Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Organelles are small often membrane bound sub cellular structures within the cytoplasm that carry out different functions necessary to maintain the normal activities the cell.

Difference between Mitochondrion and Lysosome

In this post, let us understand the difference between mitochondrion and lysosome. Both these organelles are present in eukaryotic cells.



Occurrence: Present in all Eukaryotic cells, both plant and animal cells.

Present in Eukaryotic cells, Present in animal cells but absent in some plant cells.

It is a double membrane bound organelle.

It is a single membrane bound organelle.

Size and shape: Oval shaped with size from 0.5 to 10 μm

Generally spherical small, ranging in size from 0.1-0.5 um, maximum up to 1. 2 μm.

Semi-autonomous organelle with its own DNA called mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA)

Lysosome lacks DNA

Mitochondrion produces energy in the form of ATP for cellular activities; often called as “powerhouse of the cell or energy factories

Lysosome recycles waste materials and worn-out cells and organelles; often called as cell’s recycling center, or “scavengers of the cell.

Structure: Double membrane bound organelle with DNA. Outer membrane is permeable with porin proteins and inner membrane has infoldings called cristae which is the site of electron transport chain and associated ATP production. The central fluid filled matrix has enzymes for citric acid cycle and beta oxidation.

Spherical vesicles made up of a lipid bilayer that encloses fluid with variety of powerful hydrolytic digestive enzymes. An internal acidic pH is maintained by ATP driven proton pump on the membrane.

Formation: Self-replicating organelle by fission

Lysosomes are formed by the fusion of vesicles from the Golgi complex with endosomes that contain molecules taken up from the outside of the cell

Major Functions: ATP synthesis, Beta oxidation of fatty acids.

Major Functions: digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms or pathogens, autolysis or cellular autophagy

Mitochondrial disease is a group of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Example: Leigh syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

Lysosome storage diseases: a genetic mutation that affects the activity of one or more acid hydrolases leading to accumulation of corresponding macromolecule. Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Hurler syndrome

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