7 Differences between DNA and DNase (DNA vs DNase)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material made up nucleotides whereas DNase (Deoxyribonucleases) is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA. It non-specifically cleaves DNA to release 5'-phosphorylated di-, tri-, and oligonucleotide products. The relationship between DNA and DNase is that the DNA is the substrate for the enzyme DNase.
DNA vs DNAase
DNA
DNase 
Chemically DNA is a nucleic acid
DNase is a protein
The building blocks or monomer of DNA is nucleotides
As DNase is a protein, it is made up of amino acids
Function: Self replicating genetic material and major constituents of chromosomes.
Hereditary material in all organisms except some few viruses
Function: Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides of DNA
DNA is found in nucleus
DNase is primarily found in cytoplasm
New DNA strands are synthesized by DNA replication
DNase enzyme is synthesized by the transcription and translation of DNase gene
DNA serves as genetic material for all organisms except for few viruses
It is used to break the double stranded DNA molecule or single stranded DNA molecule into component nucleotides.
DNA contain instructions as genes for synthesis of proteins required for cellular activities
Major Applications -1. Degradation of contaminating DNA after RNA isolation,
2"Clean-up" of RNA prior to RT-PCR and after in vitro transcription,
3. Identification of protein binding sequences on DNA (DNase I footprinting)
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material made up nucleotides whereas DNase (Deoxyribonucleases) is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA. It non-specifically cleaves DNA to release 5'-phosphorylated di-, tri-, and oligonucleotide products. The relationship between DNA and DNase is that the DNA is the substrate for the enzyme DNase.
DNA vs DNAase
DNA
DNase 
Chemically DNA is a nucleic acid
DNase is a protein
The building blocks or monomer of DNA is nucleotides
As DNase is a protein, it is made up of amino acids
Function: Self replicating genetic material and major constituents of chromosomes.
Hereditary material in all organisms except some few viruses
Function: Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides of DNA
DNA is found in nucleus
DNase is primarily found in cytoplasm
New DNA strands are synthesized by DNA replication
DNase enzyme is synthesized by the transcription and translation of DNase gene
DNA serves as genetic material for all organisms except for few viruses
It is used to break the double stranded DNA molecule or single stranded DNA molecule into component nucleotides.
DNA contain instructions as genes for synthesis of proteins required for cellular activities
Major Applications -1. Degradation of contaminating DNA after RNA isolation,
2"Clean-up" of RNA prior to RT-PCR and after in vitro transcription,
3. Identification of protein binding sequences on DNA (DNase I footprinting)
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Difference between Complementary genes and Supplementary genes

Complementary genes it may be defined as two or more dominant genes present on separate gene loci, which interact to produce a particular phenotypic trait, but neither of them produce a particular trait in the absence of other. Complementary genes were first studied by Bateson and Punnett in the case of flower colour of sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus).
Complementary genes (9:7 RATIO)
Supplementary genes: They are two independent genes present on different  on different gene loci, each producing its own trait. These genes interact when present in dominant state to produce a new trait.
(Complementary genes vs Supplementary genes)
Complementary genes
Supplementary genes
They are a pair of non allelic genes, both of which independently express similar phenotypic trait.
They are a pair of nonalleic genes where only one is able to express its effect independently.
Both the genes interact to produce a completely new trait.
The interaction of the two genes modifies the expression of the independently expressing gene.
The F2 ratio is generally 9:7
The F2 ratio is generally 9:3:4
Complementary genes it may be defined as two or more dominant genes present on separate gene loci, which interact to produce a particular phenotypic trait, but neither of them produce a particular trait in the absence of other. Complementary genes were first studied by Bateson and Punnett in the case of flower colour of sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus).
Complementary genes (9:7 RATIO)
Supplementary genes: They are two independent genes present on different  on different gene loci, each producing its own trait. These genes interact when present in dominant state to produce a new trait.
(Complementary genes vs Supplementary genes)
Complementary genes
Supplementary genes
They are a pair of non allelic genes, both of which independently express similar phenotypic trait.
They are a pair of nonalleic genes where only one is able to express its effect independently.
Both the genes interact to produce a completely new trait.
The interaction of the two genes modifies the expression of the independently expressing gene.
The F2 ratio is generally 9:7
The F2 ratio is generally 9:3:4
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Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)

B lymphocytes or B cells and T lymphocytes or T cells are the major players in adaptive immune response. T cells mediate cell mediated immunity whereas B cells are behind antibody mediated or humoral immunity. They possess antigen binding cell surface receptors responsible for specificity, diversity memory and self/non-self recognition by the immune system.
See the Difference between B cells and T cells
B cells originate and mature in bone marrow itself. Two major functions of B cells are
  • they differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies; and memory B cells that is responsible for immunologic memory
  • B cells acts as antigen presenting cells (APCs)
Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)
B cells
Plasma cells
B Cells possess a surface B Cell receptor (BCR) composed of surface immunoglobulin (Ig) for antigen binding and a transmembrane protein made up of two heterodimer subunits of Ig-α and Ig-β  called as CD79 for signal transduction
Plasma cells lacks surface receptors like BCR
B cells are formed from hoematopoetic stem cells of bone marrow
Plasma cells are formed by the differentiation of B cells upon activation
Naive B cells do not secrete antibodies
High rate of secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
B Cells has MHC class II receptor as it functions as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Mature plasma cells lacks MHC class II receptor
Common mature B cell markers are CD19, CD 20, CD21, CD22
Plasma cells often express Syndecan1 (CD138), CD44 and VLA-4 on their surface (common markers)
B cells in peripheral lymphoid tissue are predominantly long-lived, with a life span of between 4 and 7 weeks
Plasma cells may be short‐lived, surviving only 3–5 days often found in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Generally, these secrete lower affinity antibody. Alternatively, plasma cells may be long‐lived, surviving decades or the lifetime of an animal, secreting high‐affinity antibody majority of which found in the bone marrow
*Antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals.
No such mechanisms reported so far in plasma cells
 *Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Reference
Wang, K., Wei, G., & Liu, D. (2012). CD19: a biomarker for B cell development, lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. Experimental hematology & oncology, 1(1), 36.

Anaya, J. M., Shoenfeld, Y., Rojas-Villarraga, A., Levy, R. A., & Cervera, R. (2013). Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside. El Rosario University Press.Fulcher, D. A., & Basten, A. (1997). B cell life span: a review. Immunology and cell biology75(5), 446-455.Stavnezer, J., Guikema, J. E., & Schrader, C. E. (2008). Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination. Annual review of immunology, 26, 261-92.

B lymphocytes or B cells and T lymphocytes or T cells are the major players in adaptive immune response. T cells mediate cell mediated immunity whereas B cells are behind antibody mediated or humoral immunity. They possess antigen binding cell surface receptors responsible for specificity, diversity memory and self/non-self recognition by the immune system.
See the Difference between B cells and T cells
B cells originate and mature in bone marrow itself. Two major functions of B cells are
  • they differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies; and memory B cells that is responsible for immunologic memory
  • B cells acts as antigen presenting cells (APCs)
Difference between B cells and Plasma cells (B cells vs Plasma cells)
B cells
Plasma cells
B Cells possess a surface B Cell receptor (BCR) composed of surface immunoglobulin (Ig) for antigen binding and a transmembrane protein made up of two heterodimer subunits of Ig-α and Ig-β  called as CD79 for signal transduction
Plasma cells lacks surface receptors like BCR
B cells are formed from hoematopoetic stem cells of bone marrow
Plasma cells are formed by the differentiation of B cells upon activation
Naive B cells do not secrete antibodies
High rate of secretion of antibodies by plasma cells
B Cells has MHC class II receptor as it functions as antigen presenting cells (APC)
Mature plasma cells lacks MHC class II receptor
Common mature B cell markers are CD19, CD 20, CD21, CD22
Plasma cells often express Syndecan1 (CD138), CD44 and VLA-4 on their surface (common markers)
B cells in peripheral lymphoid tissue are predominantly long-lived, with a life span of between 4 and 7 weeks
Plasma cells may be short‐lived, surviving only 3–5 days often found in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Generally, these secrete lower affinity antibody. Alternatively, plasma cells may be long‐lived, surviving decades or the lifetime of an animal, secreting high‐affinity antibody majority of which found in the bone marrow
*Antibody class switching and somatic hypermutation occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals.
No such mechanisms reported so far in plasma cells
 *Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Reference
Wang, K., Wei, G., & Liu, D. (2012). CD19: a biomarker for B cell development, lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. Experimental hematology & oncology, 1(1), 36.

Anaya, J. M., Shoenfeld, Y., Rojas-Villarraga, A., Levy, R. A., & Cervera, R. (2013). Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside. El Rosario University Press.Fulcher, D. A., & Basten, A. (1997). B cell life span: a review. Immunology and cell biology75(5), 446-455.Stavnezer, J., Guikema, J. E., & Schrader, C. E. (2008). Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination. Annual review of immunology, 26, 261-92.

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10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)

Fungus vs Animals
Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually
 Animals are eukaryotic living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)
Fungus
Animals
Fungal cell has a rigid cell wall made up of chitin
Animal cells lack cell wall
 In Fungus, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
      Secrete digestive enzymes
      Feed by absorption in soluble form
      Saprotrophic, parasitic or symbiotic

      In animals, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and holozoic
      Feed by ingesting solid food materials which is then internally digested and absorbed into their bodies

Fungus don’t move around
All animals can move at least during some stage of their life cycle
Fungal thallus is generally multi cellular, with filaments called hyphae and network of these filaments makes mycelium (Exception: Yeast is a unicellular fungus)
The body is multi-cellular, well differentiated into tissues, organs and organ system
Fungi like plants are comparatively slow in response and can sense environmental signals and react accordingly, changing their development, direction of growth, and metabolism
Animals are capable of responding quickly to external stimuli as a result of nerve cells, muscle or contractile tissue, or both.
Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Asexual spores include zoospores, conidia etc
Generally reproduce sexually, involves two individuals contributing genetic material to produce offspring
Comparatively complex life cycle. In the life cycle of a sexually reproducing fungus, a haploid phase alternates with a diploid phase.
Comparatively simple life cycle. Diploid adults undergo meiosis to produce sperm or eggs. Fertilization occurs when a sperm and an egg fuse. The zygote that forms develops into an embryo. The embryo eventually develops into an adult.
Dikaryotic phase is very common (presence of two nuclei of opposite mating strains without fusion) and even dominant phase in many fungal groups like Basidiomycetes
Dikaryotic phase is absent
Most fungus has haploid dominant life cycle with an long dikaryotic phase
Animals has diploid dominant life cycle with haploid phase only in gametes
Example: Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Humans (Homo sapiens), Rat, parrot, fish

x
Fungus vs Animals
Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually
 Animals are eukaryotic living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
10 Differences between Fungi and Animals (Fungi vs Animals)
Fungus
Animals
Fungal cell has a rigid cell wall made up of chitin
Animal cells lack cell wall
 In Fungus, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
      Secrete digestive enzymes
      Feed by absorption in soluble form
      Saprotrophic, parasitic or symbiotic

      In animals, mode of nutrition is Heterotrophic and holozoic
      Feed by ingesting solid food materials which is then internally digested and absorbed into their bodies

Fungus don’t move around
All animals can move at least during some stage of their life cycle
Fungal thallus is generally multi cellular, with filaments called hyphae and network of these filaments makes mycelium (Exception: Yeast is a unicellular fungus)
The body is multi-cellular, well differentiated into tissues, organs and organ system
Fungi like plants are comparatively slow in response and can sense environmental signals and react accordingly, changing their development, direction of growth, and metabolism
Animals are capable of responding quickly to external stimuli as a result of nerve cells, muscle or contractile tissue, or both.
Reproduce both sexually and asexually
Asexual spores include zoospores, conidia etc
Generally reproduce sexually, involves two individuals contributing genetic material to produce offspring
Comparatively complex life cycle. In the life cycle of a sexually reproducing fungus, a haploid phase alternates with a diploid phase.
Comparatively simple life cycle. Diploid adults undergo meiosis to produce sperm or eggs. Fertilization occurs when a sperm and an egg fuse. The zygote that forms develops into an embryo. The embryo eventually develops into an adult.
Dikaryotic phase is very common (presence of two nuclei of opposite mating strains without fusion) and even dominant phase in many fungal groups like Basidiomycetes
Dikaryotic phase is absent
Most fungus has haploid dominant life cycle with an long dikaryotic phase
Animals has diploid dominant life cycle with haploid phase only in gametes
Example: Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Humans (Homo sapiens), Rat, parrot, fish

x
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Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example


Control Group
A good control group is similar to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (that is the independent variable that the researcher changes).

Let us discuss these terms with a simple experiment
Suppose a researcher has developed a bio-fertilizer and wants to test its effect on plant growth. Therefore the experiment is “Effect of Bio-fertilizer ‘x’ in plant growth"
See the Figure 1 and 2 for understanding these terms in research
Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research

Three types of variables:

      1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
      2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
   3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Difference between independent, dependent and controlled variable with example
Control group
Controlled variable
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment (Figure 1)

All the variable that are kept constant or same throughout the experiment. (Figure 2)

The researcher is not changing the independent variable
The researcher has kept this variable constant or given a standard value
Helps to compare experimental result with non experimental natural result (control group).

It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Essential to get an unbiased result on the effect of independent variable studied by the researcher

Control Group
A good control group is similar to the experimental group in all way except for the difference in the experimental condition (that is the independent variable that the researcher changes).

Let us discuss these terms with a simple experiment
Suppose a researcher has developed a bio-fertilizer and wants to test its effect on plant growth. Therefore the experiment is “Effect of Bio-fertilizer ‘x’ in plant growth"
See the Figure 1 and 2 for understanding these terms in research
Difference between Controlled Group and Controlled Variable in an Experiment with example
The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment

A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research

Three types of variables:

      1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
      2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
   3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
Difference between independent, dependent and controlled variable with example
Control group
Controlled variable
It is the group that you are not conducting experiment (Figure 1)

All the variable that are kept constant or same throughout the experiment. (Figure 2)

The researcher is not changing the independent variable
The researcher has kept this variable constant or given a standard value
Helps to compare experimental result with non experimental natural result (control group).

It increases the reliability and validity of experimental results
Essential to get an unbiased result on the effect of independent variable studied by the researcher
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10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)

Fungi (singular: fungus) are non-chlorophyllated, thallophytes (undifferentiated plant body) with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Eubacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. Eubacteria posses rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)
Fungi
Eubacteria
Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
Mostly multi-cellular, unicellular in yeast
Unicellular
Cell membrane contains sterols
Sterols absent except in Mycoplasma
Cell wall made up of chitins, glucans and mannans
Peptidoglycan cell wall
Thallus is more complex and form filamentous hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium
The three major morphological forms are cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped), spirilla (spiral shaped)
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic and live either as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts
Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, chemotrophic,  aerobic or facultative anaerobic
Asexual reproduction by variety of spores which include conidia, zoospores etc
Asexual reproduction by binary fission
Sexual reproduction is common except in Deuteromycetes; may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
A primitive form of sexual reproduction called conjugation occurs in some bacteria where there is direct exchange of genetic materials between two bacterial cells by cell to cell contact
Eg: Yeast  (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Mushroom  (Agaricus bisporus)
Eg:  Escherichia coli (gut bacteria), Lactobacillus lactis in milk





















Fungi (singular: fungus) are non-chlorophyllated, thallophytes (undifferentiated plant body) with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The branch of science that deals with the study of fungus is called Mycology.
Eubacteria are single celled prokaryotic microorganisms living in variety of environments. Eubacteria posses rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. The branch of science that deals with the study of bacteria is called Bacteriology.
10 Differences between Eubacteria and Fungi (Eubacteria vs Fungus)
Fungi
Eubacteria
Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic
Mostly multi-cellular, unicellular in yeast
Unicellular
Cell membrane contains sterols
Sterols absent except in Mycoplasma
Cell wall made up of chitins, glucans and mannans
Peptidoglycan cell wall
Thallus is more complex and form filamentous hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium
The three major morphological forms are cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped), spirilla (spiral shaped)
Mode of nutrition is heterotrophic and live either as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts
Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, chemotrophic,  aerobic or facultative anaerobic
Asexual reproduction by variety of spores which include conidia, zoospores etc
Asexual reproduction by binary fission
Sexual reproduction is common except in Deuteromycetes; may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
A primitive form of sexual reproduction called conjugation occurs in some bacteria where there is direct exchange of genetic materials between two bacterial cells by cell to cell contact
Eg: Yeast  (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Mushroom  (Agaricus bisporus)
Eg:  Escherichia coli (gut bacteria), Lactobacillus lactis in milk





















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10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community


Pioneer community vs Climax community
Ecological succession is the gradual replacement of one community with another till reaching a final stable climax community over a period of time
The first set of species or community that develops in a bare area in ecological succession is the pioneer community.
Pioneer species facilitate succession.
The final steady stable self sustaining community in an ecological succession is called the climax community. Climax community is in equilibrium with physical environment also as long as the environment remains unchanged
10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community
Pioneer community
Climax community
It is the first community that appears in a bare area during ecological succession (primary community)
It is the final stable biotic community that appears in an area during ecological succession (final community)
The establishment of the pioneer community is the first step in ecological succession (first seral stage)
The emergence of the stable climax community is the final step in ecological succession (last seral stage)
Pioneer community appears on a previously uninhabited area
Climax community establishes in a previously occupied area by other seral communities
Pioneer community consists of generally small sized species
Climax community consists of species of different sizes that are well adapted to the environment
The species in the community are tolerant to extreme environments
The species in the climax community are comparatively less tolerant to extreme environments
*Pioneer species are generally ‘r-selected’ species that are fast growing, shade intolerant and short lived
Climax species are k selected species that are slow growing, shade tolerant and long lived
Pioneer species are good colonizers but poor competitors
Climax species are poor colonizers but good competitors
Pioneer species are generally with numerous small seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Climax species are generally with few larger seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Responsible for soil formation and modifies the environment favoring the colonization of other species of next seral stage
The environment has been modified and made suitable for the emergence of species of climax community by the species of previous seral stages
Pioneer community is replaced by the species of next seral communities
Climax community is a stable community where invasion of other species will not generally happen for a long period
Examples of pioneer species: Lichen in lithosere (rocks),
Pioneer community: Phytoplanktons in hydrosere
Examples: Climax species: White spruce (Picea glauca) climax species in the Northern forests of North America.
Giant sequoia tree in sequoia forests
Climax community: forest
*Exceptions: Lichens are pioneer species on rocks, but slow growing
Reference
1. Guariguata, M. R., & Ostertag, R. (2001). Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Forest ecology and management, 148(1-3), 185-206.
2. Tobin, A. J., & Dusheck, J. (2005). Asking about life. Cengage Learning.

Pioneer community vs Climax community
Ecological succession is the gradual replacement of one community with another till reaching a final stable climax community over a period of time
The first set of species or community that develops in a bare area in ecological succession is the pioneer community.
Pioneer species facilitate succession.
The final steady stable self sustaining community in an ecological succession is called the climax community. Climax community is in equilibrium with physical environment also as long as the environment remains unchanged
10 Differences between Pioneer Community and Climax Community
Pioneer community
Climax community
It is the first community that appears in a bare area during ecological succession (primary community)
It is the final stable biotic community that appears in an area during ecological succession (final community)
The establishment of the pioneer community is the first step in ecological succession (first seral stage)
The emergence of the stable climax community is the final step in ecological succession (last seral stage)
Pioneer community appears on a previously uninhabited area
Climax community establishes in a previously occupied area by other seral communities
Pioneer community consists of generally small sized species
Climax community consists of species of different sizes that are well adapted to the environment
The species in the community are tolerant to extreme environments
The species in the climax community are comparatively less tolerant to extreme environments
*Pioneer species are generally ‘r-selected’ species that are fast growing, shade intolerant and short lived
Climax species are k selected species that are slow growing, shade tolerant and long lived
Pioneer species are good colonizers but poor competitors
Climax species are poor colonizers but good competitors
Pioneer species are generally with numerous small seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Climax species are generally with few larger seeds capable of dormancy, well dispersed by animals or wind, low density, pale, non-durable timber
Responsible for soil formation and modifies the environment favoring the colonization of other species of next seral stage
The environment has been modified and made suitable for the emergence of species of climax community by the species of previous seral stages
Pioneer community is replaced by the species of next seral communities
Climax community is a stable community where invasion of other species will not generally happen for a long period
Examples of pioneer species: Lichen in lithosere (rocks),
Pioneer community: Phytoplanktons in hydrosere
Examples: Climax species: White spruce (Picea glauca) climax species in the Northern forests of North America.
Giant sequoia tree in sequoia forests
Climax community: forest
*Exceptions: Lichens are pioneer species on rocks, but slow growing
Reference
1. Guariguata, M. R., & Ostertag, R. (2001). Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Forest ecology and management, 148(1-3), 185-206.
2. Tobin, A. J., & Dusheck, J. (2005). Asking about life. Cengage Learning.
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