Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.

Followed by observation, we will be asking questions to define the problem. Then we formulate a hypothesis, an educated guess or a possible answer that can be tested scientifically. This hypothesis is framed based on our prior knowledge on the topic and review of literature.

Difference between Hypothesis and Theory
Theories are best explanation of a scientific observation that are based on large body of scientific evidence, enabling valid predictions and have been repeatedly tested scientifically. It is often the result or consolidation of conclusions of experiments.



An educated guess or tentative explanation of an observable phenomenon that can be tested scientifically.

A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that has been repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method.

It is based on observation, researcher’s previous experience on the topic and review of literature.

It is based on researcher’s repeated experiments on the topic

It is stated at the beginning of a research

It is stated as a conclusion or result of research

Based on limited evidence and prior knowledge on the topic

Based on a wide range of evidence derived by the conduct of experiment by the researcher

Less certain than a theory as it is to be tested by conducting experiments.

More certain than a hypothesis as it is tested and supported by evidence deduced by conducting experiments.

Can be easily disproven after testing by conducting experiments.

Cannot be easily disproven as it is supported by huge body of evidence.

It is an educated guess that initiates to conduct an experiment in a scientific process.

It is a mature experiment and evidence-based explanation of a natural phenomenon.

Hypothesis is often short statements.

Theory is often very descriptive.

It is yet to be confirmed by conducting scientific experiments.

It is an explanation confirmed by repeated scientific experiments.

Example of hypothesis

Exposure to 8 hours of sunlight daily increases plant growth.

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

The theory of evolution by natural selection.

Theory of Relativity

Cell Theory

 Understand more: Difference between Dependent and Independent Variable

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