Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.
Scientific method begins with observation and defining the problem by asking questions. This is followed by formulation of hypothesis.
Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be tested by scientific methods or scientifically testable or measurable. This statement is based on our previous experience on the topic or based on existing knowledge or review of literature. There are two types of hypothesis; alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis.
Scientific method begins with observation and defining the problem by asking questions. This is followed by formulation of hypothesis.
Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be tested by scientific methods or scientifically testable or measurable. This statement is based on our previous experience on the topic or based on existing knowledge or review of literature. There are two types of hypothesis; alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis.
Alternative Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Example: Suppose this is the problem defined for scientific research “Effect of biofertilizer ‘x’ on pea plant growth and fruit setting


Application of biofertilizer ‘x’ increase pea plant growth and fruit setting (Refer Figure)

Application of biofertilizer ‘x’ do not increase pea plant growth and fruit setting

The alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to prove.

The null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.

It is denoted by H_{1}

It is denoted by H_{0}

Simply, it is the opposite of the null hypothesis (H_{0})

It is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis (H_{1})

The Alternative hypothesis predicts that there is statistical significance or relationship between variables in the hypothesis under study.
Here the variables are biofertilizer ‘x’ (independent variable) and pea plant growth and fruit setting (dependent variable)

The Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no statistical significance or relationship between the variables in the hypothesis under study.
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Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the alternative hypothesis. Accepting the alternative hypothesis proves that the researchers reasoning is true.

Scientific process ends with either accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis. Accepting the null hypothesis suggest that alternative hypothesis needs revision and further research is needed to find out the exact reason of the phenomenon under study.
