Pteridophytes p(Gk. Pteron=feather; phyta=plants) are called as seedless vascular cryptogams as they represent the first group of land plants with vasculature, xylem and phloem. Plant body is sporophytic differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves. Pteridophytes are commonly called as the “botanical snakes” as they evolved after bryophytes (the amphibians of the plant kingdom).
Example: Pteris, Adiantum
Angiosperms (Gk. Angios=closed; spermae=seeds)
Angiosperms are flowering, seed bearing vascular plants that form the largest and the most evolved group of plant kingdom. They are true flowering plants where the seeds are completely enclosed inside a fruit wall. The ovules are protected inside the ovary which later develops into fruit.
Example: coconut, mango, rose
1. Angiosperms are adapted to wide variety of environments (may be mesophytes, hydrophytes, xerophytes, epiphytes etc).
Pteridophytes are mostly terrestrial moisture or shade loving plants.
2. Flowers, seeds and fruits are present. Therefore angiosperms are seed bearing plants.
Flowers, seeds and fruits are absent. Therefore pteridophytes are spore bearing plants.
3. Angiosperms vary greatly in size and shape; may be herb, shrub or tree.
Pteridophytes are generally herbaceous.
4. Xylem consists of well developed vessels and tracheids in angiosperms.
Xylem lacks true vessels in Pteridophytes.
5. In phloem, companion cells and sieve tubes are present in angiosperms.
In phloem, sieve cells are present, companion cells and sieve tubes are absent in pteridophytes.
6. In angiosperms, secondary growth is present except monocots.
Secondary growth is absent in pteridophytes.
7. Angiosperms are heterosporous forming male and female spores which is critical for seed habit.
Pteridophytes are mostly homosporous. Some pteridophytes like Selaginella is heterosporous but there is no seed formation.
8. In angiosperms, stamens and carpels are the male and female reproductive structures which are organized to form the flower.
In pteridophytes, antheridium and archegonium are the male and the female sex organs.
9. In angiosperms, water is not essential for fertilization as pollination is siphonogamous (via pollen tube) and gametes are without flagella.
In pteridophytes, water is essential for fertilization and male gametes are ciliated.
10. In angiosperms, megasporangium is usually large.
In pteridophytes, megasporangium is usually small.
11. In angiosperms, megasporangium is covered by one or more integuments that offers protection.
In pteridophytes, integuments are absent.
12. In angiosperms, usually a single megaspore is functional in the entire megasporangium (ovule) and is retained within the magasporangium.
In pteridophytes, many megaspores are functional and generally not retained in the megasporangium.
13. Tapetum is absent and endosperm is the nutritive tissue for the developing embryo in angiosperms.
Tapetum is present, but endosperm is absent in pteridophytes.