Protein  synthesis is the process in which cells build proteins. The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more often it refers to a multistep process in which cells follow a very systematic procedure that first transcribes DNA into mRNA and then translates the mRNA into chains of amino acids. The amino acid chain then folds to form functional proteins.
Eukaryotic protein synthesis

This is simplified summary video for your better understanding
Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis vs Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis
Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis
Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis
Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are monocistronic, containing the coding sequence only for one polypeptide.   In prokaryotes, mRNA molecules are polycistronic containing the coding sequence of several genes of a particular metabolic pathway.
In  eukaryotes, protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, protein synthesis begins even before the transcription of mRNA molecule is completed. This is called coupled transcription - translation.
In eukaryotes, most of the gene have  introns or non coding sequences along with exons or coding sequences. The exons are joined together and introns are removed during mRNA processing.   Prokaryotes do not have introns (Except Archaebacteria). Therefore mRNA processing is not required.
The primary mRNA transcript in eukaryotes undergoes processing and splicing to change into a functional mRNA. In prokaryotes splicing of mRNA  transcript does not occur.
In eukaryotes, mRNA molecules are modified by the addition of a 5’G cap formed of methylated guanosine triphosphate. No such cap is formed at 5’end of bacterial mRNA.
A poly A tail formed of about 200 adenine nucleotides is added at the 3’end of mRNA in Eukaryotes. No poly A  tail is added to bacterial mRNA.
In eukaryotes, 5’cap initiates translation by binding the  mRNA to small ribosomal subunit usually at the first codon AUG.   In bacteria,  translation begins at an AUG codon preceded by a special nucleotide sequence.
The first amino acid methionine entering the ribosome is not formylated. The first amino acid methionine is formylated into N formyl methionine.
The pre imitation complex formation is initiated by nine initiated factors. Only two initiating factors are involved.
In eukaryotes, the number of initiating factors is much more than prokaryotes. About twelve IFs have been identified in reticulocytes an RBC. These are eIF1, eIF2, eIF3, eIF4 , eIF5, eIF6 ,eIF4B, eIF4C,eIF4D, eIF4F Three initiating factors found in prokaryotes.
PIF-1 , PIF-2 , PIF-3
In eukaryotes small subunit of ribosome (40 S) gets dissociated with the initiator amino acyl tRNA (Met-tRNA Met) without the help of mRNA. The complex joins mRNA later on. In prokaryotes, 30 S subunit first complexes with mRNA (30S-mRNA) when then joins with f Met tRNA f-
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