes).

Let us discuss these terms with a simple experiment
Suppose a researcher has developed a bio-fertilizer and wants to test its effect on plant growth. Therefore the experiment is “Effect of Bio-fertilizer ‘x’ in plant growth"
See the Figure 1 and 2 for understanding these terms in research
Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research

Three types of variables:

      1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
      2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
   3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Difference between independent, dependent and controlled variable with example
Control group
Controlled variable
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment (Figure 1)

All the variable that are kept constant or same throughout the experiment. (Figure 2)

The researcher is not changing the independent variable
The researcher has kept this variable constant or given a standard value
Helps to compare experimental result with non experimental natural result (control group).

It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Essential to get an unbiased result on the effect of independent variable studied by the researcher

Control Group
A good control group is similar to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (that is the independent variable that the researcher changes).

Let us discuss these terms with a simple experiment
Suppose a researcher has developed a bio-fertilizer and wants to test its effect on plant growth. Therefore the experiment is “Effect of Bio-fertilizer ‘x’ in plant growth"
See the Figure 1 and 2 for understanding these terms in research
Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research

Three types of variables:

      1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
      2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
   3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Difference between independent, dependent and controlled variable with example
Control group
Controlled variable
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment (Figure 1)

All the variable that are kept constant or same throughout the experiment. (Figure 2)

The researcher is not changing the independent variable
The researcher has kept this variable constant or given a standard value
Helps to compare experimental result with non experimental natural result (control group).

It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Essential to get an unbiased result on the effect of independent variable studied by the researcher
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10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)

Fungi (singular: fungus) are non-chlorophyllated, thallophytes (undifferentiated plant body) with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Eubacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. Eubacteria posses rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)
Fungi
Eubacteria
Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
Mostly multi-cellular, unicellular in yeast
Unicellular
Cell membrane contains sterols
Sterols absent except in Mycoplasma
Cell wall made up of chitins, glucans and mannans
Peptidoglycan cell wall
Thallus is more complex and form filamentous hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium
The three major morphological forms are cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped), spirilla (spiral shaped)
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic and live either as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts
Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, chemotrophic,  aerobic or facultative anaerobic
Asexual reproduction by variety of spores which include conidia, zoospores etc
Asexual reproduction by binary fission
Sexual reproduction is common except in Deuteromycetes; may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
A primitive form of sexual reproduction called conjugation occurs in some bacteria where there is direct exchange of genetic materials between two bacterial cells by cell to cell contact
Eg: Yeast  (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Mushroom  (Agaricus bisporus)
Eg:  Escherichia coli (gut bacteria), Lactobacillus lactis in milk





















Fungi (singular: fungus) are non-chlorophyllated, thallophytes (undifferentiated plant body) with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Eubacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. Eubacteria posses rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)
Fungi
Eubacteria
Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
Mostly multi-cellular, unicellular in yeast
Unicellular
Cell membrane contains sterols
Sterols absent except in Mycoplasma
Cell wall made up of chitins, glucans and mannans
Peptidoglycan cell wall
Thallus is more complex and form filamentous hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium
The three major morphological forms are cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped), spirilla (spiral shaped)
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic and live either as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts
Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, chemotrophic,  aerobic or facultative anaerobic
Asexual reproduction by variety of spores which include conidia, zoospores etc
Asexual reproduction by binary fission
Sexual reproduction is common except in Deuteromycetes; may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
A primitive form of sexual reproduction called conjugation occurs in some bacteria where there is direct exchange of genetic materials between two bacterial cells by cell to cell contact
Eg: Yeast  (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Mushroom  (Agaricus bisporus)
Eg:  Escherichia coli (gut bacteria), Lactobacillus lactis in milk





















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10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community


Pioneer community vs Climax community
Ecological succession is the gradual replacement of one community with another till reaching a final stable climax community over a period of time
The first set of species or community that develops in a bare area in ecological succession is the pioneer community.
Pioneer species facilitate succession.
The final steady stable self sustaining community in an ecological succession is called the climax community. Climax community is in equilibrium with physical environment also as long as the environment remains unchanged
10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community
Pioneer community
Climax community
It is the first community that appears in a bare area during ecological succession (primary community)
It is the final stable biotic community that appears in an area during ecological succession (final community)
The establishment of the pioneer community is the first step in ecological succession (first seral stage)
The emergence of the stable climax community is the final step in ecological succession (last seral stage)
Pioneer community appears on a previously uninhabited area
Climax community establishes in a previously occupied area by other seral communities
Pioneer community consists of generally small sized species
Climax community consists of species of different sizes that are well adapted to the environment
The species in the community are tolerant to extreme environments
The species in the climax community are comparatively less tolerant to extreme environments
*Pioneer species are generally ‘r-selected’ species that are fast growing, shade intolerant and short lived
Climax species are k selected species that are slow growing, shade tolerant and long lived
Pioneer species are good colonizers but poor competitors
Climax species are poor colonizers but good competitors
Pioneer species are generally with numerous small seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Climax species are generally with few larger seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Responsible for soil formation and modifies the environment favoring the colonization of other species of next seral stage
The environment has been modified and made suitable for the emergence of species of climax community by the species of previous seral stages
Pioneer community is replaced by the species of next seral communities
Climax community is a stable community where invasion of other species will not generally happen for a long period
Examples of pioneer species: Lichen in lithosere (rocks),
Pioneer community: Phytoplanktons in hydrosere
Examples: Climax species: White spruce (Picea glauca) climax species in the Northern forests of North America.
Giant sequoia tree in sequoia forests
Climax community: forest
*Exceptions: Lichens are pioneer species on rocks, but slow growing
Reference
1. Guariguata, M. R., & Ostertag, R. (2001). Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Forest ecology and management, 148(1-3), 185-206.
2. Tobin, A. J., & Dusheck, J. (2005). Asking about life. Cengage Learning.

Pioneer community vs Climax community
Ecological succession is the gradual replacement of one community with another till reaching a final stable climax community over a period of time
The first set of species or community that develops in a bare area in ecological succession is the pioneer community.
Pioneer species facilitate succession.
The final steady stable self sustaining community in an ecological succession is called the climax community. Climax community is in equilibrium with physical environment also as long as the environment remains unchanged
10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community
Pioneer community
Climax community
It is the first community that appears in a bare area during ecological succession (primary community)
It is the final stable biotic community that appears in an area during ecological succession (final community)
The establishment of the pioneer community is the first step in ecological succession (first seral stage)
The emergence of the stable climax community is the final step in ecological succession (last seral stage)
Pioneer community appears on a previously uninhabited area
Climax community establishes in a previously occupied area by other seral communities
Pioneer community consists of generally small sized species
Climax community consists of species of different sizes that are well adapted to the environment
The species in the community are tolerant to extreme environments
The species in the climax community are comparatively less tolerant to extreme environments
*Pioneer species are generally ‘r-selected’ species that are fast growing, shade intolerant and short lived
Climax species are k selected species that are slow growing, shade tolerant and long lived
Pioneer species are good colonizers but poor competitors
Climax species are poor colonizers but good competitors
Pioneer species are generally with numerous small seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Climax species are generally with few larger seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Responsible for soil formation and modifies the environment favoring the colonization of other species of next seral stage
The environment has been modified and made suitable for the emergence of species of climax community by the species of previous seral stages
Pioneer community is replaced by the species of next seral communities
Climax community is a stable community where invasion of other species will not generally happen for a long period
Examples of pioneer species: Lichen in lithosere (rocks),
Pioneer community: Phytoplanktons in hydrosere
Examples: Climax species: White spruce (Picea glauca) climax species in the Northern forests of North America.
Giant sequoia tree in sequoia forests
Climax community: forest
*Exceptions: Lichens are pioneer species on rocks, but slow growing
Reference
1. Guariguata, M. R., & Ostertag, R. (2001). Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Forest ecology and management, 148(1-3), 185-206.
2. Tobin, A. J., & Dusheck, J. (2005). Asking about life. Cengage Learning.
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5 Differences between Nitrogen fixation and Nitrification (Nitrogen fixation vs Nitrification)


Nitrogen cycle is a continuous series of natural processes by which nitrogen passes successively from air to soil to organisms and back to air or soil involving principally nitrogen fixation, nitrification, decay, and denitrification.

The major processes in nitrogen fixation are
1. Nitrogen fixation: Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) in soil
N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e+ 16 ATP → 2 NH3 + H2 +16 ADP +16 Pi
2. Nitrification: biological oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-)
3. Nitrate assimilation: Soil nitrate (NO3-) used by plants for synthesis of N containing biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids
4. Ammonification: Formation of ammonia (NH3) from N containing biomolecules of dead organisms
5. Denitrification and Anammox. : Reversal of nitrification where nitrate (NO3-) is converted to N2 and released to atmosphere
Refer this post for simple step wise explanation: 5 steps in N2 cycle with notes on Anammox
5 Differences between Nitrogen fixation and Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation
Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) or compounds that can be readily utilized by plants for the synthesis of nitrogen containing bio-molecules like amino acids, nucleic acids etc 

It is a two step process that converts ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-)

Nitrogen fixation is the first step in nitrogen cycle that fix atmospheric nitrogen to soil as ammonia (NH3)
Nitrification is a major step in the nitrogen cycle in soil where soil ammonia (NH3) is converted to soil nitrate (NO3-)
Nitrogen fixation occurs by a) biological Nitrogen Fixation, b) non-biological N2 fixation by lightning, volcanic eruptions etc and c) Industrial N2 fixation called Haber-Bosch process. More than 70% of Nitrogen is fixed by biological methods
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-) by nitrifying bacteria
The microorganisms involved in Nitrogen fixation are called nitrogen fixers or diazotrophs
The microorganisms involved in Nitrification are called nitrifying bacteria
Nitrogen fixers are either symbiotic or free living.
Nitrogen fixers include some bacteria like Rhizobium in symbiotic association with leguminous plants, blue green algae like Anabaena and lichens like Collema.
Nitrification is carried out by two groups of bacteria; nitrite bacteria like Nitrosomonas which converts ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate bacteria like Nitrobacter that converts nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-)

Nitrogen cycle is a continuous series of natural processes by which nitrogen passes successively from air to soil to organisms and back to air or soil involving principally nitrogen fixation, nitrification, decay, and denitrification.

The major processes in nitrogen fixation are
1. Nitrogen fixation: Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) in soil
N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e+ 16 ATP → 2 NH3 + H2 +16 ADP +16 Pi
2. Nitrification: biological oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-)
3. Nitrate assimilation: Soil nitrate (NO3-) used by plants for synthesis of N containing biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids
4. Ammonification: Formation of ammonia (NH3) from N containing biomolecules of dead organisms
5. Denitrification and Anammox. : Reversal of nitrification where nitrate (NO3-) is converted to N2 and released to atmosphere
Refer this post for simple step wise explanation: 5 steps in N2 cycle with notes on Anammox
5 Differences between Nitrogen fixation and Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation
Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) or compounds that can be readily utilized by plants for the synthesis of nitrogen containing bio-molecules like amino acids, nucleic acids etc 

It is a two step process that converts ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-)

Nitrogen fixation is the first step in nitrogen cycle that fix atmospheric nitrogen to soil as ammonia (NH3)
Nitrification is a major step in the nitrogen cycle in soil where soil ammonia (NH3) is converted to soil nitrate (NO3-)
Nitrogen fixation occurs by a) biological Nitrogen Fixation, b) non-biological N2 fixation by lightning, volcanic eruptions etc and c) Industrial N2 fixation called Haber-Bosch process. More than 70% of Nitrogen is fixed by biological methods
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-) by nitrifying bacteria
The microorganisms involved in Nitrogen fixation are called nitrogen fixers or diazotrophs
The microorganisms involved in Nitrification are called nitrifying bacteria
Nitrogen fixers are either symbiotic or free living.
Nitrogen fixers include some bacteria like Rhizobium in symbiotic association with leguminous plants, blue green algae like Anabaena and lichens like Collema.
Nitrification is carried out by two groups of bacteria; nitrite bacteria like Nitrosomonas which converts ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate bacteria like Nitrobacter that converts nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-)
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Difference between Renewable resources and Nonrenewable resources (Renewable vs Nonrenewable resources)

Exhaustible resources are of two types: Renewable and nonrenewable.
Renewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which get replenished, recycled or reproduced and can last forever provided they are not used beyond their renewability. it include biotic and abiotic resources. 
Nonrenewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which can not be gained or reconstructed once they have been used up due to lack of recycling or regeneration. 
Renewable vs Nonrenewable resources
Renewable resources:
  1. They are  exhaustible resources which get regenerated or recycled
  2. Renewable resources can last forever if used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased by enhancing their renewability without causing depletion.
  4. They include edaphic resource (soil or land), water resources and biological resources or bioresouces (living organisms and their products-agriculture, aquaculture, poultry, livestock etc),soil  fertility, forests, underground water etc

Nonrenewable resources:
  1. Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible resources  which do not get regenerated or recycled
  2. They are going to get exhausted sooner or later whether or not used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased only by increasing their extraction but it will cause early depletion.
  4. Fossil fuels (coal, lignite, petroleum), Mineral deposits, metals, natural gas are examples.
Exhaustible resources are of two types: Renewable and nonrenewable.
Renewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which get replenished, recycled or reproduced and can last forever provided they are not used beyond their renewability. it include biotic and abiotic resources. 
Nonrenewable resources: They are exhaustible natural resources which can not be gained or reconstructed once they have been used up due to lack of recycling or regeneration. 
Renewable vs Nonrenewable resources
Renewable resources:
  1. They are  exhaustible resources which get regenerated or recycled
  2. Renewable resources can last forever if used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased by enhancing their renewability without causing depletion.
  4. They include edaphic resource (soil or land), water resources and biological resources or bioresouces (living organisms and their products-agriculture, aquaculture, poultry, livestock etc),soil  fertility, forests, underground water etc

Nonrenewable resources:
  1. Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible resources  which do not get regenerated or recycled
  2. They are going to get exhausted sooner or later whether or not used judiciously
  3. Availability can be increased only by increasing their extraction but it will cause early depletion.
  4. Fossil fuels (coal, lignite, petroleum), Mineral deposits, metals, natural gas are examples.
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