10 Differences between Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle (C3 Cycle vs Citric Acid Cycle)


Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle

Difference between C3 cycle and citric acid cycle (Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle)
We have already discussed the difference between C3 and C4 cycle, C3, C4 and CAM cycle. In this post we are discussing the difference between Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle in Photosynthesis and Krebs cycle in Cellular Respiration
Calvin cycle vs Krebs cycle difference
Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle
Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
A stage in photosynthesis where CO2 is fixed to carbohydrate using energy (ATP and NADPH) produced during light reaction
A stage in cellular respiration that involves series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide molecules, GTP/ATP and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2.
An anabolic process where carbohydrate is synthesized
An catabolic process where respiratory substrates such as carbohydrates, fats etc are broken down releasing energy
Site of reaction is stroma of chloroplast
Site of reaction is matrix of mitochondrion
Occur in plants
Takes place in all aerobic organisms including plants
Anaerobic process (oxygen not involved)
Aerobic process that involves oxygen in Electron transport chain which is essential for running Krebs cycle
Produces glucose using energy
Oxidizes glucose releasing energy
The first stable compound is 3 carbon phosphoglyceric acid
The first stable compound is 6 carbon Citric acid
RuBisCO is the first enzyme of the Calvin cycle
Citrate synthase is the first enzyme of the citric acid cycle
ATP and CO2 used in the cycle
ATP and CO2 produced in the cycle
Carbohydrate is synthesized
1 GTP/ATP, 3 NADH + H+, 1FADH2 & 2 carbon dioxide molecule per turn of cycle
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5 Differences between Genetics and Genomics (Genetics vs Genomics)

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
Definition: Genomics is an multidisciplinary branch of biology focusing on the study the entire set of genes (genome) in an organism. You can watch the video also on Genetics vs genomics for better understanding
difference between genetics and genomics
Genetics
Genomics
Genetics is the study of single genes and their heredity and variation in organisms
Genomics is the study of all genes (the genome) of a person or  an organisms, including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's/organisms environment.
Genetics is often a study of single gene or a few gene and their effects
Genomics is the study of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics is a classical branch of biology dates back to Mendel’s work on pea plants during early 1800, but rediscovered only during 1900.
Genomics is a much newer field flourished within last two decades due to technical advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology.
In 1906, William Bateson coined the term  “genetics” for the discipline of biology specifically dedicated to study heredity and variation.
The term genomics was coined in 1986 by Tom Roderick, a geneticist at the Jackson Laboratory in Maine, during a meeting about the mapping of the human genome.
Examples of genetic or inherited disorders include cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease etc caused by mutation in a single gene
Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, obesity, asthma, diabetes and cancer. (Multi gene diseases)
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of single gene inherited disorders
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics uses crossing, genomic mutation, recombination etc to study a trait associated with a gene
Genomics uses a combination of recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble and analyze the structure and function of genomes.

Reference:
https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Genetics-vs-Genomics
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/training/online/course/genomics-introduction-ebi-resources/what-genomics
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
Definition: Genomics is an multidisciplinary branch of biology focusing on the study the entire set of genes (genome) in an organism. You can watch the video also on Genetics vs genomics for better understanding
difference between genetics and genomics
Genetics
Genomics
Genetics is the study of single genes and their heredity and variation in organisms
Genomics is the study of all genes (the genome) of a person or  an organisms, including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's/organisms environment.
Genetics is often a study of single gene or a few gene and their effects
Genomics is the study of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics is a classical branch of biology dates back to Mendel’s work on pea plants during early 1800, but rediscovered only during 1900.
Genomics is a much newer field flourished within last two decades due to technical advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology.
In 1906, William Bateson coined the term  “genetics” for the discipline of biology specifically dedicated to study heredity and variation.
The term genomics was coined in 1986 by Tom Roderick, a geneticist at the Jackson Laboratory in Maine, during a meeting about the mapping of the human genome.
Examples of genetic or inherited disorders include cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease etc caused by mutation in a single gene
Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, obesity, asthma, diabetes and cancer. (Multi gene diseases)
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of single gene inherited disorders
Primarily focussing on the study and treatment of complex diseases caused by multiple genes and environmental factors
Genetics uses crossing, genomic mutation, recombination etc to study a trait associated with a gene
Genomics uses a combination of recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble and analyze the structure and function of genomes.

Reference:
https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Genetics-vs-Genomics
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/training/online/course/genomics-introduction-ebi-resources/what-genomics
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Difference between Oomycetes and True fungi (Oomycetes vs True Fungi)


Fungi are a group of microscopic as well as macroscopic, spore bearing, chlorophyll lacking, filamentous and heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually. Fungi are classified into slime moulds, oomycetes and true fungi. The Oomycetes (water moulds) are primarily aquatic fungi live as saprophytes or parasites. Although oomycetes morphologically similar to true fungi and exhibit absorptive nutrition and thus long classified with them, following features show that there are profound biological differences between oomycetes and true fungi.

Oomycetes
True fungi
Diploid somatic thallus
Haploid somatic thallus
Cellulose cell wall
Chitin present, No cellulose cell wall
Mitochondria cristae, tubular
Mitochondria cristate, plate like
Hydroxyprotine wall protein present
Hydroxyprotine wall protein absent
Lysine biosynthesis  Like plants, use diamino pimelic acid pathway
Like animals, use aminoadipic acid pathway
Oomycetes vs True fungi 

1. Somatic phases of oomycetes are diploid, whereas it is haploid in true fungi.

2. Meiosis occurs in developing sex organs or gametangia

3. Many produce egg cells during sexual reproduction. They are also known as egg fungi.

4. Most members produce swimming biflagellate zoospores with an anterior tinsel flagellum and a posterior whiplash flagellum.

5.The cell wall is mainly cellulosic in composition rather than chitionous as is the case in true fungi.

7. The vegetative thallus resembles the algal thallus in general construction.

8.The hyphal walls off oomycetes contain aminoacid hydroxyprotine which is not found other fungi, but is characteristic of the cell walls of green algae.

9. A number of biochemical synthetic pathways in the oomycetes are very different than those present on all other true fungi. Oomycetes like the plants synthesise lysine using diaminopimelic acid pathway rather than through the aminoadipic acid pathway.

10. Oomycetes have tubular mitochondrial cristae. All other fungi have plate like mitochondrial cristae.

11.Sexual reproduction in oomycetes in oogaamous. It takes place by gametagial contact resulting in a characteristic thick walled resting spore, called an oospore.

Fungi are a group of microscopic as well as macroscopic, spore bearing, chlorophyll lacking, filamentous and heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually. Fungi are classified into slime moulds, oomycetes and true fungi. The Oomycetes (water moulds) are primarily aquatic fungi live as saprophytes or parasites. Although oomycetes morphologically similar to true fungi and exhibit absorptive nutrition and thus long classified with them, following features show that there are profound biological differences between oomycetes and true fungi.

Oomycetes
True fungi
Diploid somatic thallus
Haploid somatic thallus
Cellulose cell wall
Chitin present, No cellulose cell wall
Mitochondria cristae, tubular
Mitochondria cristate, plate like
Hydroxyprotine wall protein present
Hydroxyprotine wall protein absent
Lysine biosynthesis  Like plants, use diamino pimelic acid pathway
Like animals, use aminoadipic acid pathway
Oomycetes vs True fungi 

1. Somatic phases of oomycetes are diploid, whereas it is haploid in true fungi.

2. Meiosis occurs in developing sex organs or gametangia

3. Many produce egg cells during sexual reproduction. They are also known as egg fungi.

4. Most members produce swimming biflagellate zoospores with an anterior tinsel flagellum and a posterior whiplash flagellum.

5.The cell wall is mainly cellulosic in composition rather than chitionous as is the case in true fungi.

7. The vegetative thallus resembles the algal thallus in general construction.

8.The hyphal walls off oomycetes contain aminoacid hydroxyprotine which is not found other fungi, but is characteristic of the cell walls of green algae.

9. A number of biochemical synthetic pathways in the oomycetes are very different than those present on all other true fungi. Oomycetes like the plants synthesise lysine using diaminopimelic acid pathway rather than through the aminoadipic acid pathway.

10. Oomycetes have tubular mitochondrial cristae. All other fungi have plate like mitochondrial cristae.

11.Sexual reproduction in oomycetes in oogaamous. It takes place by gametagial contact resulting in a characteristic thick walled resting spore, called an oospore.
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Difference between Chromosomal DNA and Plasmid DNA (Chromosomal DNA vs Plasmid DNA)

Chromosomal DNA contains instructions as genes for survival, growth and reproduction of an organism. Plasmids are extra chromosomal, self-replicating DNA present in prokaryotes.
Difference between Chromosomal DNA and Plasmid DNA

Chromosomal DNA vs Plasmid DNA
Chromosomal DNA
Plasmid DNA
Chromosomal DNA carries genetic information as genes in all organisms except some viruses
Plasmids are double stranded circular DNA present in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA is genomic DNA
Plasmid DNA is extra chromosomal DNA
Chromosomal DNA present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Plasmid DNA is present only in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA is linear in eukaryotes and circular in prokaryotes
Plasmid DNA is always circular in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA much larger in size than plasmid DNA
Plsamid DNA size up to 200kb
Generally 1 copy of chromosomal DNA in haploid organisms and 2 copies in diploid organisms
Plasmid copy number per cell ranges from 15 to 700 copies per cell.
15/cell called as low copy number plasmids and 700/cell as high copy number plasmids
Chromosomal DNA replicates only with the replication of genomic DNA
Plasmid DNA can replicate independent of bacterial genomic DNA replication
Chromosomal DNA in eukaryotes have exons and introns, prokaryotic chromosomal DNA has open reading frame, that is with only coding sequences
Plasmid has open reading frame, that is devoid of introns or non-coding sequences
Chromosomal DNA carries genes essential for the survival of organism
Plasmid DNA generally contain genes that codes for proteins involved in antibiotic resistance (R plasmid), fertility factor (F plasmids, or colicin production (Col plasmid)
Chromosmal DNA is used in the study of genome of an organisms
Plasmids are widely used in rDNA technology as cloning vector
*Colicin: Colicins are bactericidal proteins produced by some strains of bacteria, that kills bacteria of the same species.
Chromosomal DNA contains instructions as genes for survival, growth and reproduction of an organism. Plasmids are extra chromosomal, self-replicating DNA present in prokaryotes.
Difference between Chromosomal DNA and Plasmid DNA

Chromosomal DNA vs Plasmid DNA
Chromosomal DNA
Plasmid DNA
Chromosomal DNA carries genetic information as genes in all organisms except some viruses
Plasmids are double stranded circular DNA present in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA is genomic DNA
Plasmid DNA is extra chromosomal DNA
Chromosomal DNA present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Plasmid DNA is present only in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA is linear in eukaryotes and circular in prokaryotes
Plasmid DNA is always circular in prokaryotes
Chromosomal DNA much larger in size than plasmid DNA
Plsamid DNA size up to 200kb
Generally 1 copy of chromosomal DNA in haploid organisms and 2 copies in diploid organisms
Plasmid copy number per cell ranges from 15 to 700 copies per cell.
15/cell called as low copy number plasmids and 700/cell as high copy number plasmids
Chromosomal DNA replicates only with the replication of genomic DNA
Plasmid DNA can replicate independent of bacterial genomic DNA replication
Chromosomal DNA in eukaryotes have exons and introns, prokaryotic chromosomal DNA has open reading frame, that is with only coding sequences
Plasmid has open reading frame, that is devoid of introns or non-coding sequences
Chromosomal DNA carries genes essential for the survival of organism
Plasmid DNA generally contain genes that codes for proteins involved in antibiotic resistance (R plasmid), fertility factor (F plasmids, or colicin production (Col plasmid)
Chromosmal DNA is used in the study of genome of an organisms
Plasmids are widely used in rDNA technology as cloning vector
*Colicin: Colicins are bactericidal proteins produced by some strains of bacteria, that kills bacteria of the same species.
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Difference between Mass Selection and Pureline Selection (Mass Selection vs Pureline Selection)


Selection is the oldest breeding method. This is the basis for all crop improvement methods. Selection is of two types viz., natural selection and artificial selection. Artificial selection is of three types: mass selection, pureline selection and clonal selection.

Mass selection: This is the simplest and the oldest method  of crop improvement practiced by farmers. It is practiced in crop pollinated crops.
Mass selection


Pureline selction: The term pureline was first introduced by W. L. Johannsen of Denmark 1903. A pureline may be defined as the progeny of a single individual obtained by selfing”.
Pureline selction
Mass selection vs Pureline Selection
Mass Selection
1. Used in both cross and self pollinated species.
2. Genetic variation is present.
3. Mass selected variety has wide adaptation
4. Produce of variety is less uniform.
Mass selection vs Pureline Selection



Pureline Selection
1. Used in self pollinated species
2. Genetic variation is absent.
3. Pure line variety has narrow adaptation
4. Produce of variety is highly uniform

Selection is the oldest breeding method. This is the basis for all crop improvement methods. Selection is of two types viz., natural selection and artificial selection. Artificial selection is of three types: mass selection, pureline selection and clonal selection.

Mass selection: This is the simplest and the oldest method  of crop improvement practiced by farmers. It is practiced in crop pollinated crops.
Mass selection


Pureline selction: The term pureline was first introduced by W. L. Johannsen of Denmark 1903. A pureline may be defined as the progeny of a single individual obtained by selfing”.
Pureline selction
Mass selection vs Pureline Selection
Mass Selection
1. Used in both cross and self pollinated species.
2. Genetic variation is present.
3. Mass selected variety has wide adaptation
4. Produce of variety is less uniform.
Mass selection vs Pureline Selection



Pureline Selection
1. Used in self pollinated species
2. Genetic variation is absent.
3. Pure line variety has narrow adaptation
4. Produce of variety is highly uniform
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7 Differences between DNA and DNase (DNA vs DNase)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material made up nucleotides whereas DNase (Deoxyribonucleases) is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA. It non-specifically cleaves DNA to release 5'-phosphorylated di-, tri-, and oligonucleotide products. The relationship between DNA and DNase is that the DNA is the substrate for the enzyme DNase.
DNA vs DNAase
DNA
DNase 
Chemically DNA is a nucleic acid
DNase is a protein
The building blocks or monomer of DNA is nucleotides
As DNase is a protein, it is made up of amino acids
Function: Self replicating genetic material and major constituents of chromosomes.
Hereditary material in all organisms except some few viruses
Function: Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides of DNA
DNA is found in nucleus
DNase is primarily found in cytoplasm
New DNA strands are synthesized by DNA replication
DNase enzyme is synthesized by the transcription and translation of DNase gene
DNA serves as genetic material for all organisms except for few viruses
It is used to break the double stranded DNA molecule or single stranded DNA molecule into component nucleotides.
DNA contain instructions as genes for synthesis of proteins required for cellular activities
Major Applications -1. Degradation of contaminating DNA after RNA isolation,
2"Clean-up" of RNA prior to RT-PCR and after in vitro transcription,
3. Identification of protein binding sequences on DNA (DNase I footprinting)
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material made up nucleotides whereas DNase (Deoxyribonucleases) is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA. It non-specifically cleaves DNA to release 5'-phosphorylated di-, tri-, and oligonucleotide products. The relationship between DNA and DNase is that the DNA is the substrate for the enzyme DNase.
DNA vs DNAase
DNA
DNase 
Chemically DNA is a nucleic acid
DNase is a protein
The building blocks or monomer of DNA is nucleotides
As DNase is a protein, it is made up of amino acids
Function: Self replicating genetic material and major constituents of chromosomes.
Hereditary material in all organisms except some few viruses
Function: Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides of DNA
DNA is found in nucleus
DNase is primarily found in cytoplasm
New DNA strands are synthesized by DNA replication
DNase enzyme is synthesized by the transcription and translation of DNase gene
DNA serves as genetic material for all organisms except for few viruses
It is used to break the double stranded DNA molecule or single stranded DNA molecule into component nucleotides.
DNA contain instructions as genes for synthesis of proteins required for cellular activities
Major Applications -1. Degradation of contaminating DNA after RNA isolation,
2"Clean-up" of RNA prior to RT-PCR and after in vitro transcription,
3. Identification of protein binding sequences on DNA (DNase I footprinting)
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Difference between Complementary genes and Supplementary genes

Complementary genes it may be defined as two or more dominant genes present on separate gene loci, which interact to produce a particular phenotypic trait, but neither of them produce a particular trait in the absence of other. Complementary genes were first studied by Bateson and Punnett in the case of flower colour of sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus).
Complementary genes (9:7 RATIO)
Supplementary genes: They are two independent genes present on different  on different gene loci, each producing its own trait. These genes interact when present in dominant state to produce a new trait.
(Complementary genes vs Supplementary genes)
Complementary genes
Supplementary genes
They are a pair of non allelic genes, both of which independently express similar phenotypic trait.
They are a pair of nonalleic genes where only one is able to express its effect independently.
Both the genes interact to produce a completely new trait.
The interaction of the two genes modifies the expression of the independently expressing gene.
The F2 ratio is generally 9:7
The F2 ratio is generally 9:3:4
Complementary genes it may be defined as two or more dominant genes present on separate gene loci, which interact to produce a particular phenotypic trait, but neither of them produce a particular trait in the absence of other. Complementary genes were first studied by Bateson and Punnett in the case of flower colour of sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus).
Complementary genes (9:7 RATIO)
Supplementary genes: They are two independent genes present on different  on different gene loci, each producing its own trait. These genes interact when present in dominant state to produce a new trait.
(Complementary genes vs Supplementary genes)
Complementary genes
Supplementary genes
They are a pair of non allelic genes, both of which independently express similar phenotypic trait.
They are a pair of nonalleic genes where only one is able to express its effect independently.
Both the genes interact to produce a completely new trait.
The interaction of the two genes modifies the expression of the independently expressing gene.
The F2 ratio is generally 9:7
The F2 ratio is generally 9:3:4
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Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)

B lymphocytes or B cells and T lymphocytes or T cells are the major players in adaptive immune response. T cells mediate cell mediated immunity whereas B cells are behind antibody mediated or humoral immunity. They possess antigen binding cell surface receptors responsible for specificity, diversity memory and self/non-self recognition by the immune system.
See the Difference between B cells and T cells
B cells originate and mature in bone marrow itself. Two major functions of B cells are
  • they differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies; and memory B cells that is responsible for immunologic memory
  • B cells acts as antigen presenting cells (APCs)
Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)
B cells
Plasma cells
B Cells possess a surface B Cell receptor (BCR) composed of surface immunoglobulin (Ig) for antigen binding and a transmembrane protein made up of two heterodimer subunits of Ig-α and Ig-β  called as CD79 for signal transduction
Plasma cells lacks surface receptors like BCR
B cells are formed from hoematopoetic stem cells of bone marrow
Plasma cells are formed by the differentiation of B cells upon activation
Naive B cells do not secrete antibodies
High rate of secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
B Cells has MHC class II receptor as it functions as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Mature plasma cells lacks MHC class II receptor
Common mature B cell markers are CD19, CD 20, CD21, CD22
Plasma cells often express Syndecan1 (CD138), CD44 and VLA-4 on their surface (common markers)
B cells in peripheral lymphoid tissue are predominantly long-lived, with a life span of between 4 and 7 weeks
Plasma cells may be short‐lived, surviving only 3–5 days often found in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Generally, these secrete lower affinity antibody. Alternatively, plasma cells may be long‐lived, surviving decades or the lifetime of an animal, secreting high‐affinity antibody majority of which found in the bone marrow
*Antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals.
No such mechanisms reported so far in plasma cells
 *Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Reference
Wang, K., Wei, G., & Liu, D. (2012). CD19: a biomarker for B cell development, lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. Experimental hematology & oncology, 1(1), 36.

Anaya, J. M., Shoenfeld, Y., Rojas-Villarraga, A., Levy, R. A., & Cervera, R. (2013). Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside. El Rosario University Press.Fulcher, D. A., & Basten, A. (1997). B cell life span: a review. Immunology and cell biology75(5), 446-455.Stavnezer, J., Guikema, J. E., & Schrader, C. E. (2008). Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination. Annual review of immunology, 26, 261-92.

B lymphocytes or B cells and T lymphocytes or T cells are the major players in adaptive immune response. T cells mediate cell mediated immunity whereas B cells are behind antibody mediated or humoral immunity. They possess antigen binding cell surface receptors responsible for specificity, diversity memory and self/non-self recognition by the immune system.
See the Difference between B cells and T cells
B cells originate and mature in bone marrow itself. Two major functions of B cells are
  • they differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies; and memory B cells that is responsible for immunologic memory
  • B cells acts as antigen presenting cells (APCs)
Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)
B cells
Plasma cells
B Cells possess a surface B Cell receptor (BCR) composed of surface immunoglobulin (Ig) for antigen binding and a transmembrane protein made up of two heterodimer subunits of Ig-α and Ig-β  called as CD79 for signal transduction
Plasma cells lacks surface receptors like BCR
B cells are formed from hoematopoetic stem cells of bone marrow
Plasma cells are formed by the differentiation of B cells upon activation
Naive B cells do not secrete antibodies
High rate of secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
B Cells has MHC class II receptor as it functions as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Mature plasma cells lacks MHC class II receptor
Common mature B cell markers are CD19, CD 20, CD21, CD22
Plasma cells often express Syndecan1 (CD138), CD44 and VLA-4 on their surface (common markers)
B cells in peripheral lymphoid tissue are predominantly long-lived, with a life span of between 4 and 7 weeks
Plasma cells may be short‐lived, surviving only 3–5 days often found in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Generally, these secrete lower affinity antibody. Alternatively, plasma cells may be long‐lived, surviving decades or the lifetime of an animal, secreting high‐affinity antibody majority of which found in the bone marrow
*Antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals.
No such mechanisms reported so far in plasma cells
 *Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Reference
Wang, K., Wei, G., & Liu, D. (2012). CD19: a biomarker for B cell development, lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. Experimental hematology & oncology, 1(1), 36.

Anaya, J. M., Shoenfeld, Y., Rojas-Villarraga, A., Levy, R. A., & Cervera, R. (2013). Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside. El Rosario University Press.Fulcher, D. A., & Basten, A. (1997). B cell life span: a review. Immunology and cell biology75(5), 446-455.Stavnezer, J., Guikema, J. E., & Schrader, C. E. (2008). Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination. Annual review of immunology, 26, 261-92.

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