Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats (Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats)

Fatty acids are organic acids having hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxylic groups (COOH). Hydrocarbon chains may be straight or having ring structure. Some fatty acids also possess hydroxyl groups. Length 4-24 carbons. Fatty acids are of two main groups: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids do not posses double bonds in their carbon chains. They have a general formula CnH2nO2.
Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats  (Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats)
Saturated Fats vs Unsaturated Fats
Saturated fats
Unsaturated fats
They do not possess any double bonds in their fatty acids.
They contain one or more double bonds in their fatty acids.
All certain atoms are fully saturated
Carbon atoms are unsaturated in the region of double bonds.
They have straight chains.
The chain bends at the double bond.
They have higher melting point
They have lower melting point
Hydrogenation has no effect on saturated fats
Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fats into saturated ones.
Saturated fats are solids at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
Animal fats are mostly saturated fats
Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats.
They increase blood cholesterol
Unsaturated fats lower blood cholesterol.
Essential fatty acids are absent.
Essential fatty acids are present.
They are not much affected by exposure to air
On exposure to air, they tend to solidify


    Example of Saturated fats:
  • C16H3202 (Palmitic acid)
  • C18H36O2(Stearic acid).

       Example of unsaturated fats:
  • Oleic acid (with one double bond, monoene)
  • Linoleic acid  (with one double bond, diene)
  • Linolenic acid  (with one double bond, triene)
  • Arachidonic acid (with one double bond, tetraene)
Fatty acids are organic acids having hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxylic groups (COOH). Hydrocarbon chains may be straight or having ring structure. Some fatty acids also possess hydroxyl groups. Length 4-24 carbons. Fatty acids are of two main groups: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids do not posses double bonds in their carbon chains. They have a general formula CnH2nO2.
Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats  (Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats)
Saturated Fats vs Unsaturated Fats
Saturated fats
Unsaturated fats
They do not possess any double bonds in their fatty acids.
They contain one or more double bonds in their fatty acids.
All certain atoms are fully saturated
Carbon atoms are unsaturated in the region of double bonds.
They have straight chains.
The chain bends at the double bond.
They have higher melting point
They have lower melting point
Hydrogenation has no effect on saturated fats
Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fats into saturated ones.
Saturated fats are solids at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
Animal fats are mostly saturated fats
Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats.
They increase blood cholesterol
Unsaturated fats lower blood cholesterol.
Essential fatty acids are absent.
Essential fatty acids are present.
They are not much affected by exposure to air
On exposure to air, they tend to solidify


    Example of Saturated fats:
  • C16H3202 (Palmitic acid)
  • C18H36O2(Stearic acid).

       Example of unsaturated fats:
  • Oleic acid (with one double bond, monoene)
  • Linoleic acid  (with one double bond, diene)
  • Linolenic acid  (with one double bond, triene)
  • Arachidonic acid (with one double bond, tetraene)
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Difference between Aqueous Humour and Vitreous Humour (Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour )


The organs of sight are a pair of eyes in human. The eyes are situated in deep protective   bony cavities, called the orbits or eye sockets of the skull. The study of structure, function and diseases of the eye is called ophthalmology.
The lens and suspensory ligament divide the cavity of the eyeball into two chambers: the anterior small aqueous chamber and the posterior large vitreous chamber. The aqueous chamber itself consists of two cavities: large anterior in front of the iris and behind cornea and small posterior between the iris and the lens. Both the parts of aqueous chamber filled with a clear, watery fluid, the aqueous humour. The vitreous chamber (the largest chamber) is full of thick, transparent, jelly like substance, the vitreous humour or vitreous body. The latter consists of water , protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres. It is apparently secreted by the retina during development of the eye.
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour 
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour

Aqueous humour
Vitreous humour
It occurs in aqueous chamber
It occurs in vitreous chamber
It is a watery fluid
It is a jelly like substance
It is secreted by ciliary processes
It is apparently  secreted by retina during development of eye.
It is continuously absorbed into blood and replaced.
It is absorbed or replaced.
It contains most of the diffusible substances of the plasma
It consists of water (90%), protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres.
Obstruction in its flow may damage retina by increasing intraocular pressure
It does not flow.
Maintains the shape of the cornea and supply nutrition to both lens and cornea.
Maintains the shape of the eye ball and contribute to intraocular pressure and also to the focussing of light on the retina.


The organs of sight are a pair of eyes in human. The eyes are situated in deep protective   bony cavities, called the orbits or eye sockets of the skull. The study of structure, function and diseases of the eye is called ophthalmology.
The lens and suspensory ligament divide the cavity of the eyeball into two chambers: the anterior small aqueous chamber and the posterior large vitreous chamber. The aqueous chamber itself consists of two cavities: large anterior in front of the iris and behind cornea and small posterior between the iris and the lens. Both the parts of aqueous chamber filled with a clear, watery fluid, the aqueous humour. The vitreous chamber (the largest chamber) is full of thick, transparent, jelly like substance, the vitreous humour or vitreous body. The latter consists of water , protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres. It is apparently secreted by the retina during development of the eye.
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour 
Aqueous Humour vs Vitreous Humour

Aqueous humour
Vitreous humour
It occurs in aqueous chamber
It occurs in vitreous chamber
It is a watery fluid
It is a jelly like substance
It is secreted by ciliary processes
It is apparently  secreted by retina during development of eye.
It is continuously absorbed into blood and replaced.
It is absorbed or replaced.
It contains most of the diffusible substances of the plasma
It consists of water (90%), protein vitrein, hyaluronic acid and collagen fibres.
Obstruction in its flow may damage retina by increasing intraocular pressure
It does not flow.
Maintains the shape of the cornea and supply nutrition to both lens and cornea.
Maintains the shape of the eye ball and contribute to intraocular pressure and also to the focussing of light on the retina.

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Difference between Cleavage and Mitosis (Segmentation vs Typical Mitosis)

Mitosis ( Equational Division): It is type of cell division in which chromosomes of parent cells are duplicated and equally distributed into two daughter cells.Term mitosisis derived from Greek word "Mitos"means thread or fibril. It was first observed by Strasburger in plant cells (1870) and Boveri and Flemming in animal cell (1879). 
It is divided into four stages or phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

Cleavage is a series  of rapid mitotic divisions of the zygote, characterized by absence of growth of daughter cells, which convert the single celled zygote into a multicellular structure called blastula(blastocyst).
Cleavage helps in the distribution of the cytoplasm of the zygote, amongst the blastomeres.
Increased mobility of the protoplasm, which facilitates morphogenic movements necessary for cell differentiation, germ layer formation and the formation of organs and  tissues. Restoration of the cell size and nucleo cytoplasmic ratio characteristic of the species.
Unicellular zygote is converted into multicellular embryo.
Difference between Cleavage and Mitosis (Segmentation vs Typical Mitosis)

Cleavage
Mitosis
Cleavage occurs in the zygote, parthenogenetic egg.
Mitosis occurs in most body cells.
Interphase is short and blastomeres do not grow during this.
Interphase is long and daughter cells grow to normal size during this.
Size of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
Size of the daughter cells remains nearly constant due to growth. 
The total mass of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
The total mass of daughter cells becomes more than that of parent cell.
DNA synthesis occurs much faster to form chromosomes for new blastomeres.
DNA synthesis occurs at the normal rate.
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio increases as cleavage progresses
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio does not change.
Mitosis ( Equational Division): It is type of cell division in which chromosomes of parent cells are duplicated and equally distributed into two daughter cells.Term mitosisis derived from Greek word "Mitos"means thread or fibril. It was first observed by Strasburger in plant cells (1870) and Boveri and Flemming in animal cell (1879). 
It is divided into four stages or phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

Cleavage is a series  of rapid mitotic divisions of the zygote, characterized by absence of growth of daughter cells, which convert the single celled zygote into a multicellular structure called blastula(blastocyst).
Cleavage helps in the distribution of the cytoplasm of the zygote, amongst the blastomeres.
Increased mobility of the protoplasm, which facilitates morphogenic movements necessary for cell differentiation, germ layer formation and the formation of organs and  tissues. Restoration of the cell size and nucleo cytoplasmic ratio characteristic of the species.
Unicellular zygote is converted into multicellular embryo.
Difference between Cleavage and Mitosis (Segmentation vs Typical Mitosis)

Cleavage
Mitosis
Cleavage occurs in the zygote, parthenogenetic egg.
Mitosis occurs in most body cells.
Interphase is short and blastomeres do not grow during this.
Interphase is long and daughter cells grow to normal size during this.
Size of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
Size of the daughter cells remains nearly constant due to growth. 
The total mass of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
The total mass of daughter cells becomes more than that of parent cell.
DNA synthesis occurs much faster to form chromosomes for new blastomeres.
DNA synthesis occurs at the normal rate.
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio increases as cleavage progresses
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio does not change.
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Difference between Zoological Parks and Zoological Museum

Zoological parks  are enclosed  areas or park lands where animals are kept in open enclosures instead of cages(in zoos). It provide more natural environment to animals. Therefore, most zoos are being converted into zoological parks. All countries of the world maintain zoological parks.
  1. Berlin Zoo, Germany
  2.  Bronx Zoo, New York City, United States
  3.  London Zoo, England 
  4. Wellington Zoo, New Zealand
  5. Beijing Zoo, China 
  6.  Philadelphia Zoo, United States
  7.  Singapore Zoo, Singapore
  8.  San Diego Zoo, United States 
  9. Zoo Basel, Switzerland
  10.  Melbourne Zoo, Australia
Zoological museum is a place used for storing preservation and exhibition of objects of natural history (both plants and animals,   art and objects of antiquities. All educational institute and universities maintain museums in their botany and zoology departments. Museum of natural history has collection of preserved plants and animals.
American Museum of natural history, New York, USA

Important museums
  1. American Museum of natural history, New York, USA
  2. State museum of natural history, Stuttgaut, Germany.
  3. Museum of natural history, Basal, Switzerland.
 Zoological Perks  vs Zoological Museums
Zoological Parks
1.Specimens exhibited are alive and active
2. Only whole animals are on show
3. Animals are displayed mostly in the open, some in the buildings
4. Fossils are not exhibited. 
5. Human evolution is not depicted. 
6. All groups  of animals are nor represented in the zoos
Zoological Museums
1. Specimens exhibited are lifeless and inactive
2. Whole stuffed animals as well as animal parts (Feathers, skeletons) and products (eggs, nests)are on show.
3. Objects are displayed mostly in the buildings
4. Fossils are also exhibited. 
5. Human evolution is depicted by models and charts
6. Animals from all groups are shown in the museums
Zoological parks  are enclosed  areas or park lands where animals are kept in open enclosures instead of cages(in zoos). It provide more natural environment to animals. Therefore, most zoos are being converted into zoological parks. All countries of the world maintain zoological parks.
  1. Berlin Zoo, Germany
  2.  Bronx Zoo, New York City, United States
  3.  London Zoo, England 
  4. Wellington Zoo, New Zealand
  5. Beijing Zoo, China 
  6.  Philadelphia Zoo, United States
  7.  Singapore Zoo, Singapore
  8.  San Diego Zoo, United States 
  9. Zoo Basel, Switzerland
  10.  Melbourne Zoo, Australia
Zoological museum is a place used for storing preservation and exhibition of objects of natural history (both plants and animals,   art and objects of antiquities. All educational institute and universities maintain museums in their botany and zoology departments. Museum of natural history has collection of preserved plants and animals.
American Museum of natural history, New York, USA

Important museums
  1. American Museum of natural history, New York, USA
  2. State museum of natural history, Stuttgaut, Germany.
  3. Museum of natural history, Basal, Switzerland.
 Zoological Perks  vs Zoological Museums
Zoological Parks
1.Specimens exhibited are alive and active
2. Only whole animals are on show
3. Animals are displayed mostly in the open, some in the buildings
4. Fossils are not exhibited. 
5. Human evolution is not depicted. 
6. All groups  of animals are nor represented in the zoos
Zoological Museums
1. Specimens exhibited are lifeless and inactive
2. Whole stuffed animals as well as animal parts (Feathers, skeletons) and products (eggs, nests)are on show.
3. Objects are displayed mostly in the buildings
4. Fossils are also exhibited. 
5. Human evolution is depicted by models and charts
6. Animals from all groups are shown in the museums
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10 Differences between Monoecious and Dioecious

10 Differences between Monoecious and Dioecious plants
The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.
Differences between Monoecious and Dioecious
Monoecious
Dioecious
It means single house; the same plant “houses” both male and female flowers
It means two house; there is male plant with male flowers and female plant with female flowers
Both male and female flowers are present on the same plant
Male and female flowers are on different plants. That means there is male plant and female plant
Unisexual flowers on the same plant
Unisexual flowers on different plant
Produce male and female gametes by the same plant
Produce male and female gametes by the separate plants
Plants are capable of both self pollination and cross pollination
Plants are capable of only cross pollination
All plants are capable of seed production as there is female flowers
Seeds are produced in female plant only. That is only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production
Low genetic variation and increased homozygosity due to self pollination or inbreeding
High genetic variation and increased heterozygosity due to cross pollination
Reproductive isolation has no effect as capable of self pollination
Reproductive isolation can prevent pollination 
Comparatively less efficient pollinating mechanisms as self pollination is common
Efficient pollinating mechanisms such as more flower production, large fleshy fruits etc and with different pollinating agents including insects, birds etc
Eg: Corn (Zea mays), Cucurbits (Cucumis sativus)
Eg: Papaya (Carica papaya), Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
Eg. of Monoecious animals: (Hermaphrodites): earthworms, Slugs, Planarians
Eg. of Dioecious animals: Mammals, insects, birds

Reference:
  • Ainsworth, C. (2000). Boys and girls come out to play: the molecular biology of dioecious plants. Annals of Botany86(2), 211-221.
  • McKown, A. D., Klapste, J., Guy, R. D., Soolanayakanahally, R. Y., Mantia, J., Porth, I.,& Hamelin, R. C. (2017). Sexual homomorphism in dioecious trees: extensive tests fail to detect sexual dimorphism in Populus. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1831.
10 Differences between Monoecious and Dioecious plants
The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.
Differences between Monoecious and Dioecious
Monoecious
Dioecious
It means single house; the same plant “houses” both male and female flowers
It means two house; there is male plant with male flowers and female plant with female flowers
Both male and female flowers are present on the same plant
Male and female flowers are on different plants. That means there is male plant and female plant
Unisexual flowers on the same plant
Unisexual flowers on different plant
Produce male and female gametes by the same plant
Produce male and female gametes by the separate plants
Plants are capable of both self pollination and cross pollination
Plants are capable of only cross pollination
All plants are capable of seed production as there is female flowers
Seeds are produced in female plant only. That is only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production
Low genetic variation and increased homozygosity due to self pollination or inbreeding
High genetic variation and increased heterozygosity due to cross pollination
Reproductive isolation has no effect as capable of self pollination
Reproductive isolation can prevent pollination 
Comparatively less efficient pollinating mechanisms as self pollination is common
Efficient pollinating mechanisms such as more flower production, large fleshy fruits etc and with different pollinating agents including insects, birds etc
Eg: Corn (Zea mays), Cucurbits (Cucumis sativus)
Eg: Papaya (Carica papaya), Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
Eg. of Monoecious animals: (Hermaphrodites): earthworms, Slugs, Planarians
Eg. of Dioecious animals: Mammals, insects, birds

Reference:
  • Ainsworth, C. (2000). Boys and girls come out to play: the molecular biology of dioecious plants. Annals of Botany86(2), 211-221.
  • McKown, A. D., Klapste, J., Guy, R. D., Soolanayakanahally, R. Y., Mantia, J., Porth, I.,& Hamelin, R. C. (2017). Sexual homomorphism in dioecious trees: extensive tests fail to detect sexual dimorphism in Populus. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1831.
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Difference between Bacteriophage and TMV (TMV vs Bacteriophage)

Bacteriophage are viruses which are obligate parasites on bacteria.  They were discovered by Twort and d Herelle. These are tadpole shaped viruses and contain a single stranded DNA, ds DNA, ssDNA, ds DNA as genetic material. 

TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus) is the most serious pathogen causing on tobacco leaves. It is transmitted by artificial inoculation but not by insect vectors. This is the first virus that crystallized in 1935 by W M Stanely in the USA 
Bacteriophage vs TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus)
Difference between Bacteriophage and TMV (TMV vs Bacteriophage)
Bacteriophage:
1. Shape: Tadpole like with  head and tail
2. Symmetry: Head cuboidal and tail helical
3. Nucleic acid: Nucleoid DNA or RNA
4. Adsorption: Adsorption over host cell is highly specific and complex.
5. Phagocutosis:  The virus is not taken inside the host cells by phagocytosis
6. Intercellular virion: Only DNA portion enters the host cell and is termed intercellular virion
7. Separation: Protein coat and nucleic acids are separated outside the host cell.
8. Lysis: After eliciple phase lysis of host cell takes place.
9. Prophage: Prophage condition is present.
TMV(Tobacco Mosaic Virus)
1. Shape: rod shaped
2. Symmetry: helical symmetry
3. Nucleic acid: nucleioid RNA
4. Adsorption: adsorption over host cell is simple
5. Phagocytosis: the virus is taken inside the host cell by phagocytosis.
6. Intracellular virion: the entire virus enters into the host cell.
7. Separation: protein coat and RNA are separated inside the host cell
8. Lysis: The host cell after eclipse phase ma or may not lyse.
9. Prophage: No prophage condition preset.
 Practice More: Bacteriophage Quiz
Bacteriophage are viruses which are obligate parasites on bacteria.  They were discovered by Twort and d Herelle. These are tadpole shaped viruses and contain a single stranded DNA, ds DNA, ssDNA, ds DNA as genetic material. 

TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus) is the most serious pathogen causing on tobacco leaves. It is transmitted by artificial inoculation but not by insect vectors. This is the first virus that crystallized in 1935 by W M Stanely in the USA 
Bacteriophage vs TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus)
Difference between Bacteriophage and TMV (TMV vs Bacteriophage)
Bacteriophage:
1. Shape: Tadpole like with  head and tail
2. Symmetry: Head cuboidal and tail helical
3. Nucleic acid: Nucleoid DNA or RNA
4. Adsorption: Adsorption over host cell is highly specific and complex.
5. Phagocutosis:  The virus is not taken inside the host cells by phagocytosis
6. Intercellular virion: Only DNA portion enters the host cell and is termed intercellular virion
7. Separation: Protein coat and nucleic acids are separated outside the host cell.
8. Lysis: After eliciple phase lysis of host cell takes place.
9. Prophage: Prophage condition is present.
TMV(Tobacco Mosaic Virus)
1. Shape: rod shaped
2. Symmetry: helical symmetry
3. Nucleic acid: nucleioid RNA
4. Adsorption: adsorption over host cell is simple
5. Phagocytosis: the virus is taken inside the host cell by phagocytosis.
6. Intracellular virion: the entire virus enters into the host cell.
7. Separation: protein coat and RNA are separated inside the host cell
8. Lysis: The host cell after eclipse phase ma or may not lyse.
9. Prophage: No prophage condition preset.
 Practice More: Bacteriophage Quiz
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Similarities between Neutrophils and Macrophages ( Neutrophils vs Macrophages)


Immune system refers to the collection of mechanisms involving cells, tissues and organs that protects organisms against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells. Both these Neutrophils and Macrophages are phagocytes primarily involved in non-specific defence mechanism.
Neutrophils vs Macrophages

Similarities between Neutrophils and Macrophages
(i) Both are phagocytes

(ii) presence of common surface markers like chemokine receptors and receptors for Igs and complement and common patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion

(iii) common expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRR)

(iv) cooperative participation in the orchestration of adaptive immune responses

 (v) scavenger capacity

 (vi) similarity on the kinetic behavior under inflammatory/infectious conditions.  There  are reports on the possible conversion of neutrophils into macrophages (Araki et al., 2004; Sasmono et al., 2007).

(vii) Ability for pinocytosis (the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane).

Even though they show many similarities, macrophages and neutrophils are specialized cells with functional and function-related morphological distinctive features.


Immune system refers to the collection of mechanisms involving cells, tissues and organs that protects organisms against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells. Both these Neutrophils and Macrophages are phagocytes primarily involved in non-specific defence mechanism.
Neutrophils vs Macrophages

Similarities between Neutrophils and Macrophages
(i) Both are phagocytes

(ii) presence of common surface markers like chemokine receptors and receptors for Igs and complement and common patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion

(iii) common expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRR)

(iv) cooperative participation in the orchestration of adaptive immune responses

 (v) scavenger capacity

 (vi) similarity on the kinetic behavior under inflammatory/infectious conditions.  There  are reports on the possible conversion of neutrophils into macrophages (Araki et al., 2004; Sasmono et al., 2007).

(vii) Ability for pinocytosis (the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane).

Even though they show many similarities, macrophages and neutrophils are specialized cells with functional and function-related morphological distinctive features.

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10 Differences between Neutrophils and Macrophages

Immune system refers to the collection of mechanisms involving cells, tissues and organs that protects organisms against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells. Both these Neutrophils and Macrophages are phagocytes primarily involved in non-specific defence mechanism. This defence strategy is same for most type of infections or pathogens, hence called as non-specific defence mechanism. It protects body from primary infection by blocking pathogen entry or destroying pathogens that has entered, by different means other than antibodies. Phagocytes are vital in the host defense against microbial infection.
 Macrophages vs Neutrophils
Macrophages
Neutrophils
Macrophages are antigen presenting phagocytes with antigen presenting capacity to T cells or can act as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Neutrophils are phagocytes without antigen presenting capacity
MHC Class II receptor is present as Macrophages are antigen presenting cells
Only MHC Class I is present
Macrophages plays an important role in both innate (non-specific) and adaptive immune response (specific) by recruiting lymphocytes
Neutrophils are primarily involved in innate (non-specific) immune response with its phagocytic capability
Morphology: Large mononuclear rounded nucleus and are agranulocytes (absence of granules in cytoplasm)
Smaller cells with multi-lobed nucleus and are granulocytes
About 5-7% of circulating WBCs
Most abundant white blood cells; accounts nearly 50-70% of circulating WBCs
Macrophages are found in all tissues.

Neutrophils are normally found in the blood stream and is recruited to the site of infection or injury
Long life span (several months to years). After phagocytosis and killing of pathogen it migrates to the lymph nodes
Short life span (few hours to less than 5 days). After phagocytosis and killing of pathogen it undergo apoptosis and taken up by macrophages
Macrophages reaches during late stages of infection. The primary role of macrophages is in the removal of cellular debris, including apoptotic neutrophils and phagocytosis of large pathogens. 
They are the first immune cells to reach site of infection or injury
Classically activated macrophages requires a priming signal in the form of IFN-gamma via the IFN-gamma R. Alternatively activated macrophages does not require priming but require IL 4 and IL 13
Generally activated upon bacterial or fungal infection; by chemical signals such as IL-8 and are the first immune cells to reach the site of infection
Macrophages are also able to engulf apoptotic neutrophils and make use of the antimicrobial molecules present in their granules.
Neutrophil die after phagocytosis of pathogen and is immediately taken up by macrophages
Macrophages exist in different forms with various names through out the body
Eg: Monocytes in bone marrow/blood
Kupffer cell in liver, Sinus histiocytes in lymph nodes etc
No phenotypic variation or rare.


*IFN=interferon; IL=interleukin
Reference: Silva, Manuel T., and Margarida Correia-Neves. “Neutrophils and Macrophages: The Main Partners of Phagocyte Cell Systems.” Frontiers in Immunology 3 (2012): 174. PMC. Web. 25 Mar. 2018.
Immune system refers to the collection of mechanisms involving cells, tissues and organs that protects organisms against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells. Both these Neutrophils and Macrophages are phagocytes primarily involved in non-specific defence mechanism. This defence strategy is same for most type of infections or pathogens, hence called as non-specific defence mechanism. It protects body from primary infection by blocking pathogen entry or destroying pathogens that has entered, by different means other than antibodies. Phagocytes are vital in the host defense against microbial infection.
 Macrophages vs Neutrophils
Macrophages
Neutrophils
Macrophages are antigen presenting phagocytes with antigen presenting capacity to T cells or can act as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Neutrophils are phagocytes without antigen presenting capacity
MHC Class II receptor is present as Macrophages are antigen presenting cells
Only MHC Class I is present
Macrophages plays an important role in both innate (non-specific) and adaptive immune response (specific) by recruiting lymphocytes
Neutrophils are primarily involved in innate (non-specific) immune response with its phagocytic capability
Morphology: Large mononuclear rounded nucleus and are agranulocytes (absence of granules in cytoplasm)
Smaller cells with multi-lobed nucleus and are granulocytes
About 5-7% of circulating WBCs
Most abundant white blood cells; accounts nearly 50-70% of circulating WBCs
Macrophages are found in all tissues.

Neutrophils are normally found in the blood stream and is recruited to the site of infection or injury
Long life span (several months to years). After phagocytosis and killing of pathogen it migrates to the lymph nodes
Short life span (few hours to less than 5 days). After phagocytosis and killing of pathogen it undergo apoptosis and taken up by macrophages
Macrophages reaches during late stages of infection. The primary role of macrophages is in the removal of cellular debris, including apoptotic neutrophils and phagocytosis of large pathogens. 
They are the first immune cells to reach site of infection or injury
Classically activated macrophages requires a priming signal in the form of IFN-gamma via the IFN-gamma R. Alternatively activated macrophages does not require priming but require IL 4 and IL 13
Generally activated upon bacterial or fungal infection; by chemical signals such as IL-8 and are the first immune cells to reach the site of infection
Macrophages are also able to engulf apoptotic neutrophils and make use of the antimicrobial molecules present in their granules.
Neutrophil die after phagocytosis of pathogen and is immediately taken up by macrophages
Macrophages exist in different forms with various names through out the body
Eg: Monocytes in bone marrow/blood
Kupffer cell in liver, Sinus histiocytes in lymph nodes etc
No phenotypic variation or rare.


*IFN=interferon; IL=interleukin
Reference: Silva, Manuel T., and Margarida Correia-Neves. “Neutrophils and Macrophages: The Main Partners of Phagocyte Cell Systems.” Frontiers in Immunology 3 (2012): 174. PMC. Web. 25 Mar. 2018.
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