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Difference between Inductive effect and Resonance effect

Inductive effect vs Resonance effect
Inductive effect vs Resonance effect 
Inductive effect
Resonance effect
Based on electronegativity.
Based on Conjugation.
Electron moves via sigma bonds.
Electron moves via pi bonds or lone pairs.

It involves displacement of only σ electrons and hence occurs only in saturated compounds.
It involves delocalization of π (pi) or n lone pairs of electrons and hence occurs in unsaturated and conjugated systems.
During inductive effect the electron pair is only slightly displaced towards the more electronegative atom and hence only partial positive and negative charges appear.
During resonance effect , the electron pair I completely transferred and hence full positive and negative charges  appear.
Inductive effect are transmitted over short  distance over short distances in saturated carbon chains and the magnitude of the effect decreases rapidly as distance from the heteroatom increases. The effect almost become  negligible beyond three carbon atoms from the heteroatom.
The resonance effect  are transmitted all along the length of the conjugated system without suffering much change in magnitude.
crotonaldehyde resonance effect

 C3 in crotonaldehyde is almost as positive as C1.
Distance short range.
Distance may be long range.

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