In several plants the seeds may not germinate due to a change in the climate or other environmental factors. Some other plants, may take several years to flower and to form seeds. Horticulturists exploit the natural methods of vegetative propagation commercially. Some of them are cutting, layering, grafting and plant tissue culture.
Cutting : It is a technique of vegetative propagation in which a pat of stem, root or leaf cuttings can be used. The separated portions of the organs of the parent are called cuttings.
Stem cuttings are most commonly used. Leaf cuttings are used in horticultural plants(Begonia). Root cuttings are used for vegetative propagation in sweet potato, bread fruit tree etc.
Grafting: It is the art of joining parts of different plants and growing them as a single plant. It is usually practiced in dicot plants. Mono cot do not have cambium. So grafting is not practiced in them.
The rooted supporting plant in a graft is called the stock. The upper joined portion of the graft is called scion. There are various methods of grafting (Tongue grafting, approach grafting, cleft grafting, wedge grafting, notch grafting and bark grafting). Grafting usually practiced in apple , pear, mango, guava, citrus , and mango.
Difference between Cutting and GraftingCutting:
1. In this method, a portion of stem/root cut of the plant is used.
2. Roots are often placed in moist soil/water till adventitious roots appears.
3. Root cuttings are often treated with hormones like NAA for faster rooting.
1. In this method, the cut plant (scion) is attached to the host (stock).
2. The cambium of scion and stock fuse so that scion has continuous vascular connection for growth.
3. The method is widely adopted in plants where seed germination is difficult.