Mitosis ( Equational Division): It is type of cell division in which chromosomes of parent cells are duplicated and equally distributed into two daughter cells.Term mitosisis derived from Greek word "Mitos"means thread or fibril. It was first observed by Strasburger in plant cells (1870) and Boveri and Flemming in animal cell (1879). 
It is divided into four stages or phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

Cleavage is a series  of rapid mitotic divisions of the zygote, characterized by absence of growth of daughter cells, which convert the single celled zygote into a multicellular structure called blastula(blastocyst).
Cleavage helps in the distribution of the cytoplasm of the zygote, amongst the blastomeres.
Increased mobility of the protoplasm, which facilitates morphogenic movements necessary for cell differentiation, germ layer formation and the formation of organs and  tissues. Restoration of the cell size and nucleo cytoplasmic ratio characteristic of the species.
Unicellular zygote is converted into multicellular embryo.
Difference between Cleavage and Mitosis (Segmentation vs Typical Mitosis)

Cleavage occurs in the zygote, parthenogenetic egg.
Mitosis occurs in most body cells.
Interphase is short and blastomeres do not grow during this.
Interphase is long and daughter cells grow to normal size during this.
Size of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
Size of the daughter cells remains nearly constant due to growth. 
The total mass of blastomeres decreases as their number increases.
The total mass of daughter cells becomes more than that of parent cell.
DNA synthesis occurs much faster to form chromosomes for new blastomeres.
DNA synthesis occurs at the normal rate.
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio increases as cleavage progresses
Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio does not change.

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